Literatura académica sobre el tema "Sheep Physiology"

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Artículos de revistas sobre el tema "Sheep Physiology":

1

Diven, R. H., R. E. Reed y W. J. Pistor. "THE PHYSIOLOGY OF NITRITE POISONING IN SHEEP*". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 111, n.º 2 (15 de diciembre de 2006): 638–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1964.tb53131.x.

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Ahmad Pampori, Zahoor, Aasif Ahmad Sheikh, Ovais Aarif, Dilruba Hasin y Irfan Ahmad Bhat. "Physiology of reproductive seasonality in sheep – an update". Biological Rhythm Research 51, n.º 4 (10 de diciembre de 2018): 586–98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09291016.2018.1548112.

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Fortune, J. A. "Reproductive physiology of Merino sheep: Concepts and consequences". Animal Reproduction Science 30, n.º 4 (enero de 1993): 335–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-4320(93)90083-4.

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Zhao, Pengfei, Shaobin Li, Zhaohua He, Fangfang Zhao, Jiqing Wang, Xiu Liu, Mingna Li, Jiang Hu, Zhidong Zhao y Yuzhu Luo. "Physiology and Proteomic Basis of Lung Adaptation to High-Altitude Hypoxia in Tibetan Sheep". Animals 12, n.º 16 (19 de agosto de 2022): 2134. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani12162134.

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The Tibetan sheep is an indigenous animal of the Tibetan plateau, and after a long period of adaptation have adapted to high-altitude hypoxia. Many physiological changes occur in Tibetan sheep as they adapt to high-altitude hypoxia, especially in the lungs. To reveal the physiological changes and their molecular mechanisms in the lungs of Tibetan sheep during adaptation to high altitudes, we selected Tibetan sheep from three altitudes (2500 m, 3500 m, and 4500 m) and measured blood-gas indicators, observed lung structures, and compared lung proteome changes. The results showed that the Tibetan sheep increased their O2-carrying capacity by increasing the hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and Hematocrit (Hct) at an altitude of 3500 m. While at altitude of 4500 m, Tibetan sheep decreased their Hb concentration and Hct to avoid pulmonary hypertension and increased the efficiency of air-blood exchange and O2 transfer by increasing the surface area of gas exchange and half-saturation oxygen partial pressure. Besides these, some important proteins and pathways related to gas transport, oxidative stress, and angiogenesis identified by proteome sequencing further support these physiology findings, including HBB, PRDX2, GPX1, GSTA1, COL14A1, and LTBP4, etc. In conclusion, the lungs of Tibetan sheep are adapted to different altitudes by different strategies; these findings are valuable for understanding the basis of hypoxic adaptation in Tibetan sheep.
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Morand, C., C. Yacoub, C. Remesy y C. Demigne. "Characterization of glucagon and catecholamine effects on isolated sheep hepatocytes". American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 255, n.º 4 (1 de octubre de 1988): R539—R546. http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.1988.255.4.r539.

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The purpose of this study was to characterize the glycogenolytic response to catecholamines and glucagon in isolated sheep hepatocytes. In this species, epinephrine appeared to exert its action on hepatic glycogenolysis by altering the cytosolic concentrations of both adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) and Ca2+. In contrast to results obtained in rat hepatocytes, glucagon failed to induce a rise in free cytosolic Ca2+ in sheep liver. Experiments on isolated hepatocytes or on liver plasma membranes showed that in sheep, glucagon was more efficient than epinephrine in promoting the production of cAMP. In the presence of glucagon or epinephrine, the activation of the glycogen phosphorylase a always appeared greater in sheep than in rat liver cells, whereas the variations in cellular cAMP were quite limited in sheep. The alpha 1- and beta-agonists (phenylephrine and isoproterenol) were alone as efficient as epinephrine in promoting phosphorylase a activation in sheep hepatocytes. All these results indicate the existence in sheep liver of a glycogen phosphorylase highly responsive to hormones.
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Owens, J. A., J. Falconer y J. S. Robinson. "Glucose metabolism in pregnant sheep when placental growth is restricted". American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 257, n.º 2 (1 de agosto de 1989): R350—R357. http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.1989.257.2.r350.

