Dissertations / Theses on the topic 'Language policy – South Africa – Eastern Cape'

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1

Made, Zoliswa Jacqueline. "An investigation into implementation of language policy in the Eastern Cape with specific reference to isiXhosa." Thesis, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, 2010. http://hdl.handle.net/10948/1181.

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This study is about An Investigation into Implementation of Language Policy in the Eastern Cape with specific reference to isiXhosa. The objectives of this study are to investigate the current state of language policy implementation plan in local government sectors and schools and to propose a strategy for a sustainable language implementation plan for indigenous languages of South Africa. Chapter 1 provides the background, definitions of terms, the statement of the problem, the research methods used and the literature reviewed. Chapter 2 deals with the critical analysis of language policy, looking at the types of language policies and various relevant language policies. Chapter 3 addresses challenges facing the indigenous languages of South Africa (with specific reference to isiXhosa) especially at provincial level. Chapter 4 discusses the implementation strategies which will help in the development of the indigenous languages. Chapter 5 concludes the study by presenting findings and recommendations for future research.
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Nakin, Rosalia Moroesi. "An examination of language planning and policy in the Eastern Cape with specific reference to Sesotho : a sociolinguistic study." Thesis, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, 2009. http://hdl.handle.net/10948/1020.

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This sociolinguistic study examines issues of corpus, status and acquisition in Language Planning in Sesotho and isiXhosa in the Eastern Cape. Language plays an important role in the lives of its speakers in society as they interact. Chapter 1 of this study provides the background, definitions of terms used, the objective of the study, the statement of the problem, the research methods used and the literature reviewed. Chapter 2 addresses the context, orientations, stages, and frameworks or types of language planning. Corpus planning forms an integral part of this study. This chapter also looks at different ways of developing terminology. Lastly, the chapter discusses the relationship between corpus planning and purism. Chapter 3 provides the other two types or frameworks of language planning namely, status and acquisition planning. Goals of language planning, and variables for language planning are also discussed in chapter 3. Chapter 4 looks at principles of language planning. Chapter 5 deals with the Language-in-Education Policy, the Eastern Cape Provincial Language Policy Framework, language attitudes and responses to language planning and language policy. Chapter 6 presents the findings and challenges facing the development and use of African languages one of which is Sesotho, as prescribed in the Constitution of the country. A few suggestions and different approaches towards language awareness campaigns are presented in this chapter. Lastly, this chapter concludes the study.
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Rani, Nomakhosazana Jeanette. "The place of language policy in education in teaching and learning: a case study of two primary schools in the Eastern Cape Province." Thesis, University of Fort Hare, 2016. http://hdl.handle.net/10353/2381.

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This study investigates the implementation of Language in Education Policy (LiEP) in learning and teaching in grades six from two schools. It critically examines the teachers’ practices and experiences towards English as the language of learning and teaching (LoLT) at two different primary schools from the eMalahleni in the Lady Frere Education District in the Eastern Cape. The study is guided by the fact that most learners use their mother tongue (isiXhosa) in classroom as well as outside classroom contexts. Furthermore, some teachers use the translation method of teaching language as they code-switch to their home language when teaching content subjects as well as English. Despite this practice in class, learners are expected to answer their test and examination questions in English. Theoretically, this study is underpinned by the constructivist view of language learning (Gaserfeld, 2003) and English as an international language (Sivasubramaniam, 2011). On the basis of the ecological and the constructivist approaches to language learning, Sivasubramaniam (2011 p.53) views language as a creative instrument of meaning which ‘has the power to create meaning anew and afresh’ each time that someone uses it. The study makes use of the qualitative research method with a case study design that is placed within the interpretive paradigm. The data collected will be analysed through the use of critical discourse analysis. The findings from the study suggest some instrumental motivations to use English as LOLT which is informed by Language policy. Some of these motivations are: studying abroad, business with foreign investors and integrative motivations as the learner will be able to communicate with people from different countries. The study concludes that there is need for schools to stick to the English medium because this acts as an open door to the upward economic mobility among the previously disadvantaged. Based on this, it can be recommended that schools stick to English first additional language as their language of teaching and learning.
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Mpahlwa, Matthew Xola. "Language policy and practice in Eastern Cape courtrooms with reference to interpretation in selected cases." Thesis, Rhodes University, 2015. http://hdl.handle.net/10962/d1018658.

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This study seeks to find what problems and process of interpreting are experienced by professional interpreters in the criminal justice system in South Africa. This study commences with an outlook of the origins and development of types of interpretation and then proceeds with critical review of scholarly literature dealing with interpretation in multilingual courtroom. This study explores the flawed language policy and its impracticality for the Eastern Cape courtrooms. This study undertakes a critical analysis of the current legislation (Bills & Acts).This study explores the extent to which the court automatic review proceedings act as a gatekeeper in ensuring against prejudice that can result in the non-use and use of indigenous languages in the trial courtroom within the Eastern Cape jurisdiction. Furthermore this study focuses on cases taken for review based on mis-understanding, mis-communication and wrongful interpretation that result in irregularities that appear on court records. This study also investigates the primary barriers for the use of African languages as languages of record in the courtroom. An eclectic sociolinguistic approach which encompasses the ethnography of speaking, and discourse analysis (observation in the courtroom) is used as a methodology in this study. Furthermore, the analysis of case-law forms part of the methodology alongside court observation.This study saw court actors from different spheres of the legal profession give their personal views and encounters with regards the art and the state of court interpreting in the province of the Eastern Cape.This state of affairs may have disastrous and far-reaching effects in that incorrect and/or imperfect translation may relate to the very facts that are crucial for the determination of the case. At the end recommendations are given on how to remedy the current state of affairs.
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Kenyon, Tracy Karen. "An investigation into school learners' perceptions of linguistic politeness norms within and across cultures." Thesis, Rhodes University, 2004. http://hdl.handle.net/10962/d1004715.

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The assumption underlying this study is that cultures differ in terms of politeness norms. Often people from different cultures approach one another in what they think is an appropriate manner and the outcome is miscommunication. This may be attributed to differing cultural norms and this study aims to examine what a sample of school learners perceive to be polite behaviour when making requests and their reasons for doing so. This study focuses on perceived politeness norms (Brown and Levinson 1978) in English across selected South African cultures. The individuals are seen as reflecting a cultural identity, using norms that they feel are appropriate in given situations. Previous researchers have endeavoured to show that politeness norms are universal, but it has emerged that this is not always the case. When people from differing language and cultural backgrounds come into contact they have to find a common ground for their interaction to be successful (Lustig and Koester 1999). Of particular interest is the way people request things, both the way they phrase their request and their reasons for phrasing it this way. In order to investigate this, twenty-nine same-sex pairs of Grade 10 learners were selected from three schools with different cultural backgrounds in Grahamstown. These learners were required to complete a Discourse Completion Test, which contained both Think-Aloud and Retrospection Procedures, while they were being audio-taped. This data was transcribed and analysed using a model that was developed and adapted to describe request strategies. This data is shown through the use of basic statistics, even though it is primarily qualitative. The data is given this qualitative dimension by looking at the factors that the co-conversants attend to. The recorded data shows that although second language speakers of English have a formula for requesting things, they are not always able to articulate why they use the request strategies they do. It appears that English first language speakers and speakers who have English as an additional language request things similarly, but the first language speakers have access to a greater variety of politeness strategies. They also attend to different contextual features. This shows that while the need to be polite seems to be universal, the expectations of the speakers will be different and while a first language speaker of English would not misinterpret the force of a given speech act, they may feel that the person who has English as an additional language is rude. Sensitivity is therefore called for in order to combat mutual negative stereotyping and misunderstandings.
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Leander, Elizabeth Alice. "A case study of the multiple contextual factors that impact on the reading competencies of grade 3 non-mother tongue speakers of English in a Grahamstown Primary School in the Eastern Cape, South Africa." Thesis, Rhodes University, 2007. http://hdl.handle.net/10962/d1005913.

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This study explores what happens in a reading class where grade 3 learners from specific cultural and ethnic backgrounds are taught to read in a language other than their mother-tongue. The research takes place at a primary school in the Eastern Cape, South Africa where English is the Medium of Instruction (MOI).The report on the findings of this research reveals that the teaching strategies and reading theories of the teacher, the literacy backgrounds of the learners, as well as the language preferences of the parents, are some of the contextual factors that impact on reading. One of the major findings in the study constitutes the debilitating effects of the learners' socio- economic circumstances on their reading performances in the classroom. The socio-political factors that impact on the learners, the teacher, and the school as a social unit, proved to be the factors that are remnants of the Apartheid segregation polices as well as the educational policies of the present government, especially, those pertaining to mother-tongue Instruction. Although it is difficult to generalize from a small-scale study like this, its benefits lie in the evidence that confirms the influence of specific contextual factors on reading proficiencies, the evidence that identifies poor and effective teaching practices and the evidence that elucidate the implications of non-mother tongue instruction. This research may thus serve to raise the consciousness of practitioners in reading instruction, parents and policy makers.
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Besman, Shirley. "Educators' experiences with the implementation of Grade 11 NCS English first additional language in selected schools in the Fort Beaufort Education District." Thesis, University of Fort Hare, 2012. http://hdl.handle.net/10353/d1006251.

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One of the essential sectors that needed a drastic change in the post apartheid era in South Africa, was the education system or policy of the country. The government had a responsibility of combining together the nineteen different Departments of Education into which the schools were fragmented. It is in the interest of the country that, out of the eleven official languages of the country, learners should at least be fluent in two languages namely, the learner‟s mother language and any official language which will be treated as an additional language, thus, promoting additive bilingualism. This is on line with the country‟s constitution which has granted equal status to the eleven languages. That resulted in the formulation of two very imperative policies pertaining to schools; 1) The South African Schools Act (SASA) of 1996 which repeal all discriminatory policies of apartheid. On the issue of language the SASA placed the responsibility of choosing the school subjects to the School Governing Bodies (SGB) and 2) The Language-in- Education Policy (LiEP) of 1997 which is based on the recognition that South Africa is multilingual, and promotes learning of more than one official language. In an attempt to accomplish the constitutional obligation, and establish uniformity or equality in education, Curriculum 2005 which was later revised and known as the Revised National Statement and later revised and known as the NATIONAL Curriculum Statement, with the Outcomes Based Education as its approach, was introduced. The study investigated the experiences of educators with the implementation of NCS EFAL in Grade 11 in the Fort Beaufort Education District. English First Additional Language is used by the majority of schools as the Language of Learning and Teaching (LoLT). The study is located in the interpretive paradigm which sought to explore people‟s experiences and their views. Qualitative research approach was adopted in the study with the intentions of finding as much detail as possible on the experiences of educators with the implementation of NCS EFAL in the Grade 11 classrooms. Six EFAL educators in the Fort Beaufort Education District in the Nkonkobe Municipality were purposely selected for the study. Semi structured interviews consisting of precisely defined questions that were pre-prepared, yet at the same time permitted the EFAL educators to answer beyond what the researcher enquired, were also employed in the study. The results pointed out that all EFAL educators interviewed were qualified teachers and had specialized in English teaching. In addition, the study revealed that in the Fort Beaufort Education District, there were two categories of EFAL educators who were trained for the implementation of NCS EFAL; those who only received one week departmental workshop and those who on top of the one week departmental workshop, received a two year training in Advanced Certificate In Education (ACE) English Language Teaching (ELT) from a Higher Education. The dissimilarity between the two groups manifested in their respective schools between the educators and their Heads of Departments (HOD) who happen to have little knowledge of the implementation of the curriculum. It became evident that the group of educators who were trained in ACE ELT were more familiar with the requirements of the NCS EFAL. The other group which was not conversant with the NCS EFAL policies decided to maintain their old teaching methods. Key recommendations of the study: Policy makers should clarify terminology to be understood by all educators, the Department of Education should take full responsibility of retraining educators to ensure uniformity in training through the in-service trainings yearly.
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Maqam, Eslinah Zodwa. "The experiences of isiMpondo speakers in learning standard isiXhosa through the formal education system : an exploratory study at a school in the Bizana district of the Eastern Cape." Thesis, Rhodes University, 2015. http://hdl.handle.net/10962/d1017893.