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The effect of restricting placental growth on glucose metabolism in pregnant sheep in late gestation was determined by primed constant infusions of D-[U-14C]- and D-[2-3H]glucose and antipyrine into fetuses of six control sheep and six sheep from which endometrial caruncles had been removed before pregnancy (caruncle sheep). In the latter, placental and fetal weights were reduced, as was the concentration of glucose in fetal arterial blood. Fetal glucose turnover in caruncle sheep was only 52-59% of that in controls, largely because of lower umbilical loss of glucose back to the placenta (38-39% of control) and lower fetal glucose utilization (61-74% of control). However, fetal glucose utilization on a weight-specific basis was similar in control and caruncle sheep. Significant endogenous glucose production occurred in control and caruncle fetal sheep. Maternal glucose production and partition of glucose between the gravid uterus and other maternal tissues were similar in control and caruncle sheep. In conclusion, when placental and fetal growth are restricted, fetal glucose utilization is maintained by reduced loss of glucose back to the placenta and mother and by maintaining endogenous glucose production.
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Snapper, J. R. y P. L. Lefferts. "Effects of aerosol histamine and carbachol on central and peripheral airflow resistance in sheep". Journal of Applied Physiology 61, n.º 2 (1 de agosto de 1986): 760–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1986.61.2.760.

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Sixteen anesthetized artificially ventilated open-chest sheep were prepared with retrograde catheters to allow for measurement of dynamic compliance of the lungs (Cdyn), total airflow resistance of the lungs (RL), and central (Rc) and peripheral (Rp) airflow resistance. Twelve sheep received aerosol histamine and 12 sheep received aerosol carbachol. Eight sheep received and responded to both aerosol histamine and aerosol carbachol. Three sheep received both aerosol histamine and aerosol carbachol but failed to respond to both agents. Under base-line conditions, for the 16 sheep, 69% of total RL was located in the peripheral component, Rp, and 31% in the central component, Rc. Aerosol histamine caused only peripheral small airway changes while aerosol carbachol predominantly effected the central large airways. When aerosol histamine responsiveness, defined using Cdyn or Rp, was compared to aerosol carbachol responsiveness using Rc, a correlation was demonstrable (r = 0.84, n = 8, P less than 0.05). It is possible in sheep to cause relatively pure peripheral small airway and relatively pure central large airway changes by using different bronchoconstrictor agents. Aerosol histamine and aerosol carbachol responsiveness correlated with each other in these artificially ventilated anesthetized sheep.
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Coggeshall, J. W., B. W. Christman, P. L. Lefferts, W. E. Serafin, I. A. Blair, M. J. Butterfield y J. R. Snapper. "Effect of inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase metabolism of arachidonic acid on response to endotoxemia in sheep". Journal of Applied Physiology 65, n.º 3 (1 de septiembre de 1988): 1351–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1988.65.3.1351.

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We studied the effects of a 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, L-651,192, on the pulmonary dysfunction caused by endotoxemia in chronically instrumented unanesthetized sheep. The efficacy and selectivity of L-651,392 were tested by measuring in vivo production of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and cyclooxygenase products of arachidonic acid after endotoxemia before and after pretreatment with L-651,392 and ex vivo from granulocytes and whole blood stimulated with calcium ionophore from sheep before and 24 h after pretreatment with L-651,392. A novel assay for LTB4 by high-performance liquid chromatography/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry techniques was developed as a measure of 5-lipoxygenase metabolism of arachidonic acid. L-651,392 proved to be an effective in vivo 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor in sheep. L-651,392 blocked the increase in LTB4 observed in lung lymph after endotoxemia in vivo in sheep as well as inhibited by 80% the ex vivo production of LTB4 by granulocytes removed from sheep treated 24 h earlier with L-651,392. Although L-651,392 blocked the increase in cyclooxygenase products of arachidonic acid observed in lung lymph after endotoxemia in vivo in sheep, the drug probably did not function directly as a cyclooxygenase inhibitor. L-651,392 did not attenuate the ex vivo production of thromboxane B2 by whole blood from sheep treated 24 h earlier with the drug. L-651,392 attenuated the alterations in pulmonary hemodynamics, lung mechanics, oxygenation, and lung fluid and solute exchange observed after endotoxemia in sheep. We speculate that 5-lipoxygenase products are a major stimulus for cyclooxygenase metabolism of arachidonic acid after endotoxemia in sheep.
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Bujok, Jolanta, Tomasz Walski, Albert Czerski, Katarzyna Gałecka, Karolina Grzeszczuk-Kuć, Wojciech Zawadzki, Wojciech Witkiewicz y Małgorzata Komorowska. "Sheep model of haemodialysis treatment". Laboratory Animals 52, n.º 2 (10 de julio de 2017): 176–85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0023677217718861.

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More than two million patients received haemodialysis (HD) in 2013. Many methods for improving dialysis therapy outcomes have been tested. Nevertheless, patients continue to experience high morbidity and mortality rates. We aimed to develop an animal model of HD treatment to study methods that would prevent the adverse effects of renal replacement therapy. The study was conducted using six male Merino sheep. The animals underwent a two-step bilateral nephrectomy, and a permanent dual-lumen catheter was inserted into the jugular vein. In each animal, 10 short, daily HD treatments were conducted. The dialysis prescription was adjusted individually to each animal. Measures of dialysis adequacy (spKt/V and urea reduction ratio [URR]) were calculated for each HD treatment. All animals remained in a good clinical state during the experiment. However, a sustained decrease in red blood cell count was detected. The average URR was 0.65 ± 0.01, whereas the calculated spKt/V was approximately 1.16 ± 0.03. Neither hyperphosphataemia nor a significant decline in serum albumin concentrations were detected during the study. A sustained increase in serum potassium concentrations was detected on consecutive days of the experiment. All sheep survived the treatment and were euthanized at the end of the experiment. In conclusion, we developed a reproducible sheep model of HD treatment. The gentle nature and specific anatomical features of sheep provided easy blood access and allowed us to perform HD without pharmacological intervention. However, some differences in sheep physiology relative to human physiology must be considered when interpreting the results of the study.
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Gopalakrishnan, G. S., D. S. Gardner, S. M. Rhind, M. T. Rae, C. E. Kyle, A. N. Brooks, R. M. Walker et al. "Programming of adult cardiovascular function after early maternal undernutrition in sheep". American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 287, n.º 1 (julio de 2004): R12—R20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.00687.2003.

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The prenatal nutritional environment influences the subsequent risk of hypertension in adulthood. Animal studies have used, generally, the rat as a model species to illustrate the association between maternal nutrient intake and blood pressure in the resulting adult offspring. No study to date has shown programming of adult cardiovascular function in the sheep through maternal dietary intervention. We therefore fed pregnant sheep to either 100% recommended intake from day 0 of gestation to term [∼147 days gestational age (dGA); controls n = 8] or to 50% recommended intake from day 0 to 95 dGA and thereafter to 100% intake (NR; n = 9). Sheep lambed naturally, offspring were weaned at 16 wk, and the male offspring were reared on pasture until 3 yr of age. At this time, cardiovascular catheters were inserted under halothane anesthesia and sheep were allowed 2–4 days recovery. Basal cardiovascular status and pressor responses to infusion of norepinephrine, angiotensin II, and captopril were then assessed alongside basal plasma concentrations of glucose, cortisol, and leptin. NR sheep were of similar birth weight to controls but at 3 yr of age had higher blood pressure before, but not after, feeding. Peripheral sensitivity to vasoconstrictor infusion was similar between dietary groups, although a reflex bradycardia was not apparent in NR sheep during norepinephrine infusion. Circulating leptin correlated well with fat mass and increased more after vasoconstrictor infusion in NR sheep. In conclusion, early NR has been shown to program aspects of cardiovascular control and adipocyte function in adult sheep.

Tesis sobre el tema "Sheep Physiology":

1

Hopkins, John. "Lymphoid physiology of the sheep". Thesis, University of Edinburgh, 2000. http://hdl.handle.net/1842/29805.