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This study investigates the experiences of isiMpondo speakers in learning standard language through the formal education system. The sociolinguistic factors such as attitudes, language policies and language use in multilingual societies are taken into considerations. The children of non-standard language speakers such as those who speak dialects like isiMpondo have to use another language in their early years in the school system. It is articulated that the isiMpondo that the child brings to the school from the environment is not accommodated simply because it is a non-standard language; whereas the language that is used in the classroom situation is the isiXhosa variety which is a standard one. The research findings show that isiMpondo impacts on learner’s education directly because they lose marks during the course of the year and during examination times if they use it. The study concludes with a recommendation that educators should honour the seven roles of educators by appropriate norms and standards. Some approaches to teaching have been suggested to be used by teachers with regard to inclusivity, as it recognises diversity, and values the following: the uniqueness of the individuals, the experiences, abilities, cultural and language backgrounds of each individual. All in all it seeks to meet the needs of the individual learner by creating a non-discriminatory teaching and learning environment.
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Mbude-Shale, Beryl Ntombizanele. "Exploring the correlation between language medium and academic achievement: a comparative study of the language of learning and teaching (LoLT) and mathematics results in the 2010 Grade 12 National Senior Certificate examinations in the Eastern Cape." Thesis, Rhodes University, 2013. http://hdl.handle.net/10962/d1001863.

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In 2009, of the 68,129 learners who wrote Matric, only 34,731 learners passed. In 2010, there was an increase in the provincial pass rate causing much excitement across the board. The reality was that of the 64,090 learners who wrote, only 37,345 learners passed. In 2010, a result below 50% was recorded for Mathematics and Physical Science nationally (DBE; 2011). Despite efforts by the Education Department to support MSTE; establishing Mathematics and Science schools, NGOs and HEIs giving extra Mathematics and Science support to students and teachers, the offering of Saturday classes and incubation camps, we still get minimal return on investment. This thesis analyses these results against the backdrop of language planning theory, particularly language-in-education policies, pre and post-apartheid. The correlation between language medium and academic performance in language (LoLT) and Mathematics of Grade 12 learners is explored. Worldwide the issue of low achievement in Mathematics by ESL students is of great concern (Cuevas, 1984). The 2004 Systemic Evaluation sample of learners was in Grade 6 then; in 2010 they wrote Grade 12. The purpose of the systemic evaluation was to provide an insight into the levels of learner performance in Maths, Natural Science and LoLT in Grade 6 (IPSER, 2006). A major finding of the IPSER was that language was an important factor related to learner achievement. A major disparity was observed in this research, that although the Eastern Cape performed below the national average in the three subjects evaluated, the learners for whom LoLT was the same as their home language obtained scores that were significantly higher than those whose home language was different from the LoLT. The provincial average for Mathematics was 23.40% compared to the national average of 27.80%. For LoLT the province scored 30.16 against the national score of 38.03%. Of interest in this study is a juxtaposition of the Matric results of this same group of learners in 2010 and see whether issues that came up then are still significant in mitigating achievement in Mathematics and Language (LoLT). Some research studies have been conducted in South Africa (Adler, 1998; Setati, 1996-2002; Moloi, 2006) identifying the vital role language plays in learning Mathematics, especially for English L2 learners. Building on research and findings of academics such as the late Alexander, Ramani, Joseph, Hendricks, Heugh, Dalvit, Webb and Murray, this thesis suggests that a mother-tongue-based-bilingual approach to education should be adopted as a matter of urgency
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Dalvit, Lorenzo. "Attitudes of isiXhosa-speaking students at the University of Fort Hare towards the use of isiXhosa as a language of learning and teaching (LOLT)." Thesis, Rhodes University, 2004. http://eprints.ru.ac.za/16/.

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Dywili, Mhlobo Douglas. "An evaluation of the impact of the provincial housing policy in the Nxuba Municipality." Thesis, University of Fort Hare, 2012. http://hdl.handle.net/10353/510.

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The Eastern Cape Department of Housing has a constitutional and legislative mandate to provide houses to the poor and disadvantaged citizens living within the province. Parliament must also, according to the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996, as amended, take reasonable legislative and other measures within its available resources to achieve the progressive realisation of the right of citizens to have access to adequate housing (section 26 (1) and (2)). The commitment to improve the existing housing situation, namely the serious lack of adequate housing and basic services in urban townships and rural settlements, is thus in the first instance a policy matter and secondly a financial matter. However, despite the existing policy measures, such as the Housing Act, 1997 (Act 107 of 1997), the rendering of housing services resulted in uncompleted and defective houses due to inexperienced contractors providing poor workmanship and also corruption in the housing programmes. The rendering of housing services as a functional area has constitutionally been given to the national and provincial legislatures in South Africa. The Constitution allocated this function to the local sphere of government. Municipal authorities are the facilitators of sustainable housing services to (xiv) citizens on behalf of the national and provincial spheres of government. The study was thus conducted within the Nxuba local municipality which is one of eight local municipalities in the Amathole district municipality. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the implementation of the provincial housing policy and to determine the impact of the existing policy on the housing needs of the citizens of the Nxuba local municipality. For this purpose the fundamental and overall study problem was found to be that the rendering of housing services at the Nxuba local municipality is hampered by the implementation of an inadequate provincial housing policy and by incompetent municipal personnel and that these actions do not satisfy the growing demand for sustainable and suitable housing. The hypothesis was furthermore based on the fact that the existing provincial housing policy is inadequate to satisfy human needs and impacts negatively if not harmfully on human well-being. The study revealed that besides the implementation of an inadequate housing policy by incompetent municipal personnel, there are economic, social, political, physical and environmental effects on the citizens. As far as the environmental is concerned, the staging of protest marches resulting in the burning of tyres, rubbish cardboards and road barricades had caused serious air pollution which might lead to the spread of diseases such as TB, cancer and bronchitis when people inhale the poisonous gas evolving from smoke such as carbon monoxide (CO) and sulphur dioxide gases. Secondly, there is an economic impact on the citizens. Houses have been built away from town and people are compelled to commute between the town and their place of residence on a daily basis. With a continuous increase in the petrol price and its associated increase in transportation costs people pay large amounts to get to town. Furthermore the building of the RDP houses frequently comes to a standstill, builders, plumbers and carpenters lose their jobs. People’s income levels fall, impacting negatively on economic activity.
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Mazibu, Vuyisile. "An assessment of the supply chain management policy: the case of the King William's Town district municipality period 2009-2011." Thesis, University of Fort Hare, 2013. http://hdl.handle.net/10353/d1007128.

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The intention of the study was to assess the supply chain management policy at the King William’s Town District Municipality. It became apparent from the Literature review that any municipality to play a meaningful role in ensuring that South Africa achieves the goal of becoming a developmental state, capable of confronting service delivery challenges, there needs to be a proper implementation of the supply management system policy. The study was also aimed at identifying the factors that support or hinder the implementation of the supply chain management within the King William’s Town District Municipality. In order to achieve this objective, interviews and self-administered questionnaires were conducted with various respondents in the municipality. The respondents insured the councillors from the five political parties comprising the municipality, municipal manager and section 57 managers, supply chain practitioners. It would therefore be critical important for the management of the King William’s Town District municipality to take into account the results of this study and its recommendations so as to ensure that there is a proper implementation of the supply chain management system within the municipality.
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Plaatjies, René. "An evaluation of the social welfare policy of the Eastern Cape provincial government." Thesis, Port Elizabeth Technikon, 2003. http://hdl.handle.net/10948/d1011328.

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A background of serious disparities in past welfare policies, legislation and programmes, necessitated the need for a far-reaching new social welfare policy in South Africa. The adoption of the White Paper for Social Welfare by Parliament in February 1997, set the path for the new social developmental approach to social welfare, dealing with key substantive issues in addressing the restructuring of social welfare services, programmes and social security. The Eastern Cape Province is one of the poorer provinces in South Africa. Negative radio and print media reports on social welfare in the province in the past three years has made it clear that serious problems and disparities face the provincial department. Several of these media reports highlighted issues relating to poor service delivery and unacceptable conditions of underdevelopment and poverty still prevailing in the province. The Eastern Cape Welfare Department has been plagued by fraud and corruption, and in a report of the Eastern Cape legislature’s standing committee on welfare in 2001, it was found that fraudulent activities, corruption and misconduct by government officials are still prevalent in the welfare department. The objective of this research was to assess whether the Eastern Cape Department of Social Development (Welfare) is implementing this new social developmental approach to social welfare, as set out in the 1997 White Paper for Social Welfare.
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Sandler, Jeanette Louise. "A formative evaluation of the implementation process of the supply chain management policy framework in Eastern Cape Provincial Administration." Thesis, Rhodes University, 2011. http://hdl.handle.net/10962/d1003867.

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The Eastern Cape Provincial Administration has, since the promulgation of the Supply Chain Management Policy Framework in 2003, been challenged with the implementation of the said Policy.Some departments have progressed better than others, but all of the provincial departments have been challenged in one way or another.It was therefore, necessary to research the reasons for the erratic implementation process by the different departments. An analysis, based on answers provided by senior officials of the Eastern Cape Provincial Administration in an interviewing process, was needed to get an understanding of the challenges the departments are faced within the implementation process. In order to provide quality goods and services, this dissertation aims to evaluate the implementation process, provide insight to the challenges that the departments are faced with and offer recommendations on how to remedy these challenges. The lessons learned from this research study will assist the provincial departments to re-engineer their implementation processes and move forward to greater success and embracement of the Supply Chain Management policy Framework.
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Peter, Zola Witness. "An evaluation of personnel provision policy in selected public secondary schools in the Eastern Cape province." Thesis, University of Fort Hare, 2008. http://hdl.handle.net/10353/213.

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The Eastern Cape Department of Education has a constitutional and legislative mandate to provide quality public education in all public schools within the province. The commitment to improve also involves ensuring effective educator personnel provisioning in public secondary xii schools. However, despite various legislative and policy measures relating to educator personnel provisioning, serious concerns have been raised. There have been concerns over the shortage of educators. There are concerns over the lack of suitably qualified educators, especially in Mathematics and Science subjects. Disparities have been noted between legislative and policy directives with regard to educator personnel provisioning and the expectations of educators based on the realities in public secondary schools. The complications and challenges thereof have called upon for the appraisal of educator provisioning. The objective of the study is to describe and explain the nature and place of personnel provisioning in public secondary schools. Thereafter, evaluate its application at selected public secondary schools in the Eastern Cape Province. The basic intention is to prove that the educator personnel provision policy implementation in public schools needs to be examined and possibly changed for effective results. Basically, personnel provisioning is the first step in the personnel process. It is classified into: Human resources determination; and the Filling of posts The process of filling public personnel posts involves recruitment, selection, appointment, placement, transfer and promotion. In evaluating personnel provisioning policy in public secondary schools, a research study has to be conducted. As an integral part of scope of study, the survey area includes public secondary schools, provincial department offices and educator union/association offices. The questionnaire is used as the appropriate data collection instrument for this survey. The total population for the study are provincial department officials, public secondary school principals, school governing body chairpersons and educator unions/associations. xiii When data was analysed and interpreted, there were various significant findings. The respondents’ demographic details provided a significant insight into the study and its findings. They ensured divergence of opinions and understanding of the personnel provisioning. Regarding human resources determination and the filling of posts in public secondary schools, it was found that there are challenges in terms of the employment of suitably qualified educators. These include among other issues educator dissatisfaction and lack of effective procedures in the filling of posts. This also results in educator shortage in public secondary schools.
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Shadaya, Girlie. "The implementation of inclusion policy for learners with special education needs: a case study of four primary schools in the Grahamstown District." Thesis, University of Fort Hare, 2012. http://hdl.handle.net/10353/d1006239.