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The aim of this thesis is to bring together and summarize the results of twenty-five years of active research into the immunology and physiology of the mammalian lymphoid system using the sheep as the model species. For this work I have exploited the cannulation of peripheral lymphatics, which enables the monitoring of lymph, lymphocytes and dendritic cells that are constantly trafficking from the skin or from lymph nodes. The use of this technique in the sheep permits access to large numbers of lymph-borne cells over extensive periods and in a form far closer to their in vivo non-activated state than from any other species. I have organized the publications into four distinct, but interrelated chapters. Chapter 1 is concerned with the physiology of sheep lymphoid cells and describes the use of the cannulated lymphatic model to answer fundamental questions of lymphoid biology. My earliest work was focused on the non-random migration of lymphocytes and the identification of two lymphocyte populations; one associated with the gastrointestinal tract and other mucosal organs and the other with peripheral lymph nodes and the spleen. Later work identified two separate populations of B cells with distinct recirculation properties and also concentrated on the lymph node response to antigen and the role played by antigen in modulating lymphocyte recirculation. Much of my work in the last few years has been concerned with the biology of dendritic cells (DCs), the cell population uniquely able to induce the primary immune response. The "pseudo-afferent" cannulation system in sheep is, arguably the best system for this study, as the isolation procedure does not lead to aberrant changes in cell phenotype and function. Chapter 2 relates the work to characterize the sheep immune system, in order to exploit further the sheep as a species for immunological study. Much of my efforts involved the production and characterization of anti-sheep MHC and CD1 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). This resulted in the generation of monoclonal reagents that are now the standards used to define the ovine/bovine homologues of MHC class I, and class II and CD1.
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Falchi, Laura. "Transcervical artificial insemination and physiology of the cervix of the sheep". Thesis, Royal Veterinary College (University of London), 2010. http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.558963.

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Nicholls, C. D. "Endoscopy, physiology and bacterial flora of sheep infected with abomasal nematodes". Thesis, University of Leeds, 1987. http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.377967.

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Morrow, Robert James. "Blood flow velocity changes in the umbilical artery of the fetal sheep". Thesis, Queen's University Belfast, 1988. http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.356870.

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Mamo, John Charles Louis. "Plasma lipoprotein triacylglycerol metabolism in sheep : a thesis submitted to the University of Adelaide in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy". Title page, contents and introduction only, 1986. http://web4.library.adelaide.edu.au/theses/09PH/09phm265.pdf.

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Swinburne, Sarah Jane. "A study of the molecular and biological characteristics of ovine interleukin-12". Title page, contents and summary only, 2000. http://web4.library.adelaide.edu.au/theses/09PH/09phs9777.pdf.

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Bibliography: leaves 172-214. Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a heterodimeric cytokine composed of two disulphide-linked subunits, p35 and p40, which form biologically active p70. IL-12 is able to induce IFN-y production from T and NK cells, and promote the proliferation of mitogen-activated T cells. It is thought that IL-12 may be an important cytokine in the initiation and progression of allograft destruction. This thesis describes the characterisation of ovine IL-12.
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Yarney, Thaddeus A. "Sexual maturational changes in the pituitary and testes of ram lambs and predictability of adult reproductive function". Thesis, McGill University, 1985. http://digitool.Library.McGill.CA:80/R/?func=dbin-jump-full&object_id=72049.

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Spring-born ram lambs were used to examine: (1) sexual maturational changes in LH, FSH and prolactin (PRL) secretion, testicular gonadotropin receptors, and testicular size and function; (2) predictability of yearling ram reproductive function from juvenile testicular size and reproductive hormone measurements. Despite continuous increases in testis size, serum LH-profile characteristics became greatest between 2 and 4 months and declined thereafter. However, LH-peak frequency increased by about 2-fold between 6 and 7 months; this was associated with marked increases in testosterone (T) secretion and spermatogenic function. Mean FSH and PRL levels were maximum at 2 months and 3 to 5 months, respectively, and decreased thereafter. Increases in steroidogenic and spermatogenic function were due partly to increases in testicular content of LH and FSH receptors. Yearling ram testis size and spermatogenic function were predictable from testis size at 5 to 6 months, neonatal (50 days) secretion of LH and T, and pubertal (150 days) secretion of T. However, combinations of testicular size and reproductive hormone measurements provided greater predictive power.
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Vasquez, Hidalgo Manuel Alexander. "Effects of Nutrient Restriction, Realimentation, and Twinning on Plasma Volume, Umbilical Hemodynamics and Placental Characteristics in the Pregnant Adolescent Ewe". Diss., North Dakota State University, 2019. https://hdl.handle.net/10365/31573.

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Reproductive physiology in production animals is a key economic component of longevity and profitability of animal farming. There are several components that can benefit or compromise adequate pregnancy periods. Sheep production is not only a very important economic activity for farmers around the United States, but sheep are also an important medical and surgical model to study human diseases. Our findings suggest that estradiol-17 beta could be involved in acute increased plasma volume early in gestation which can benefit overall gestation. We report that umbilical blood flow decreases upon nutrient restriction in adolescent ewes and does not recover upon realimentation. Finally, we suggest that a similar umbilical blood flow, placental development and plasma volume expansion in twins and singleton pregnancies could be enough to obtain similar birthweights in singletons and twins.
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Schoombee, Cornelius Johan Albertus. "The Damara sheep : an appraisal of its reproductive performance and potential". Thesis, Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 1998. http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/5481.

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Ross, Jacob T. "Hypophysial and local mediators of adrenocortical growth and function before birth /". Title page, contents and summary only, 2000. http://web4.library.adelaide.edu.au/theses/09PH/09phr8242.pdf.

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Libros sobre el tema "Sheep Physiology":

1

Butterfield, Rex M. New concepts of sheep growth. Sydney: Published by the Dept. of Veterinary Anatomy, University of Sydney, 1988.

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Grist, A. Ovine meat inspection: Anatomy, physiology, and disease conditions. Nottingham, U.K: Nottingham University Press, 2010.

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Hewat, Tim. The Florey: The story of the Sheep Hilton. North Ryde, NSW, Australia: Angus & Robertson, 1989.

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Winter, Agnes C. A handbook for the sheep clinician. 7a ed. Oxfordshire: CAB International, 2012.

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Mason, B. D. Nutrition guide for B.C. sheep producers. [Victoria, B.C.?]: Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Agriculture and Food, 1985.

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Sharpe, Ann. Studies in perinatal lamb mortality in prolific sheep. Dublin: University College Dublin, 1998.

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Kania, Bogdan Feliks. Modulujący wpływ podwzgórza oraz opioidów na motorykę przedżołądków u owcy. Warszawa: Wydawn. SGGW, 1992.

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Motyl, Tomasz. Synteza kwasu orotowego w wątrobie oraz jego wydalanie u zwierząt przeżuwających. Warszawa: Wydawn. SGGW-AR, 1987.

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Swanson, Janice C. Stress in sheep and goats: January 1979 - August 1990. Beltsville, Md: National Agricultural Library, 1990.

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Tortora, Gerard J. A photographic atlas of the human body: With selected cat, sheep, and cow dissections. 2a ed. [Hoboken, N.J.]: Wiley, 2004.

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Capítulos de libros sobre el tema "Sheep Physiology":

1

Rousseau, J. P., A. Marie y M. Falempin. "6. Afferent Vagal Traffic in Conscious Sheep". En Aspects of Digestive Physiology in Ruminants, editado por Marjorie J. Dobson, 123–39. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2019. http://dx.doi.org/10.7591/9781501745713-008.

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McKinley, M. J., D. A. Denton, M. Leventer, R. R. Miselis, R. G. Park, E. Tarjan, J. B. Simpsom y R. S. Weisinger. "Adipsia in Sheep Caused by Cerebral Lesions". En The Physiology of Thirst and Sodium Appetite, 321–26. Boston, MA: Springer US, 1986. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4757-0366-5_41.

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Sutherland, T. M. "3. Particle Separation in the Forestomachs of Sheep". En Aspects of Digestive Physiology in Ruminants, editado por Marjorie J. Dobson, 43–73. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2019. http://dx.doi.org/10.7591/9781501745713-005.

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Weisinger, R. S., D. A. Denton, M. J. McKinley, J. B. Simpson y E. Tarjan. "Cerebral Na Sensors and Na Appetite of Sheep". En The Physiology of Thirst and Sodium Appetite, 485–90. Boston, MA: Springer US, 1986. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4757-0366-5_64.

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Sheldrick, E. L. y A. P. F. Flint. "Secretion of Oxytocin by the Corpus Luteum and its Role in Luteolysis in the Sheep". En Endocrinology and Physiology of Reproduction, 211–19. Boston, MA: Springer US, 1987. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4899-1971-7_17.