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Inclusion is successful when all stakeholders in the education system accept the challenge to work together and to do their fair share of educating all children. Although the teacher has been placed at the heart of the system as a key person in shaping inclusion, the district office (Department of Education), schools, teachers and parents must engage in collaborative team-driven decision making that is focused on interventions designed to enhance social outcomes for learners. The aim of this study was to assess the implementation of the inclusion policy for learners with special education needs. This study made use a mixed method research approach which engaged both qualitative and quantitative research methodologies. A total of twenty primary school teachers filled a questionnaire that had three parts: (i) Teacher demographics, (ii) Instructional modifications and (iii) Teaching strategies. Interviews, documents and observations were also used to collect data. Data was analysed by statistical and non-statistical procedures. Results showed that the inclusion policy is being implemented in schools. However, there are challenges that are being faced. For one, teachers have not received adequate training with regards to inclusive education. Staff development workshops to try and address this challenge are minimal, there is not enough collaboration being demonstrated by the different stakeholders with regards to support and monitoring the implementation process. The study recommends that all teachers and other personnel in the school receive adequate training. Also, the need for support must be met. Further studies could consider attitudes to inclusive education and the relationship between learner success and teacher preparedness in inclusive educational models.
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Mbotoloshi, Zukile. "An evaluation of the provision of houses in the Eastern Cape at Intsika Yethu local municipality: the case of Joe Slovo informal settlement at Chris Hani District Municipality (for the period 2009-2011)." Thesis, University of Fort Hare, 2011. http://hdl.handle.net/10353/d1001245.

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The research seeks to evaluate the housing service rendering in the Intsika Yethu Local Municipality with special reference to the Joe Slovo informal settlement at Chris Hani District Municipality. The introduction provides the general overview of the study and provides a background to the intention of the research to evaluate the housing services provision in the municipality. The problem statements briefly describe the problem identified in the study and the objectives of the study are set. The theoretical framework is provided and the theories used to evaluate the housing service are discussed which are institutional theory and the system theory. The importance of conducting the research is discussed and the limitations of the study are discussed in the research. Importantly, the study plan directs the researcher in the direction towards the goals of the research. Also the terms used in this study that are not clear were defined to avoid misinterpretation; misunderstanding and confusion of words and terms. The review of the current literature on the theoretical framework and the nature and place of public administration was discussed. The policy process and the nature and place of policy making as well as steps in policymaking were discussed. The nature and place of policy implementation which includes all the functions was discussed in the study. The policy analysis and evaluation as the final step in the policy process including the stages in policy analysis and evaluation i.e. input phase; processing and conversion phase; output phase, impact/effect phase were discussed The legislative framework for rendering of housing services in South Africa was discussed as it influence and affects the housing service rendering in Intsika Yethu Local Municipality. The role of municipal authorities in the rendering of housing services was discussed. The permission to conduct research was received from Intsika Yethu local municipality on the 13 October 2009 from the Municipal Manager. The research design was explained together with research approaches and strategy as qualitative and quantitative. The research methodology with a clear population and sampling for the study as well as the data collection instruments and procedures as questionnaires; literature study and interviews were explained. The ethical considerations are discussed. The data analysis and interpretation was conducted to enable the researcher to identify patterns which are consistent within the data. The theory and techniques for data analysis was discussed to link the theory and data analysis. The demographics of chief officials and political office bearers as respondents include their age; year of service, home language, gender, the academic qualification as well as the different stakeholders were analysed. The housing as essential services in the initiation of policy which the input phase of the Systems theory analysis was conducted and the data on the nature of housing services as output phase were analysed and discussed. The data on the structural problems were analysed and discussed. Also the analysis was conducted on the legislative framework for housing x services. The problems with the rendering of housing services especially administrative enabling problems as a processing phase in the policy process were analysed and discussed. And lastly, the possible solutions to the solving of housing problems were discussed and analysed. The findings of the study were provided and discussed and the concluding remarks were provided to whether the problem is real and whether the hypothesis is true and valid. The recommendations of the study were provided to enable Intsika Yethu Local Municipality to improve the housing service provisioning and ultimately to provide better service delivery.
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Mamutse, Zivai Tapfumanei. "Microfinance Institutions (MFIs) and rural poverty reduction in the Eastern Cape Province South Africa: a case of Amathole Rural District." Thesis, University of Fort Hare, 2012. http://hdl.handle.net/10353/d1007231.

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The government of South Africa has seen many financial reforms in the finance industry since the attainment of freedom in 1994. Many microfinance institutions (MFIs) have emerged in the name of poverty reduction, however the impact of MFIs on poverty reduction in rural areas has not been significantly high. Poverty has been reduced but still the inequality gap has even widened (HSRC, 2004). The study is concerned with analysing the impact of MFIs in poverty reduction among the rural poor. Empirical evidence from many developing nations around the world has shown that microfinance is a tool that is relevant in reducing poverty within rural areas. This study investigates the impact of microfinance institutions on household income levels, education and business skills. The study followed a qualitative approach in terms of the research methodology and a survey research design. Data was collected using questionnaires, scheduled interviews, focus group discussions and key informants. Two sample techniques were used for the selection of the MFIs and the household respondents, that is purposive sampling and cluster sampling. In total, 150 households, 15 MFIs and five key informants were interviewed. Descriptive analysis methods were employed and the study showed that only 10 percent of the total households have been able to access microfinance. The number of people who gained business skills was also low (10 percent). The MFIs who provide financial services excluding the other services like business training programmes were 80 percent of the total number of MFIs interviewed. This data showed that only a few (20 percent) MFIs are willing to go an extra mile rendering business skills to their clients. Overally the major finding of the study was that although, MFIs are reaching out to the rural communities, their levels of outreach is still very low within the rural areas. However this does not mean that the impact of MFIs funding is not felt among the rural poor. The levels of income and educational benefits have been increased and felt by the 10 percent of the rural poor clients. This study advocates for an entrepreneurship development pathway to poverty reduction. Microfinance should be used as a source of finance to initiate entrepreneurial activities among the poor in order to generate income. In this study, the use of microfinance finance for consumption by the poor is discouraged because it depletes the funds that can be channeled for selfhelp projects within the rural communities. The study findings motivated the recommendations that encourage an inclusive financial system that is capable of reaching out to the rural poor.
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Chigor, Chinyere Blessing. "Development of conservation methods for gunnera perpensa l.: an overexploited medicinal plant in the Eastern Cape, South Africa." Thesis, University of Fort Hare, 2014. http://hdl.handle.net/10353/d1019832.

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South Africa, many plants which are used in traditional medicines are collected from wild populations. The high demand for trade and use of these medicinal plants place an enormous pressure on their natural populations, especially because they are indiscriminately harvested. The most affected of these plant species are those harvested from their underground parts, among which is Gunnera perpensa L. Gunnera perpensa is of considerable ethnobotanical interest in traditional medicine because of its wide usage. The rhizomes are widely used and indiscriminately collected in large quantities from the wild to meet the ever increasing demand in traditional medicine markets. As a result, this valuable medicinal plant species is being endangered. According to the Red List of South African Plants, the conservation status of G. perpensa has been listed as ‘declining’. The ethnobotanical survey conducted as part of this research confirms the plant species as threatened. It is, therefore, important to develop propagation and conservation strategies for this medicinal plant. Clonal propagation of G. perpensa was conducted using varying lengths of the rhizome (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 cm) segments as propagules. While regeneration was possible with all the rhizome lengths, most of the growth parameters were significantly higher in the 5 cm rhizomes than the other rhizome segments. The appropriate planting depth for the rhizomes was also determined and 4 or 5 cm planting depths were found appropriate. No significant difference was observed in the growth parameters amongst the planting depths; nevertheless, 4 cm depth gave higher growth and yield. The results of this study show that regenerating G. perpensa.
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Mnguni, Grace. "An assessment of the effect of HIV/AIDS policy in combating the spread of the disease within Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality:Eastern Cape." Thesis, University of Fort Hare, 2016. http://hdl.handle.net/10353/2956.

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Due to its rapid spreading, AIDS has been declared a global epidemic. Especially sub-Saharan Africa has been the most affected by the epidemic. South Africa is no exception to the devastating impact of the epidemic. Over the past few years, HIV-prevention initiatives have been underway on a full scale in an effort to combat the destructive powers of the epidemic in the country. These initiatives appear to have adopted a health-belief approach in their strategies to decrease HIV-infections. This approach to HIV-prevention assumes that the desired behavior change, namely increasing safe sexual practices and decreasing high-risk HIV/AIDS behavior, can be achieved through rational decision-making based on knowledge of the disease and its consequences. The findings of the studies on sexual behavior and HIV/AIDS such as KAPB (knowledge, attitudes, practice and beliefs) studies appear to reaffirm the fact that knowledge alone is neither sufficient nor effective in bringing about the appropriate behavior change to combat HIV/AIDS. These studies point towards a high level of knowledge about AIDS in the general population, yet the ever increasing infection rate remains undeterred. The ANC came to power in 1994 after 10 years of National Party inaction with regard to AIDS. The National AIDS plan, endorsed by incoming minister Dr Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma, was insufficiently informed by the institutional and social realities of South Africa. Like other policy blueprints of this period, it over-estimated the economic, and especially human, resources at the disposal of incoming government. Moreover, this avowedly multi-sect oral HIV/AIDS plan, designated a “presidential lead project”, was situated in a national department of health in the throes of transformation. Because health is in part a provincial prerogative, AIDS was vulnerable to further administrative obstruction in a second tier of bureaucracy from the previous regime. Competing claims on resources in the poorer provinces, the demands of administrative reconfiguration, and very uneven provincial capacity, further undermined implementations.
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Lutuli, Nondwe. "Impediments to the implementation of employee health and wellness policy : a study of Social Development - Eastern Cape, Amathole District." Thesis, University of Fort Hare, 2017. http://hdl.handle.net/10353/5473.

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The White paper on Transforming Public Service Delivery no 1459 of 1997 stipulates that the wellbeing of employees needs to be accounted for. A directive to have employee health and wellness programmes established in all government departments was given by the director-general of the Department Public Service Administration in 2008. The Employee health and wellness programme is aimed at promoting and improving employee wellbeing, which is also linked to organizational wellness. The primary aim of the Employee Assistance Programme (EAP) is to make a positive contribution towards maximum employee productivity and effectiveness in the workplace. Employee health assessment conducted by the Department of Social Development in 2006 and 2009 confirmed that South African organizations, including the Department of Social Development, experience high levels of employee poor health. Studies suggest that both employees and the employers need to pay attention to the improvement of employee health and wellness. In 2012, an integrated employee health and wellness policy was developed to improve the Department of Social Development employee wellness. The interest to conduct the study emanates from the researcher‟s own supposition that the policy has not been fully implemented, this deduction is based on the fact that, although the policy has four critical focus areas, some of these areas, such as counselling, are not rendered. Literature reviewed includes the process of policy implementation and description of employee health and wellness, benefits of employee health and wellness programme for both employees and employer. A mixed method study was conducted to explore the implementation of the employee health and wellness policy as a strategy to improve both employee and organizational wellness within the Department of Social Development, Eastern Cape - Amathole District. The population of the study included both DSD management and non-managerial employees from Amathole District; the study also includes the Eastern Cape Department of Transport, Amathole District Municipality and South African Police Service (Mdantsane). Themes that were identified from qualitative data through semi- structured interviews by means of audio-recorder were triangulated through questionnaires and document analysis. Since the policy came into effect in 2012, results show that the implementation has been confronted with a number of challenges which include lack of support from the top management. Lack of buy in by DSD management has serious implications on the policy objectives; these include the inadequate distribution of capital, human and physical resources necessary to implement the policy. In order for the DSD to improve the implementation of employee health and wellness policy, the management needs to ensure that there is adequate provision of human and capital resources. Employees should be well-informed on policy guidelines and procedures and benefits to stimulate maximum utilisation. A decentralisation of implementation to Area offices is necessary to promote accessibility of services and prevent unnecessary delays in service delivery.
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Ngcuka, Zimkhita Zenith. "An assessment of the effectiveness of school governing bodies in implementing school policy: a case study of Xengxe Junior Secondary School in King William's Town district." Thesis, University of Fort Hare, 2015. http://hdl.handle.net/10353/1719.