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Sumar, Julio. "Reproductive physiology in South American Camelids". En Genetics of Reproduction in Sheep, 81–95. Elsevier, 1985. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-407-00302-6.50012-x.

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FOSTER, D. y L. JACKSON. "Puberty in the Sheep". En Knobil and Neill's Physiology of Reproduction, 2127–76. Elsevier, 2006. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/b978-012515400-0/50044-0.

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Foster, Douglas L. y Stanley M. Hileman. "Puberty in the Sheep". En Knobil and Neill's Physiology of Reproduction, 1441–85. Elsevier, 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-397175-3.00031-4.

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RAJKOVIC, A., S. PANGAS y M. MATZUK. "Follicular DevelopmentMouse, Sheep, and Human Models". En Knobil and Neill's Physiology of Reproduction, 383–423. Elsevier, 2006. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/b978-012515400-0/50015-4.

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Medjekal, Samir y Mouloud Ghadbane. "Sheep Digestive Physiology and Constituents of Feeds". En Sheep Farming - An Approach to Feed, Growth and Health. IntechOpen, 2021. http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.92054.

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Sheep have a gastrointestinal tract similar to that of other ruminants. Their stomach is made up of four digestive organs: the rumen, the reticulum, the omasum and the abomasum. The rumen plays a role in storing ingested foods, which are fermented by a complex anaerobic rumen microbiota population with different types of interactions, positive or negative, that can occur between their microbial populations. Sheep feeding is largely based on the use of natural or cultivated fodder, which is exploited in green by grazing during the growth period of the grass and in the form of fodder preserved during the winter period. Ruminant foods are essentially of plant origin, and their constituents belong to two types of structures: intracellular constituents and cell wall components. Cellular carbohydrates play a role of metabolites or energy reserves; soluble carbohydrates account for less than 10% dry matter (DM) of foods. The plant cell wall is multi-layered and consists of primary wall and secondary wall. Fundamentally, the walls are deposited at an early stage of growth. A central blade forms the common boundary layer between two adjacent cells and occupies the location of the cell plate. Most of the plant cell walls consist of polysaccharides (cellulose, hemicellulose and pectic substances) and lignin, these constituents being highly polymerized, as well as proteins and tannins.

Actas de conferencias sobre el tema "Sheep Physiology":

1

Filippi, J. F., D. Arnoux, N. Tubiana, B. Boutière, F. Le Caär, J. Sampol, Lab Hématol, Pr J. Sampol y Pr Y. Carcassonne. "PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR ACTIVITY OF NORMAL AND MALIGNANT MONONUCLEAR HUMAN CELLS". En XIth International Congress on Thrombosis and Haemostasis. Schattauer GmbH, 1987. http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0038-1643167.

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Plasminogen activators (PA) are thought to play a role in the invasive and metastatic properties of many types of cancer cells. Though, discrepancies in correlations between fibrinolytic activity and metastatic potential of malignant cells have been described.In this study, we evaluated both tissue type (tPA) and urokinase type (UK) cellular PA activities in different mononuclear cell types : normal T and B human peripheral lymphocytes, B cells from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), human blood monocytes, alveolar macrophages, U 937, RAJI and JM cell 1ines.Mononuclear cells were isolated by Ficoll-hypaque gradients and monocytes by plastic adhesion. T and B cells were separated by a rosetting technique using sheep red blood cells. Cellular extracts were prepared by 0.5 % Triton X 100 buffer treatment followed by sonication and centrifugation 10 ' at 2000 g. PA assays were performed on the supernatants.UK-type PA was evaluated by a liquid-phase assay in presence of human plasminogen (Kabi) and chromogenic substrate S 2251 (Kabi).tPA was determinated using a solid-phase fibrin activity assay which involves an affinity separation step and thus allows selective detection of tPA.In both cases, results were reported in international units by reference to standard curves of UK (Choay) or tPA (Kabi).In all cell types tested, PA detected was essentially urokinase-type. Highest PA activity was found in U 937 cells (0.7 IU/5×l06 cells). In normal blood lymphocytes, mean PA activity was 0.08 IU/5×l06 cells. Examination of lymphocytes from patients with CLL revealed a marked decrease in UK activity as compared to normals (< 0.01 IU/5×106 cells in more than 50 % cases).The function of PA in normal lymphocyte physiology and the potential pathogenic role of diminished PA in CLL lymphocytes remains to be investigated.
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Yu, Jing, Yichen Ding, Arash Abiri, Parinaz Abiri, Juhyun Lee, Chih-Chiang Chang, Kyung In Baek, Rene Packard y Tzung Hsiai. "Integrating 4-d light-sheet imaging with interactive virtual reality to recapitulate developmental cardiac mechanics and physiology". En Advanced Biomedical and Clinical Diagnostic and Surgical Guidance Systems XVI, editado por Tuan Vo-Dinh, Anita Mahadevan-Jansen y Warren S. Grundfest. SPIE, 2018. http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2286296.