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This study looks at School Governing Bodies and its role and their effectiveness in school management. In terms of the South African Schools Act, all schools are now required to have School Government Bodies to compliment the formal school administrative structures. The research looks at how these bodies have functioned in a rural context. The empirical evidence, supported by other research evidence show that even though these bodies are sometimes dutifully constituted in schools, their functionality and effectiveness remains limited due to a number of reasons. This research study has shown that the ineffectiveness of SGBs in a rural context is attributed to that following key issues- firstly, there is limited knowledge of the functions of SGB, which can be traced to the lack of training on the body member; secondly, there is a inadequate framework in many public schools to engage with the SGBs; and finally there is a lack of school resources to make effective use of these bodies.
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Mbokazi, Nonzuzo Nomfundo Mbalenhle. "Understanding policy making and policy implementation with reference to land redistribution in South Africa : case studies form the Eastern Cape." Thesis, Rhodes University, 2015. http://hdl.handle.net/10962/d1018197.

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This thesis focuses on land reform in post-apartheid South Africa and specifically on land redistribution, as one of the main pillars of land reform. There have been many studies undertaken on land redistribution in South Africa and these studies offer deep criticisms of the prevailing land redistribution model (a market-led, but state-assisted model) and the ways in which this model has failed to meaningfully address colonial dispossession of land. Further, studies have focused on post-redistribution livelihoods of farmers and the many challenges they face. One significant gap in the prevailing literature is a sustained focus on the state itself, and particularly questions around policy formation and implementation processes pertaining to land redistribution. Delving into policy processes is invariably a difficult task because outsider access to intra-state processes is fraught with problems. But a full account of land redistribution in South Africa demands sensitivity to processes internal to the state. Because of this, it is hoped that this thesis makes a contribution to the existing South African land redistribution literature. In pursuing the thesis objective, I undertook research amongst farmers on selected redistributed farms outside Grahamstown in the Eastern Cape, as well as engaging with both current and former state land officials. Based on the evidence, it is clear that the policy process around land in South Africa is a complex and convoluted process marked not only by consensus-making and combined activities but also by tensions and conflicts. This, I would argue, is the norm with regard to what states do and how they work.
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Luyenge, Zukile. "An evaluation of the co-operative interaction between political office-bearers and chief officials in the provision of houses in the Eastern Cape: King Sabata Dalindyebo Local Municipality (2009-2010)." Thesis, University of Fort Hare, 2011. http://hdl.handle.net/10353/567.

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The research seeks to evaluate the co-operative interaction between municipal political office-bearers and chief officials in the rendering of housing services in the King Sabata Dalindyebo local municipality. The introduction provides the general overview of the study and provides a background to the intention of the research to evaluate the co-operative interaction between municipal political office-bearers and chief officials. The problem statements briefly describe the problem identified in the study and the objectives of the study are set. The theoretical framework is provided and the theories used to evaluate the performance are discussed which are classical theory and the system theory. The importance of conducting the research is discussed and the limitations of the study are discussed in the research. Importantly, the study plan directs the researcher in the direction towards the goals of the research. Also the terms used in this study that are not clear were defined to avoid misinterpretation; misunderstanding and confusion of words and terms. The review of the current literature on the theoretical framework and the base for policy making and controlling role of municipal political office-bearers and chief officials in public administration was discussed. The nature of systems theory and the different phases of systems theory were explained. The nature and place of policy making in public administration was discussed as well as policy making alternatives in the public sector. The policy making levels i.e. political policy making level; executive policy making level; administrative/departmental policy making level; operational policy making level were explained and discussed. The co-operative interaction between municipal political office-bearer and chief officials was discussed to understand the administrative and political dichotomy in the public sector. The policy implementation for the rendering of housing services as well as the programming and delegation of authority were discussed in the context of housing service delivery. The legislative framework for housing services in South Africa was discussed as it influence and affects the housing service in King Sabata Dalindyebo Municipality. The role of municipal authorities in the rendering of housing services as well as the housing situation in South Africa together with the obligations of both the provincial and municipalities were discussed. The permission to conduct research was received from King Sabata Dalindyebo local municipality. The scope of the study explains the range or extent of matter to be dealt with in the research and the survey area is dearly provided. The research design which is qualitative and quantitative research are discussed and used in adopting the study. The case study as research strategy is discussed and clarified. The data collection instruments which are interviews, questionnaires and the literature study the subject were briefly explained. Population details and sampling were clearly explained before a sample is provided in the study. The research provides data collection procedures as well as how the data will be analysed. The ethical considerations are discussed. The data analysis and interpretation was conducted to enable the researcher to identify patterns which are consistent within the data. The criteria for data analysis as well the response rate were discussed. The demographics of chief officials and political office-bearers as respondents include their age; year of service, home language, gender, the academic qualification as well as the different stakeholders were analysed. The role of political office-bearers and chief officials in the initiation of policy which the input phase of the Systems theory analysis was conducted and the role of political office-bearers and chief officials in the process phase were analysed and discussed. The co-operative interaction in policy formulation and the steps in the policy formulation were analysed and discussed. Also the analysis was conducted on the delegation of authority to chief officials by the political office-bearers as well as the role of political office-bearers and chief officials in the approval of executive policy. An evaluation of the rendering of - 11 - housing services at Phola park informal settlement as well as the evaluation of housing services as an output phase in policy formulation were analysed and discussed. And lastly, the analysis of the impact of existing legislation or policy on housing services was conducted. The findings of the study were provided and discussed and the concluding remarks were provided to whether the problem is real and whether the hypothesis is true and valid. The recommendations of the study were provided to enable Kind Sabata Dalindyebo local municipality to improve the co-operative interaction between municipal political office-bearers and chief officials to improve housing services and to provide better service delivery. KEYWORDS Administration Citizens Co-operative interaction Effectiveness Efficiency Executive functions Governing functions Municipal authority Municipal chief officials Municipal political office-bearers.
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Nyukwana, Nomveliso. "The human resource alignment with the strategic plan 2006-2011 in the Eastern Cape Chris Hani District Municipality with specific reference to the Emalahleni Local Municipality." Thesis, University of Fort Hare, 2009. http://hdl.handle.net/10353/d1001250.

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The aim of this study was to investigate the alignment of human resources with the strategic plan at Emalahleni Local Municipality in Chris Hani District Municipality, Eastern Cape. The alignment of the human resources plan with the strategic plan is the requirement for inclusive integrated planning legislated in local government acts. The research in this area does not investigate the alignment of the human resources plan with the strategic plan especially in Eastern Cape local government. Integrated planning which is inclusive of human resource development and performance management is a legal requirement legislated in the Local Government Municipal Systems Act no. 32 of 2000. From the literature review it was evident that it is essential for organisations to have a clear vision and measurable specific attainable time-bound objectives which could transpire into measurable performance standards. For achievement of the strategic objectives human resource planning of the organisation has to be informed by the objectives of the organisation so that there can be a relationship between the employees and the business in which they are employed. The literature raised the importance of the involvement of the human resource manager and employees in general in the development of human resource strategy and strategy planning in the organisation and the performance of the organisation. A combination of the qualitative and quantitative approaches was used to achieve the objectives of evaluation research used as the research design in the study. A document study, interviews, and questionnaires were used to investigate the alignment studied. The participants were employees ranging from managers to lowest-level employees. The main patterns that emerged from collected data were the lack of clear strategic objectives, lack of alignment of the strategic plan and human resources, the lack of human resource strategy and development, and performance management systems. Emalahleni Local Municipality was then advised to review and reconceptualise its strategy plan to contain objectives which were clear, specific and measurable, and strategic objectives to include a human resource strategy for human resource alignment with the strategic plan. Such alignment could lead to integrated planning which could be measured to evaluate failure or success in the achievement of the strategic objectives.
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Mcconnachie, Karola. "Teachers’ understanding and implementation of inclusive education in an Eastern Cape primary school." Thesis, Rhodes University, 2014. http://hdl.handle.net/10962/d1013150.

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Since 2001 the South African Department of Basic Education has been working towards implementing Inclusive Education over a twenty year period. This is in accordance with international trends in education. This study set out to investigate the implementation of Inclusive Education in a South African context by conducting a case study at an Eastern Cape no‐fee‐paying primary school. It looked at how the government policy, as set out in Education White Paper 6 (EWP6) (DoE, 2001), is understood and being implemented by teachers at the Welcome Primary school. The study further investigated the introduction of the National Strategy on Screening, Identification, Assessment and Support (SIAS strategy) (DoE, 2008a) to gain insight into how teachers identify and assess barriers to learning in an ordinary primary school. In addition it looked at emerging factors that could impact on the implementation of this policy. With 16 years teaching experience in ordinary and private schools and 19 years experience in a special needs school as a teacher, head of department and then principal, I have personal experience of the crisis in the Eastern Cape Department of Basic Education. This awareness provided the impetus and interest in researching Inclusive Education policy implementation. It is my view that only when we begin to grapple with the problems right at the source of the education crisis within the majority of the no‐fee‐paying schools that informed decisions about policy and policy implementation can be made. As I am able to understand and converse in isiXhosa, I was able to observe and experience the implementation of EWP6 and the SIAS strategy in a school that is an isiXhosa‐medium ordinary primary school and similar to the majority of ordinary public schools in the district. A qualitative research approach based within an interpretive paradigm using the case study method was used for this study. Semi‐structured interviews, detailed field notes as well as documents generated by meetings and education conferences helped me to investigate and refine my research goals. The research found that the implementation of EWP6 and the SIAS strategy posed a major challenge for the Department of Basic Education, and highlighted the significant gap between ordinary primary schools and special needs schools. However, the fact that there is a partial engagement with the process of providing inclusive education, does present some measure of hope for a better future for those learners that have experienced the injustice of exclusion from education and society. The Eastern Cape Department of Basic Education will have to ‘catch up’ to other provinces in its delivery of every child’s constitutional right to education in an inclusive school environment. Factors emerged from the study that showed that the assessment of learners’ barriers to learning with the resultant support needs was a relatively new concept, as teachers tended to rely on traditional classroom tests and simple informal classroom assessments to assess the learners. Teachers expressed a good verbal knowledge of learners with support needs but found it very challenging to put this verbal knowledge into a written document. In addition there was inadequate support from the District Based Support Team to implement the SIAS strategy. This study showed that the medical model of assessment was still being adhered to in the research district with little evidence of a move to a social model of assessment in terms of the SIAS strategy. In addition, factors emerged indicating the serious impact that alcohol abuse has on children and the society in which they live. The evidence of increasing numbers of children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) in a single educational district is a matter of grave concern from an educational and financial perspective. It is my contention that this is a matter of national urgency and that the Department of Basic Education must confront the escalating problem of alcohol abuse and the resultant challenges of a large number of learners with serious barriers to learning that need to be included in the education system.
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Deacon, Rachel. "Young people, HIV prevention and policy making in the rural Eastern Cape, South Africa." Electronic Thesis or Diss., London School of Economics and Political Science (University of London), 2015. http://etheses.lse.ac.uk/3678/.

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There has been limited success in tackling the spread of the HIV epidemic among young people, despite years of interventions. This research contributes to an understanding of why intervention success has been limited by examining HIV prevention among young people in the rural Eastern Cape of South Africa. Shifting the focus from the specifics of individual interventions, it draws on the theoretical work of Foucault to examine how young people and their sexuality are being constructed and understood within policy discourse, and how this relates to young people’s own everyday experiences of the virus. In doing so it highlights both the disjuncture between these understandings, and the ways in which, despite this, young people are engaging with policy narratives in often unexpected ways. Using qualitative approaches the research was carried out in four rural communities. Repeat dependent interviews (n=108) were conducted with young people (n=56) over a 10 month period. These were supplemented by participant observation, key informant interviews (n=15), and analysis of policy documentation. The study finds that the ways in which evidence is used to make knowledge claims about young people and their engagement with the virus is problematic. It argues that the dominance of particular forms of knowledge within policy processes work to exclude those forms of knowledge which are grounded within young people’s everyday lived experiences of their sexuality and the virus. As a result, in claiming to ‘know’ young people, this decontextualized knowledge works to construct a particular subject position of youth in which agency is ascribed to fit within dominant gendered and medicalised narratives of the virus. These constructions are in stark contrast to how young people themselves understand and perform their own sexual identities, which are spatially and temporally located. The research finds that young people come to construct and perform their, often multiple, identities in ways which reflect their subjective interaction with the context of their daily lives. It finds that young people’s narratives of sexuality and HIV are embedded in discourses of pleasure and poverty, and are shaped by a complex web of social and gender relations. Despite this disjuncture, the research finds that young people are not simply ignoring, but rather are engaging, with these policy narratives in complex ways, as they become part of their context of interaction. Drawing upon Long’s interface model the research finds that as policy narratives come to intersect with young people’s lifeworlds, new forms of knowledge and social practice are produced. Within this interface ‘youth’ as an identity emerges as an asset which young people can draw upon and utilise to make sense of their situation, as well as provide access to opportunities. At the same time young people appropriate the policy narratives of individual responsibility and the medicalised discourse of HIV to rationalise, and make sense of, their own risk taking behaviours. The thesis' methodological contribution examines research practices themselves as sites of knowledge production about young people. Turning the analytical lens on my own work, as well as that of others, it examines the challenges in conducting such research and the ways in which it can serve to reproduce the narratives it seeks to uncover. In going beyond identifying the disjuncture between policy narratives of youth sexuality, and those that young people construct for themselves, the research generates new insights on how we think about young people, their identities and behaviours, in relation to the virus. By moving from the specifics of interventions themselves to the assumptions and conceptualisations which underpin them, it draws attention to the importance, and problematic nature, of what we do know, what we can know, and the implications of these knowledge processes in the everyday lives of young people. In doing so it generates a number of key implications for policy and future research.
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Ramarou, Moleboheng. "The implementation of the succession policy and staff retention strategy: Joe Gqabi District Municipality." Thesis, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, 2017. http://hdl.handle.net/10948/19894.

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The aim of this study is to evaluate the implementation of the succession policy and staff retention strategy of the Joe Gqabi District Municipality (JGDM) in the Eastern Cape. Retention and succession are located within a broader understanding of administration and management, and specifically within the New Public Management theory. A qualitative research methodology was used. Semi-structured interviews were primary means of data collection, supplemented by documentary analysis. A non-probability, stratified sample of 12 senior managers, middle managers, supervisors and professionals employed by the district municipality constituted the target group. The findings reveal that both the succession policy and the staff retention strategy were hampered by severe implementation weaknesses, resulting in failure to stem the high rate of turnover and vacancies at the municipality. The study recommends a series of measures to enhance future implementation success.These include, amongst others, implementation action plans with clear deliverables andtimeframes, monitoring and evaluation; employee participation; linking execution to individual performance; and proactively addressing issues of staff satisfaction.
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Sonqayi, Zandile Hillary. "An evaluation of the national curriculum statement policy in the education of youth with disabilities in South Africa, the case of the Eastern Cape." Thesis, University of Fort Hare, 2008. http://hdl.handle.net/10353/298.

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What initiated this research was the need for the assessment of the National Curriculum Statement policy implementation. This was brought about by the observation that there was a general complaint in the province that educators are struggling with the implementation processes. It would seem that at the formulation of this policy the schools for learners with disabilities were not considered. The main objective of this study, is therefore, to assess the implementation of the NCS policy in relation to the principle of inclusivity regarding learners with disabilities in schools. This has been achieved through finding out how educators are coping in a situation where they are expected to improvise learning and assessment methodologies to cater for a large variety of disabilities of which they are not trained to work with. This study used two techniques, face to face interviews with the subject advisors in the districts as well as with the educators at the schools. Questionnaires were used in the case of managers at school and district levels. Qualitative research was used to accumulate sufficient data to lead to the understanding of the problems that are encountered at different levels. In terms of the findings, most of the respondents pointed out that the policy does not adequately cater for the needs of both the learners and the educators of the special schools. They further mentioned that the outcomes according to the policy do not stipulate what is expected of the learners with barriers to learning due to their disability conditions. According to the responses of the different categories of participants, it became clear that the implementation of the NCS policy is not very successful due to a wide variety of problems that are encountered by the implementers. The main complained about problem is the need for the adaptation of the curriculum to accommodate the learners with disabilities. Furthermore, there is a dire need for the implementers to make reference to all the disabilities found at these schools so as to deal with their situation accordingly. The NCS policy promises change for the better, however the necessary ramifications related to its implementation need to be successfully managed and dealt with properly. This has implications on areas of concern, mainly the training of educators on mastering the implementation and assessment processes which are key to meaningful education. Considering that inclusivity is about change of attitude and behaviour as well as teaching and learning methodologies, it becomes difficult for these changes to materialise if and when inclusivity is not applied properly at the schools for learners with disabilities. The effectiveness of inclusivity depends on the consideration of all the factors that would lead to a healthy environment in the case of these schools. This would mean putting of all the relevant structures in place as well as encouraging team work at all levels, from the educators, management and the community. The district officials should always avail themselves for monitoring and supporting services at these schools. The findings of this study, may contribute to the asking of many questions. This may lead to further debates which may give rise to the need for further research on many aspects that have come up in this study.
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Reynolds, John Hunter. "From labour reserve to investment opportunity: economic development planning in the Mbashe Local Municipal area in the Eastern Cape." Thesis, Rhodes University, 2003. http://hdl.handle.net/10962/d1007490.

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Planning for economic development at the local level has become increasingly important in many countries of the world. South Africa is no exception and has had the local focus entrenched through constitutional provisions for developmental local government. This developmental approach has been intimately linked to, and influenced by, the broader legislative, policy and planning context within which the development challenges of post-Apartheid South Africa have been addressed. It has also been implemented in a context of far-reaching transformation of public institutions aimed, in the final analysis, at the effective functioning of three spheres of government. In this thesis, the Mbashe Local Municipal area is used as a case study for an examination of the linkages between economic development planning at the local, provincial and national levels. It is not a case study in the sense that an in-depth analysis of practice is undertaken; it is used rather as a lens through which the economic development planning activities of the three spheres of government are viewed. Its value as a lens lies in its location in the former Transkei, which is characterised by high levels of unemployment and poverty and low levels of service infrastructure, and in its status as one of the newly demarcated local municipalities in South Africa. Mbashe is a pilot site of the Promotion of Rural Livelihoods Programme, which has been linked to the Eastern Cape Province's Integrated Sustainable Rural Development Programme. It also includes one of the nodes of the Wild Coast Spatial Development Initiative, which has, since 1998, been promoted as a vehicle for economic development in the former Transkei. Research comprised extensive documentary research, individual interviews with key role players in the Mbashe Local Municipality, the Promotion of Rural Livelihoods Programme and the Wild Coast Spatial Development Initiative, and a group interview with members of the Local Economic Development Sub-Committee of the Mbashe Local Municipal Council. An attempt was made to understand the complex layers of policy and planning frameworks that guide planning at the national and provincial levels and within which local level economic development is situated, and to explore the responses that have been forged by agents within the Mbashe area. Key in this endeavour has been the initiatives developed under the guidance of the Mbashe Local Economic Development Sub-Committee. It is argued that the severe resource constraints faced within Mbashe, combined with limited knowledge of and participation in larger planning and resource mobilisation frameworks, lock Local Economic Development within the top-down and investmentled approaches, rather than the more integrated approach that is promoted in terms of legislation and that is required if poverty is to be addressed successfully. The limitations on state fiscal expenditure and the market-led approach to service provision and economic development, implemented in terms of South Africa's macroeconomic framework, combined with limited synchronisation of planning cycles in which integrated development planning at the local level is privileged, leave little scope for endogenous economic development at local level. There is scope for creative engagement with the interlocking local, provincial, national and continental economies by actively shifting resources in support of integrated, endogenous approaches. Such approaches could serve as counter-narratives to the dominance of neoliberalism and allow for the establishment of local economic development practice that addresses the needs of the poor and that builds integrated local economies under the control of democratic institutions. It is only with such a shifting of approach that economic development within Mbashe will shift the structural conditions that lock it into economic dependence and poverty.
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Henge-Daweti, Vatiswa. "Activities, functions and structure of public sector pharmaceutical and therapeutics committees in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa." Thesis, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, 2017. http://hdl.handle.net/10948/15945.

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The Council of Australian Therapeutic Advisory Groups (CATAG) (2013) define a Pharmaceutical and Therapeutics Committee (PTC) as a ‘multi-disciplinary team committee with a commitment to the overall governance of the medicines management system in health service organizations to ensure the judicious, appropriate, safe, effective and cost-effective use of medicines’. The multi-disciplinary team includes the health care providers, who are actively participating in the health care systems, such as doctors, pharmacists, nurses, administrators, finance officers, quality improvement managers and other staff members who participate in the medicine use processes according to their knowledge and skills. The major role of this committee is to evaluate and promote rational drug use by health care providers and consumers. In addition, this committee is responsible for developing systems and strategies to prevent adverse medicine reactions and medication errors, enhance rational prescribing and dispensing, provide educational activities and ensure the use of quality and cost-effective medicines. This is a cross-sectional study that was aimed at exploring the structure, activities and functions of public sector institutional Pharmaceutical and Therapeutics Committees (PTC) in the Eastern Cape (EC) Province in South Africa (SA). The primary objectives of the study were to (i) investigate and describe the structure, functions and the activities of the institutional PTCs, and (ii) explore and describe the perception of PTC secretariats on the functionality of the institutional PTCs. A purpose-designed questionnaire including both quantitative and qualitative aspects adapted from other international studies was piloted prior to being used for data collection. The secretariats of the institutional PTCs were requested to complete the questionnaire. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics for the quantitative aspects and thematic analysis for the qualitative component of the questionnaire. Data collection commenced after approval by the relevant ethics committees had been granted. The findings of the study reflected that the majority of the PTCs in the EC province, SA are district/sub-district PTCs which are a cluster of a number of health care institutions in close proximity. The PTC members were appointed by the executive authority as recommended by the literature and other guiding documents. As expected the nurses were dominant as the members of the PTCs in these district/sub-district PTCs. The secretariats were the pharmacists where pharmacists were available and chairperson were doctors. These findings correspond to the recommendations by the National Department of Health PTC policy (2015) and the studies conducted in other countries. A number of PTCs had sub-committees formed e.g. ABC analysis review committee, medicine utilization evaluation (MUE) committee and pharmacovigilance committee to optimise their functionality. Out of 15 PTCs only five PTCs with sub-committees reported functions and interventions, establishment of policies and SOPs. The rest had no outcomes or interventions reported. Poor production of policies and SOPs was observed which differs from other countries’ PTCs. The focus of sub-committees in other countries is the development of formulary and policies related to medicine use. These findings pose a question regarding the functionality and effectiveness of the existing institutional PTCs in the province. In addition, the basic documents that are required to run the PTC were unavailable in a number of PTCs. Barriers to the functionality of PTCs were reported i) Lack of pharmacists and training in PTCs. ii) The rural nature of the EC province and iii) Unavailability of resources including lack of re-imbursement of personal costs. These findings reveal that budget allocation for institutional PTCs is crucial for their functionality. It can be concluded that in the EC province the institutional PTCs which are active and effective are low in number and do not cover all geographical areas. Secondly there is a need for training and educating the PTC members on the role of the PTC members, role of sub-committees, development of policies, SOPs and the basic documents for the functionality of the committee. It is also important that during training the monitoring and evaluation of the effectiveness of the committee is emphasised. Therefore, the choice of the PTC objectives should be measurable as they can assist as indicators of effectiveness. Support by the executive authority has been observed.
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Tsomo, Zixolele. "Local economic development and poverty alleviation in Nkonkobe Local Municipality." Thesis, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, 2016. http://hdl.handle.net/10948/18343.