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de Vito, Giuseppe, Lapo Turrini, Chiara Fornetto, Pietro Ricci, Caroline Müllenbroich, Giuseppe Sancataldo, Elena Trabalzini et al. "Two-photon light-sheet microscopy for high-speed whole-brain functional imaging of zebrafish neuronal physiology and pathology". En Neurophotonics, editado por Thomas Kuner, Francesco Saverio Pavone y Laurent Cognet. SPIE, 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2560341.

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Sukhova, E. M. y V. S. Sukhov. "Optical model of the distribution of non-photochemical quenching in a sheet". En IX Congress of society physiologists of plants of Russia "Plant physiology is the basis for creating plants of the future. Kazan University Press, 2019. http://dx.doi.org/10.26907/978-5-00130-204-9-2019-421.

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Wolfson, M. R., P. Enkhbaatar, S. Fukuda, C. L. Nelson, R. O. Williams, III, S. Hengsawas, S. Sahakijpijarn et al. "Perfluorochemical-Facilitated Fibrinolysin Delivery: Sustained Improvement in Physiologic Outcomes in Inhalational Smoke Induced Acute Lung Injury (ISALI) in Sheep". En American Thoracic Society 2019 International Conference, May 17-22, 2019 - Dallas, TX. American Thoracic Society, 2019. http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/ajrccm-conference.2019.199.1_meetingabstracts.a1696.

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Rambitan, Vandalita MM, Evie Palenewen y Rachmawati. "Implementation of Student Sheet Activities Through the Usage of Mantangan (Merremia peltata (L.) Merr.) Extract as Organic Fertilizer to Increase Student Concept Understanding on Plant Physiology". En 2nd Educational Sciences International Conference (ESIC 2019). Paris, France: Atlantis Press, 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.2991/assehr.k.200417.013.

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Informes sobre el tema "Sheep Physiology":

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Bazer, Fuller W., Arieh Gertler y Elisha Gootwine. Role of Placental Lactogen in Sheep. United States Department of Agriculture, enero de 2001. http://dx.doi.org/10.32747/2001.7574339.bard.

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Central problems in sheep and dairy cattle production are reproductive failure due to embryonic/fetal mortality and low birth weights, especially in prolific breeds, and reduced milk yields which adversely affect neonatal survival and economy of production. The sheep placenta expresses lactogenic (ovine placental lactogen, oPL) and somatogenic (ovine placental growth hormone, oGH) hormones. Our research has focused on the biological roles of oPL and oGH in function of the uterine endometrium during gestation and the mammary gland during pregnancy and lactation. Major conclusions were that: ( 1 ) immunization of prepubertal ewes against oPL resulted in increased birth weights of their lambs and their milk production during lactation; (2) neither oPL nor oGH had an antiluteolytic effect on uterine endometrium to affect lifespan of the corpus luteum; (3) only sequential exposure of the progesterone stimulated uterus to oIFNt and oPL or oGH increased endometrial gland proliferation and secretory protein gene expression; (4) oPL signals through a homodimer of ovine prolactin receptor (PRL-R) and heterodimer of oPRL-R and growth hormone receptor (GH-R); (5) exogenous recombinant oPL and oGH stimulated mammogenesis and milk yield during lactation; and (6) mutation of oPL and oGH was used to define specific biological effects and a rational basis for design of a specific receptor agonists or antagonists. This project was very productive in elucidating basic biological effects of oPL and oGH on intracellular signal transduction pathways, uterine development and secretory function, as well as mammogenesis and lactogenesis. We determined that immunization of prepubertal ewes against roPL increased birth weights of their lambs, especially those born as twins and triplets, as well as enhanced lactational performance. These studies significantly extended our knowledge of uterine and fetal-placental physiology and provided a foundation for new strategies to enhance reproductive and lactation efficiency. Based on these results, the major achievements were: 1) creation of a practical and cost effective management tool for producers to increase reproductive performance, neonatal survival, and milk yield of ewes in commercial flocks; and 2) define, for the first time, biological effects of oPL on endometrial functions and gene expression by uterine gland epithelium.
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Brosh, Arieh, David Robertshaw, Yoav Aharoni, Zvi Holzer, Mario Gutman y Amichai Arieli. Estimation of Energy Expenditure of Free Living and Growing Domesticated Ruminants by Heart Rate Measurement. United States Department of Agriculture, abril de 2002. http://dx.doi.org/10.32747/2002.7580685.bard.