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The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of Local Economic Development (LED) in alleviating poverty in Nkonkobe Local Municipality in the Eastern Cape Province, a municipality that is predominantly rural in nature and also stricken by poverty. The research objectives were; to explore the implementation of LED strategies, to assess the degree to which various spheres of government work collaboratively to enhance efficiency and effectiveness in development planning; and to evaluate the extent to which job opportunities have been created as a result of LED practices in the municipality. To achieve these objectives, a qualitative research approach was utilised. The sample was selected using a purposive sampling technique whereby individuals who are directly involved in integrated development planning and LED planning were targeted. Those who met this criterion were considered suitable for providing relevant information regarding the implementation of LED in Nkonkobe Local Municipality. Based on the literature review presented in chapter 2, LED can be perceived as an integrated, multidisciplinary approach that seeks to alleviate poverty through pro-poor economic growth by promoting economic development initiatives in municipalities. Moreover, the legislative framework presented in the same chapter reveals that the South African government has employed various strategies in the implementation of LED in local communities. The study showed that the Nkonkobe Local Municipality LED strategy has limited impact on poverty alleviation due to a myriad of factors which reinforce and interact with each other, thereby limiting development and thus trapping residents in poverty. The findings suggest that there is significant room for a paradigm shift from predominantly pro-growth LED to pro-poor LED, and the need to adopt a comprehensive LED strategy that seeks to include both pro-growth and pro-poor strategies.
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Twenty, Isaac Lungisa. "Poverty reduction strategies in Blue Crane Route Municipality (BCRM)." Thesis, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, 2015. http://hdl.handle.net/10948/18443.

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The transition period post-apartheid in South Africa since 1994 brought a number of changes in policy making process and the initiated programs by the government in all level with the aim of addressing inequality and poverty reduction strategies. In South Africa prior 1994 division in terms of location access to resources and information was meant for the certain group and participation in the Community development matters. The aim of this research study is to seek and find out the impact of the government policy projects, programme (strategies) in the community to poverty reduction and try to identify the reasons for the failure of other project and to what extend is the capacity building in community members in terms of skill development before the implementation of projects for sustainability and viability of those projects. Also is to explore the community participation or involvement in policy making process such as the formulation of Integrated Development Plan .The study attempts to answer community involvement into their own development, their role and impact to fight poverty and other socio-economic challenges that are faced by the community. The research design for the study could be classified as the mixed design which will include qualitative and quantitative approaches. A sample of 30 participants will be drawn from the community unemployed respondents, project employees, those searching for employment, 5 municipality officials from Blue Crane Route, Ward Councillor and projects leaders. On my findings community participation on community development issues must be strengthen for the sake of development .The issue of centralisation of offices for availability of resources to same of the communities makes it difficult to access resources. Lack of skills and training acquired in the job market for artisans, technical and management skills.
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Alebiosu, Olumide Ademola. "An investigation of integrated development planning (IDP) as a mechanism for poverty alleviation in Grahamstown in the Makana Municipality, Eastern Cape, South Africa." Thesis, Rhodes University, 2006. http://hdl.handle.net/10962/d1005517.

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Poverty among individuals, households or communities is not a static condition. There are many factors which contribute to its causes and depth. In South Africa the economic gaps imposed by the previous apartheid government aggravated economic inequalities and caused considerable disparities, which has resulted in high unemployment rates. Inequalities were also manifest in the neglect of infrastructural and service provision as well in the effective absence of independent governance among some race group. This led to a call for pro-active initiatives by the post-1994 democratic government to remedy the living condition of the previously disadvantaged people. As part of its poverty relief drive the South African government has embarked on a series of developmental initiatives in bringing infrastructure related services to the poor and to reduce the enormous prevailing backlog, with the aim of increasing community participation, improving service delivery and promoting the upliftment of the lives of poor people through the medium of local governance. This study investigated the Integrated Development Planning, which has been undertaken in Grahamstown in the Makana Municipality in the Eastern Cape to respond to the prevailing poverty and underdevelopment among the poor communities. Relying on their developmental mandate to initiate and co-ordinate all development activities within their area of jurisdiction through the IDP, the Makana Municipality has drawn up a development strategic plan in conjunction with the local communities and with other stakeholders and organisations to identify and assess development backlogs within the communities with the aim of addressing such backlogs. This study revealed from the interviews conducted with some municipal personnel and questionnaires administered to sampled residents of Grahamstown that some faces of poverty, such as unemployment and lack of access to some of the most basic of infrastructure such as, sanitation facilities, water, electricity, formal house, education, security and recreation facilities are apparent in Grahamstown. However, the Makana Municipality through, the IDP has achieved some notable feats in the provision of providing some of the basic amenities such as water, housing, electricity and sanitation albeit at a slow rate. The mechanism of delivery is hampered by bureaucratic settings within government and the ambiguity attached to some of the projects. The service and infrastructural developments targeted towards the poor and the involvement of communities in the affairs of the local government might be seen as a partially panacea for poverty alleviation in South Africa. However the capacity of the local governments to effectively carry out this developmental challenge assignment might be a new twist in the developmental challenge facing local governments in South Africa. The thesis provides an overview of the Makana Municipality IDP and the degree to which is serving as one mechanism to address poverty in the Grahamstown urban area
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Ngcukayitobi, Lulama. "The role of public participation in building a people centered public service: the case of the King Sabatha Dalindyebo Municipality (KSDM) integrated development planning process (Eastern Cape)." Thesis, University of Fort Hare, 2013. http://hdl.handle.net/10353/d1007123.

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This chapter focuses on the literature relevant to the study and more significantly on the issues that are pertinent to the critical questions and the objectives of this research. The chapter will provide definitions of community participation and their intricate relationship with the Integrated Development Planning as a strategic framework for development within the King Sabatha Dalindyebo Municipality. In this context the chapter presents a review of literature dealing with the theoretical arguments surrounding public participation. Hart (1998:13) views literature review as the selection of available documents - both published and unpublished - on the topic, which contains information, ideas, data and evidence written from a particular standpoint to fulfill certain aims This chapter is divided into two main review sections. The first section reviews the relevant policy, legislation and guidelines in which public participation and the IDP process is located in South Africa. The second section focuses on the literature and theories of public participation and the IDP process as it is applied in South Africa.
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Lombo, Nomachule. "Assessment of government spending austerity measures in on-site school support for curriculum delivery: a case of Idutywa Education District." Thesis, University of Fort Hare, 2016. http://hdl.handle.net/10353/2038.

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The view of on-site school support for curriculum delivery is shared by most countries and its effects have been felt by schools. There is fear that the Austerity Measures will negate the outcomes of the action taken by the teams that visit the schools. The reviewed literature is more biased towards the Austerity Measures in the whole government sector rather than in a department or an institution like the Education District in Idutywa. Even though the effects of Austerity Measures have been researched all over the world based on a specific country, there is deficiency of such literature done in the institution like the department of Education Districts. The researcher intends contributing to the filling of this gap by this study. The researcher therefore carried out a focused study of the effect of Department’s Austerity Measures on on-site school curriculum support in Idutywa Education District. It is also imperative to know how the teachers are affected by these departmental Austerity Measures, hence the interviews were carried out with the school personnel in addition to the District Professional staff. The District is characterised by poor performance in both Annual National Assessment (ANA) and the final National Senior Certificate results. The findings revealed that the implementation of AM have contributed to, amongst other things, the following issues: The inadequate on-site school support for curriculum delivery; The shortage of resources that includes teachers and vehicles; and ultimately the learner underperformance The researcher expect that the recommendation made will be embraced and be factored through, during the planning process of the Eastern Cape Department of Basic Education in order to improve learner performance.
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Whale, Susan Gaye. "Using language as a resource: strategies to teach mathematics in multilingual classes." Thesis, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, 2012. http://hdl.handle.net/10948/1669.

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South Africa is a complex multilingual country. In the majority of schools in the Eastern Cape, a province in South Africa, the teachers and learners share the same home language, isiXhosa, but teach and learn mathematics in English. The purpose of this study was to encourage teachers to use the home language as a resource to teach mathematics in multilingual classes. The study follows a mixed method design, using both qualitative and quantitative data. Qualitative data were collected from a survey and poetry, which teachers crafted, in which they highlighted their perceptions about language in their lives. They also reflected on their practices and submitted pieces of contemplative writing. Quantitative data were collected from participating teachers who administered a pre-test to their learners as well as a post- test approximately nine months later after conducting an intervention. The results showed that where strategies, such as the implementation of exploratory talk and code switching which used language as a resource, had been introduced mathematical reasoning improved and classroom climate became more positive. The learners’ lack of confidence in being able to express their reasoning in English was prevalent throughout the reflective writing. By enabling learners to use isiXhosa in discussions the teachers felt that the learners gained in both confidence and mathematical understanding. This study has demonstrated that using the learners’ and teachers’ home language unlocks doors to communication and spotlights mathematical reasoning, but there is still an urgency to encourage learners to become fluent in Mathematical English. It is important to note that a positive classroom climate is essential for learners to build confidence and to encourage them to attempt to formulate sentences in English - to start on the journey from informal to formal usage of language as advocated by Setati and Adler (2001:250). My main conclusion is that an intervention that develops exploratory talk by using language as a resource can improve learners’ mathematical reasoning. I wish to emphasise that I am not advocating teaching mathematics in isiXhosa only, but the research has shown the advantages of using the home language as a resource together with English in Eastern Cape multilingual mathematics classes. Learners need to be able to express themselves in English, written and spoken, in order to achieve mathematically. This study therefore shows that teachers can gauge their learners’ improvement in mathematical reasoning after an intervention that develops exploratory talk in class by using the home language as a resource.
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Sibane, Nomsa Virginia. "Environmental politics: the case of the Xolobeni Mining Project in Mbizana, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa." Thesis, University of Fort Hare, 2012. http://hdl.handle.net/10353/d1007574.

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This research explored the nature of conflict that arose in Xolobeni, a small area in the Mbizana Local Municipality in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, and the environmental politics emanating from the arguments that supported development rather than environmental protection. The proposed mining project was known as the Xolobeni mining development project within the Amadiba Tribal Authority, an area dominated by Pondos or (Mpondos). The Xolobeni area is located between the Mzamba and Mtentu Rivers, covering some 2 867 hectares, and extends for 20km along the coast of the Mbizana Local Municipality, in the Alfred Nzo District Municipality. In 2005, the Minister of the National Department of Minerals and Energy (DME), now known as the Department of Minerals and Petroleum Resources, announced that an Australian company, Transworld Energy and Minerals (TEM) will establish a mining development project in Xolobeni to mine red sand dunes which are contained within five blocks, each named after the river at its southern boundary. These blocks were Mtentu, Sikombe, Kwanyana, Mnyameni and Mphalane. According to the Minerals and Petroleum Resources Development Act (Act 28 of 2002), the Department of Minerals and Energy is the sole custodian of the mining licence and therefore the only Department that issues mining licences. The research investigated the nature of conflict that erupted in Xolobeni after this announcement, resulting in the formation of two groups namely, the Amadiba Crisis Committee (ACC) which represented the communities who were against the mining project in the area and the Xolobeni Local Community (Xolco) which was a Black Economic Empowerment company that represented the communities that supported the mining project and was to receive 26 percent of the proceeds from the mining company. The purpose of the Amadiba Crisis Committee was to channel complaints and grievances of local residents emanating from the mining development project and other development to all relevant authorities so that the Constitutional rights of residents can be respected. The research also investigated the role of each stakeholder in the proposed mining project, namely, local communities in the area, environmentalists, councillors, the National Department of Minerals and Energy, the National Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, the Eastern Cape Department of Economic Development and Environmental Affairs (DEDEA), the traditional authority and the Eastern Cape Provincial Legislature Portfolio Committee on Economic Development and Environmental Affairs. Central to this research was the level of consultation during the proposed mining project. Qualitative and quantitative research methodologies were used to collect data in Xolobeni. Interviews were conducted with the two opposing groups and other various stakeholders including the chieftaincy, environmentalists, councillors and officials in the Department of Economic Development and Environmental Affairs (DEDEA). The researcher used questionnaires in order to get the views of the targeted participants. Eighty questionnaires were distributed among the targeted participants but only forty five were returned. Some of the participants were reluctant to participate in this study because the mining project had not taken place. Secondary data from the Departments of Environment of Affairs nationally and provincially revealed that the Department of Minerals and Energy through its Minister, Bulelwa Sonjica, awarded the mining licence despite recommendations of both Departments not to do so. The Minister of the new Department of Mineral Resources, Susan Shabangu, withdrew the licence and gave three months to Transworld Energy and Minerals to address the outstanding issues raised in the environmental impact assessment (EIA). The data collected revealed that the proposed mining project affected all communities in the Amadiba Tribal Administrative area. The research also illustrated how the Xolobeni community organised themselves and protested against development that intended to force them to relocate from their ancestral land without proper consultation. Issues of sustainable development and environmental protection also formed part of the discussions in this research. While the mining project had stalled, it emerged that the majority of respondents in the area did not want the mining project to proceed.
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Aiyegoro, Adeola Ikeoluwa. "The influence of selected non-governmental organisations (NGOs) on policy-making in the Eastern Cape Amathole District Municipality and the eight local municipalities within the district." Thesis, University of Fort Hare, 2011. http://hdl.handle.net/10353/d1001253.

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Since 1994, the South African Government embarked on an ambitious Reconstruction and Development Program (RDP) to correct the injustices of the past. One of the major programmes, which the government is implementing within the RDP framework, is the ―Integrated National Electrification Programme‖ (INEP) with the aim to address the electricity backlog by 2012. Recent figures from Statistics SA, indicate substantial progress with regard to access to electricity throughout the country and especially in previously disadvantaged areas. This study is an investigation of the impact of access to free basic electricity (FBE) on the welfare of indigent households in Buffalo City Municipality (BCM). This study aims at better understanding ways in which indigent households use electricity and to what extent access to electricity is improving the level of poverty in the households. Empirical evidences from pro-poor electrification programmes worldwide and especially in Asia suggest that greater access to electricity by poor people leads to economic and social development at both micro and macro levels. This study investigates the impact of electricity on household poverty, with focus on household income, household health and children‘s education. This study used mixed research methods to investigate the research problem. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected using survey questionnaires, focus group discussions and interviews of key informants.
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Walaza, Kanyiso. "The contribution of local economic development funded projects in job creation and poverty eradication in Alfred Nzo district municipality." Thesis, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, 2013. http://hdl.handle.net/10948/d1020146.

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Job creation and poverty eradication have been the top priority of the South African government over the past few years and continues to be on the agenda. The government is making numerous efforts to aggressively address poverty levels and create jobs. In 1994 the African National Congress (ANC) led government inherited an economy that had glaring disparities. Most of the important economic resources of the country are concentrated in urban areas, while very few economic activities and resources are found in the rural areas. While about 70% of the country’s poorest people live in rural areas, the abundance of economic resources in towns and cities has led to minimal growth taking place in rural areas. High poverty levels continue to manifest itself in various forms and shapes in communities. The negative effects of unemployment continue to threaten our societal well-being and stability. It is evident that in poverty stricken communities there are limited economic development opportunities and have thus become trapped in a poverty cycle, and economic growth is the only sustainable approach of addressing poverty and unemployment. Local economic development (LED) is but one intervention that could be used to create jobs and eradicate poverty at a given locality. LED has been regarded as an approach towards economic development and growth whereby local people are encouraged to work in collaboration in order to achieve sustainable economic growth, bringing economic benefits and improved quality of life for all community members in a municipal area. LED is an intervention solely based at a local level being driven by local people to realise economic benefits that would improve their quality of life. A qualitative study was conducted at Alfred Nzo District Municipality to assess the contribution of LED on job creation and poverty eradication. The target population included LED managers, Project Practitioners, LED Project Beneficiaries, LED Portfolio Councillors in the Alfred Nzo District Municipality and its Local Municipalities as well as relevant sector departments and Public Entities. The study examined the contribution of LED funded projects in job creation and poverty eradication. The project also assessed the problems, issues and challenges in LED and how they are being addressed. The study found that the implementation of LED in Alfred Nzo continues to be ineffective and confronted with numerous challenges. LED has been viewed as one of the tools for job creation targeted at unskilled and unemployed members of the community. Municipalities seem to be under utilising the Municipal Infrastructure Grant (MIG) and Equitable Share for funding the LED programme. In most municipalities LED is still regarded as an unfunded mandate. Most municipalities rely heavily on grant funding from sector departments and state owned enterprises for LED. A point of concern is the lack of regular and structured discussions on LED issues within municipalities which continue to re-enforce uncoordinated planning, insufficient budgeting and poor implementation of programmes within the municipality. The study noted serious skills shortages within the project beneficiaries which hamper effective implementation of LED projects. These skills include financial management, project management, conflict resolution and business management. These are core skills for the sound and viability of management of LED projects. Access to markets has been raised as an on-going concern for LED practitioners. It is recommended that a change is made from project-based LED to a business-based approach in LED. This would require all LED projects to be registered business entities, be liable for tax and require them to produce sound business plans before receiving grant funding.
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Gqokoma, Daniel Atwell. "Is land tenure a significant variable for promoting agricultural productivity in rural villages?: the case study of Nonkcampa Village in the Buffalo City Municipality, Province of the Eastern Cape, South Africa." Thesis, Rhodes University, 2006. http://hdl.handle.net/10962/d1003101.

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The research explored the causal relationship between the communal land tenure and the stagnant agricultural productivity in rural villages. It is assumed that there is covariance between the communal land tenure and the stagnant agricultural productivity. The communal land tenure deprived the villagers of the land ownership rights to mortgage their landholdings to secure agricultural credit from financial institutions, or to advance them as own contributions to obtain Government-provided grants under the ILRAD. Under such circumstances, the villagers could not raise the level of agricultural productivity. The Permit to Occupy (PTO) certificates, issued to the landholders, provided for usufruct rights only i.e. right to occupy and use an allotment. The related research was conducted at Nonkcampa village. The metatheory, “Positivism” and the quantitative paradigm were applied to collate and analyse the data. The research findings confirmed the correlation between the land tenure and the agricultural productivity, as the respondents claimed not to have had any access to agricultural inputs. Hence, the agricultural productivity on the arable land had stagnated.
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Dyubhele, Noluntu Stella. "The survival strategies of unemployed rural women : a case study of Wooldridge." Thesis, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, 2011. http://hdl.handle.net/10948/1651.

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Despite decades of gender research and public action by civil society, policy makers continue to neglect the role of women as breadwinners who work at improving the socio-economic conditions in rural areas such as Wooldridge, a traditional rural village in the Amathole district of the Eastern Cape Province. The apartheid system created an environment that continues to perpetuate both poverty and gender inequality in rural areas. Hence, rural women in Wooldridge still experience poverty, despite welfare benefits. They are located in a poverty-stricken area without basic infrastructure and with little or no access to economic assets. They use primitive methods and indigenous knowledge to develop survival strategies. This study argues that unemployed rural women in Wooldridge cannot survive without assistance from government. Indigenous knowledge and agricultural as well as non-agricultural activities are critical to household livelihoods in Wooldridge. These activities are an important route through which these rural women can escape poverty. The primary objective of this research was to obtain a better understanding of how unemployed rural women survive in Wooldridge. Furthermore, the necessary conditions required to sustain livelihood in the rural areas were identified. This was mainly done to help alleviate the plight of rural women in Wooldridge and to improve the quality of life of the rural population. The aim is to generate a policy response to rural women that is economically development-oriented. The study was based on five research objectives. The first objective was to identify the survival strategies of unemployed rural women in Wooldridge; the second to ascertain what can be done to alleviate the plight of rural women in Wooldridge. The third objective was to ascertain what has been v done to address the needs of rural women in the Wooldridge area by actors of development, such as government and non-governmental organisations. The fourth objective was to identify the constraints faced by unemployed rural women in Wooldridge in achieving food security and generating income, with the last objective to make recommendations regarding policies that can enhance rural economic development and assist unemployed rural women to reduce poverty. The main finding in terms of the first research objective is that the survival strategies of unemployed rural women are welfare benefits, the selling of assets, remittances, handicraft production and vegetable gardens. In terms of the second research objective, the main finding is that investment in human capital through the empowerment of women will assist them in improving the quality of life of the Wooldridge community. Empowerment involves skills and training, education and access to basic services, expertise regarding credit, land, the growing of vegetables and income-generating projects. The main finding in terms of the third research objective is that the Peddie Women Support Centre that is located in the city centre of Ngqushwa does not have the capacity to reach out to rural areas. Rural women in Wooldridge have not received responses to their plights from government or from development practitioners. These actors of development play an important role in empowerment. In terms of the fourth research objective, the main finding is that structural constraints hinder the economic activity of rural women in Wooldridge. Government policy that encourages investment in infrastructure using labour-intensive methods will eliminate service backlogs in underserviced areas such as Wooldridge. The main finding in terms of the fifth research objective is to ascertain the impact that new legislation can have to ensure that rural women have the same access and entitlement to land and resources as women from urban areas. Furthermore, service-improvement programmes should be developed and micro-enterprises and agricultural and non-agricultural activities that will generate income and employment should be encouraged in order to reduce poverty in Wooldridge.
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Mbeba, Roland D. "An assessment of the impact of local economic development on urban poverty alleviation: a case of the Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality." Thesis, University of Fort Hare, 2011. http://hdl.handle.net/10353/548.

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Local Economic Development has in recent years, gained wide spread acceptance, as a locality-based response to economic challenges. It is now firmly on the agenda of many national and local government and key international agencies. Adopting a desk study approach, reviewing extensive literature on LED, the study sought to establish the impact of LED strategy employed by Buffalo City Municipality, and assess the extent to which it has alleviated poverty. The study shows that the Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality (BCMM) LED strategy has limited impact on poverty alleviation due to a myriad of factors, which reinforce and interact with each other thereby limiting development and trapping residents in poverty. The thesis argues that there is significant room for a paradigm shift from predominantly pro-growth to pro-poor LED, and the need to adopt a comprehensive LED strategy that seeks to include of both pro-growth and pro-poor strategies. Both cannot operate without the other in the bid to promote development in Buffalo City, mainly with Agriculture, Tourism, and SMME having significant potential to bring about local economic development. Moreover, the promotion of Private-Public Partnerships play an integral role in the socio-economic development of Buffalo City, and more so the participation of local people is even more fundamental, which will give them the opportunity to take charge of their own development. Therefore, the study suggests a new LED agenda, which is pro-poor, holistic, and moves away from ‘piecemeal’ project based LED activities, and adopts comprehensive economic programmes so that LED has significant impact on poverty alleviation.
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Ndhleve, Simbarashe. "Agricultural public spending, growth and poverty linkage hypotheses in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa." Thesis, University of Fort Hare, 2012. http://hdl.handle.net/10353/493.

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The adoption of the Millennium Development Goal 1 (MDG1) of reducing the rate of poverty to half of the 1990-level by 2015, the advent of democracy in South Africa, among other things, have raised concerns over the potential role of the agricultural sector. There is a belief that the sector has the capacity to successfully reduce poverty among the rural masses and contribute to addressing the problem of inequality in South Africa. In line with that thinking, South Africa‘s agricultural sector has attracted considerable fiscal policy interest. For instance, South Africa‘s statistics show that public investments in agricultural development programmes have been growing. In spite of this, rural poverty is still a major concern on an overall basis. However, this might not be the case in the Eastern Cape Province and the situation might be different for each district municipality. This study assesses the linkages between public agricultural investment, agricultural growth and poverty reduction in the Eastern Cape Province. The study also addresses the question whether Eastern Cape Province is on course to meet several regional development targets. The study also aims to provide an estimate of the amount of agricultural investment required to attain the agricultural productivity growth rate which is sufficient to meet MDG1. The study reviewed the various theories of public spending, linkages between public investment and agricultural growth and how these components affect the incidence of poverty. The conventional wisdom that public expenditure in agriculture positively affects economic growth and this growth consequently reduces poverty was noted. The reviews also revealed that in many developing countries, the current level of public agricultural investment needs to be increased significantly for countries to meet the MDG1. This study employed the decomposition technique and growth elasticity of poverty concept to estimate the response of poverty to its key determinants. The size of public spending, prioritization of public spending and the intensity in the use of public funds emerged as important in increasing agricultural production. The relationship between government investment in agriculture and agricultural GDP shows iv that public funds were largely behind the province‘s success in increasing agricultural production throughout the period from 1990s to 2010. Agricultural spending went to sustainable resource management, administrative functions and then farmer support programme. Exceptional growth in the size of spending was recorded in respect to agricultural economic function, structured agricultural training, sustainable resource management and veterinary services. Overall output from the agricultural sector fluctuated, and the sector contributed less than 5 per cent to the total provincial GDP. Correlations between growth in agricultural sector and changes in the incidence of poverty in Eastern Cape show that during the period 1995 to 2000, increases in the agricultural GDP per capita may have failed to benefit the poor as poverty increased in all the reported cases.–However, for the period between 2005 and 2010, the situation was different and it was observed that increases in agricultural GDP per capita and were associated with reduction in the incidence of poverty. Growth elasticity of poverty (GEP) estimates reveal that agricultural GDP per capita was more important in reducing poverty in 5 out of the 7 district municipalities. Non-agricultural GDP per capita was only important in two district municipalities. It emerged that most of the district municipalities are not in a position to meet any of the regional set goals. This situation is largely attributable to the province‘s failure to boost agricultural production which is an outcome of low and inefficient public expenditure management, inconsistent and misaligned policies and failure to fully embrace the concept of pro-poor growth. Varied provisional estimates for the required agricultural growth rate and the increase in public spending on agriculture required in order to reach MDG1 were calculated for each district municipalities. All the district municipalities of Eastern Cape will need to increase public investment in agriculture for them to achieve MDG1.
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Gidi, Banele Anthony. "Developing assessment criteria for successful poverty alleviation with special reference to the Nomzamo Special Care Centre." Thesis, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, 2011. http://hdl.handle.net/10948/1601.

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While this study is partly theoretical it includes an exploratory case study in which theoretical insights are applied. In the theoretical part of this study, criteria for a successful poverty alleviation project were developed, guided by sustainability theory and complexity theory. It was proposed that researchers could assess existing projects according to these criteria to show where they were successful and where they could improve. The second part of this research consists of a case study, where an actual poverty alleviation project (The Nomzamo Special Care Centre, Peddie, Eastern Cape) was assessed according to the criteria developed in the first part. For this exploratory case study a non-random sample of 9 participants was drawn from the Nomzamo Special Care Centre and other stakeholders in the Ngqushwa Local Municipality in the Eastern Cape. Data was collected using questionnaires, observation and interviews. The results obtained from analysis indicate that project members particularly experience challenges pertaining to financial resources, infrastructure and maintenance. It is recommended that project members receive assistance from the government departments in order for the project to remain sustainable.
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Dywili, Mhlobo Douglas. "Gender equality in the provision and utilisation of women administrative personnel : a comparative study of the Camdeboo Local Municipality and Inxuba Yethemba Local Municipality." Thesis, University of Fort Hare, 2016. http://hdl.handle.net/10353/2414.

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In 2000, cabinet adopted the South African Policy framework for women’s empowerment and gender equality, 2000 (Policy framework) which provided for the establishment of the National Gender Machinery (NGM). The NGM is a network of coordinated structures within and outside government which operate cooperatively in facilitating political, social, economic and other forms of transformation to dismantle systemic gender inequality and promote equality between women and men. The implementation of gender equality policy as a function area has constitutionally been given to the national and provincial legislatures in South Africa. The constitution allocated this function to the local sphere of government. Camdeboo and Inxuba Yethemba local municipal authorities are the facilitators of sustainable gender equality policies to citizens on behalf of the national and provincial spheres of government. The study was thus conducted within the Camdeboo local municipality and Inxuba Yethemba local municipality. Camdeboo locoal municipality is one of nine local municipalities in Sarah Baartman district municipality. Inxuba Yethemba local municipality is in Chris Hani district municipality. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the implementation of gender equality in the Provision and Utilisation of Women administration Personnel a comparative study of the Camdeboo local municipality and the Inxuba Yethemba local municipality and to determine the impact of the existing policy on the gender equality policy on the needs of women of both municipalities. For this purpose the fundamental and overall study problem was found to be that the gender equality at the Camdeboo and Inxuba Yethemba is hampered by the implementation of an inadequate municipality gender equality policy and by incompetent municipal personnel in particular and in general by the municipality itself. These action do not satisfy the main purpose of the Employment Equity Act no 55 of 1998 to achieve in the workplace by promoting equal opportunity and fair treatment in all forms of employment through elimination of unfair discrimination as well as the implementation of affirmative action measures. The hypothesis was furthermore based on the fact that the existing gender policy of Camdeboo local municipality and Inxuba Yethemba local municipality gender equality policy are inadequate to satisfy women and impacts negatively if not harmfully on human being of women. The study revealed that besides the implementation of gender equality policy by these incompetent municipal personnel, there are economic, social, political and physical effects on women. In case of applications for senior management position, preference is always given to their male counterparts at the expense of equally qualified female applications. Secondly, Gender equality in human resource determination forms part of the processing phase in the system theory. These two municipalities should be made to commit themselves by appending their signatures to all control measures put in place to evaluate the level and the extent of gender equality across all the departments/ sections in the municipality. Any section/ department that implements gender equality more effectively should be identified applauded and given recognition. This would motivate and eliminate gender inequality. Personnel provision and utilization is of paramount importance to every organization. It then becomes extremely necessary to examine the gender equality on human resource determination.
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Mzekwa-Khiva, Nomonde Lindelani. "Evaluation of debt management policy implementation towards revenue management in government leased properties." Thesis, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, 2013. http://hdl.handle.net/10948/d1020633.

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The study sought to evaluate debt management policy implementation towards revenue management in government leased properties of the Eastern Cape Provincial Treasury at the Transkei Development and Reserve Fund. Secondly, the study aimed at developing a tool for assisting policy-makers and officials involved in debt management and revenue collection. In order to address the research problem, a case study involving randomly selected 27 employees from the Eastern Cape Provincial Treasury and housing ward committee members was adopted. Self-administered questionnaires and interviews were the two data collection techniques utilised. All participants were involved in the study during tea and lunch breaks at the workplace; this constituted the employees’ natural environment. Both quantitative and qualitative designs were utilised in analysing data. Descriptive statistical analysis using excel was utilised to summarise the responses, analyse the demographic profiles of participants and their responses. The results were thus presented in the form of bar charts. Responses which could not be analysed using statistics were analysed qualitatively thus the advantages inherent in the two approaches were exploited. The evidence from the study suggests that government operational employees are aware of their roles and responsibilities as they relate to debt management and debt collection policy. The development of debt management policy promotes rental collection, improve property profitability and ensure the maintenance is in place to improve attractiveness of the government properties.
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Rantsane, Twoboy Babini. "The implementation of curriculum and assessment policy statement by economics grade twelve teachers and its influence on teaching methods in East London Education District, South Africa." Thesis, University of Fort Hare, 2017. http://hdl.handle.net/10353/4970.

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The introduction of the Economics CAPS policy ushered the introduction of the new principle of “active and critical learning” which implies fostering active learner participation in teaching and learning process. The revision of curriculum in 1997 and subsequent years has implications on how teachers teach. Since the introduction of Economics CAPS in Grade twelve in 2014, no study has been conducted to determine how teachers implement the curriculum. The aim of the study was to investigate the implementation of Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS) by Economics Grade twelve teachers and its influence on teaching methods in East London Education District. The theoretical framework of the study was Experiential Learning Theory (ELT), constructivism, and pragmatism. A mixed method which entails the combination of quantitative and qualitative research methods was used in this study. A sequential design was followed in the study where the first stage comprised of the administration of questionnaire as a component of quantitative method. The second stage focused on qualitative method which entailed the administration of the following data collection techniques: lesson observation, semi-structured interviews and document analysis. Purposeful random sampling where East London Education District was selected since it has the required categories of schools required for the research was used. All the 53 Grade 12 Economics schools served as the population for the study. Some of the participants did not return the questionnaire while others have phased out Economics. A total of 36 schools participated and two schools have 2 Grade 12 classes. A total of 38 teachers returned the questionnaires. A stratified random sampling of 8 teachers was done for the qualitative research. The schools or teachers were categorised as follows: one teacher from Ex - Model C schools, one from urban, one from rural and five teachers from township schools. The sample represented 22.2 % of schools offering Grade 12 economics in the East London Education District. Descriptive statistics and thematic analysis were used for quantitative and qualitative studies respectively. The study found out that economics teachers assert that they employ mixed methods when teaching, but classroom practice reveals that their teaching approach is predominately teacher - centred. While the CAPS policy propagates the adoption of “active and critical learning” practice indicates this principle is applied to a limited extent. Economics teachers should be developed in using active learning methods to ensure that the new principle find expression in the classroom. In respect of the training of teachers to implement CAPS curriculum, research reveals that short-term training workshops were conducted but Economics teachers have challenges in methodology and content. The recommendations to address the challenges entail: continuous professional development of Economics teachers on methodology; conduct content workshops and resourcing of schools.
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Dyers, Charlyn. "Language, identity and nationhood: language use and attitudes among Xhosa students at the University of the Western Cape, South Africa." Theses and Dissertations, University of the Western Cape, 2000. http://etd.uwc.ac.za/index.php?module=etd&amp.

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This thesis is a study of patterns of language attitudes and use among Xhosa home language speakers at the University of the Western Cape, South Africa. Speakers of Xhosa, according to Statistics South Africa 2000, form the second largest speech community in South Africa (17.9% of the total population), second only to speakers of Zulu (22.9% of the total population). The University of the Western Cape, which is situated just outside Cape Town, was originally intended to serve only the Coloured (mixed-race) population of South Africa. Coloureds form the majority group in the population of the Western Cape, one of the nine provinces of South Africa. In 1982, the university took the bold step of defying the apartheid regime, by opening its doors to students of all races. Students from all over South Africa now attend the university, but Xhosa students, drawn mainly from the provinces of the Eastern and Western Cape, form the largest language group or speech community on the campus. The thesis presents a study of the patterns of language attitudes and use with which Xhosa students enter the university, as well as patterns of change in language attitudes and use revealed by a longitudinal study of a smaller group of Xhosa students.
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Zenzile, Mlamli Lennox. "A study of the Amathole District Municipality's settlement plan in the light of the land reform and spatial planning measures." Thesis, Rhodes University, 2008. http://hdl.handle.net/10962/d1003215.

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This study concerns the analysis of policy, and the statutory and regulatory impact of spatial planning on the land reform programme with emphasis on the land reform settlement plan (LSRP) of the Amathole District Municipality (ADM). There is a brief historical overview of the effect of the policy of spatial segregation in both rural and urban areas of the ADM. This study demonstrates, inter alia, the challenges faced by the ADM in both consolidating and physically integrating communities that were hitherto divided across racial lines. The critical question is whether the ADM has the ability to produce a Spatial Development Framework (SDF), which will be responsive to the needs of the region and serve as a catalyst in reversing the physical distortions caused by the land-planning legislation of the apartheid past. The greatest challenge lies in meeting the developmental aspirations of the Development Facilitation Act, 1995, the Local Government: Municipal Systems Act, 2000 and the National Spatial Development Perspective, 2003. Chapter 1 deals with the purpose, research problem and the method of research, as well as the definition of terms used in this research and literature review. Chapter 2 deals with the evolution of central themes of spatial planning and land reform, spatial development plans and integrated development plans (IDPs), the alignment of Amathole SDF and Eastern Cape Spatial Development Plan and the co-ordination of spatial frameworks. Chapter 3 deals with the composition of the ADM and the evolution of the LRSP, as well as land-tenure reform programmes impacting on the Amathole Municipality region. This chapter analyses the settlement plan against spatial planning legislation, the issue of institutional arrangements and mechanisms of consolidated local planning processes. Chapter 5 deals with the thorny issue of participation of traditional leaders in municipal planning and the government’s land-reform programme. Despite the existence of legislation in this regard, implementation seems to pose some difficulties. This chapter also deals with the co-operative governance framework. Chapter 6 is a concluding chapter dealing with the gaps discovered in the Amathole Municipality in the light of existing legislation. Reference to cases is made to demonstrate the challenges confronting the ADM. One notable aspect is the issue of urban-rural dichotomy and how the two worlds are positioned in their competition for the use of space. It is evident from this research that the post-1994 policy and legislative framework and implementation machinery lacks capacity to change the current form of the apartheid city-planning paradigm, something which impacts immensely on the sustainability of the current human-settlement development programmes. Population dynamics in terms of migration are hugely driven by search for employment opportunities and better services. The efficiency and ability of the municipal spatial evelopment frameworks in directing and dictating the identification of development nodes in its juristic boundary informed by the overarching national policy and legislative framework is key in building a better South Africa.

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