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Research objectives were: 1) To study the effect of diet energy density, level of exercise, thermal conditions and reproductive state on cardiovascular function as it relates to oxygen (O2) mobilization. 2) To validate the use of heart rate (HR) to predict energy expenditure (EE) of ruminants, by measuring and calculating the energy balance components at different productive and reproductive states. 3) To validate the use of HR to identify changes in the metabolizable energy (ME) and ME intake (MEI) of grazing ruminants. Background: The development of an effective method for the measurement of EE is essential for understanding the management of both grazing and confined feedlot animals. The use of HR as a method of estimating EE in free-ranging large ruminants has been limited by the availability of suitable field monitoring equipment and by the absence of empirical understanding of the relationship between cardiac function and metabolic rate. Recent developments in microelectronics provide a good opportunity to use small HR devices to monitor free-range animals. The estimation of O2 uptake (VO2) of animals from their HR has to be based upon a consistent relationship between HR and VO2. The question as to whether, or to what extent, feeding level, environmental conditions and reproductive state affect such a relationship is still unanswered. Studies on the basic physiology of O2 mobilization (in USA) and field and feedlot-based investigations (in Israel) covered a , variety of conditions in order to investigate the possibilities of using HR to estimate EE. In USA the physiological studies conducted using animals with implanted flow probes, show that: I) although stroke volume decreases during intense exercise, VO2 per one heart beat per kgBW0.75 (O2 Pulse, O2P) actually increases and measurement of EE by HR and constant O2P may underestimate VO2unless the slope of the regression relating to heart rate and VO2 is also determined, 2) alterations in VO2 associated with the level of feeding and the effects of feeding itself have no effect on O2P, 3) both pregnancy and lactation may increase blood volume, especially lactation; but they have no effect on O2P, 4) ambient temperature in the range of 15 to 25°C in the resting animal has no effect on O2P, and 5) severe heat stress, induced by exercise, elevates body temperature to a sufficient extent that 14% of cardiac output may be required to dissipate the heat generated by exercise rather than for O2 transport. However, this is an unusual situation and its affect on EE estimation in a freely grazing animal, especially when heart rate is monitored over several days, is minor. In Israel three experiments were carried out in the hot summer to define changes in O2P attributable to changes in the time of day or In the heat load. The animals used were lambs and young calves in the growing phase and highly yielding dairy cows. In the growing animals the time of day, or the heat load, affected HR and VO2, but had no effect on O2P. On the other hand, the O2P measured in lactating cows was affected by the heat load; this is similar to the finding in the USA study of sheep. Energy balance trials were conducted to compare MEI recovery by the retained energy (RE) and by EE as measured by HR and O2P. The trial hypothesis was that if HR reliably estimated EE, the MEI proportion to (EE+RE) would not be significantly different from 1.0. Beef cows along a year of their reproductive cycle and growing lambs were used. The MEI recoveries of both trials were not significantly different from 1.0, 1.062+0.026 and 0.957+0.024 respectively. The cows' reproductive state did not affect the O2P, which is similar to the finding in the USA study. Pasture ME content and animal variables such as HR, VO2, O2P and EE of cows on grazing and in confinement were measured throughout three years under twenty-nine combinations of herbage quality and cows' reproductive state. In twelve grazing states, individual faecal output (FO) was measured and MEI was calculated. Regression analyses of the EE and RE dependent on MEI were highly significant (P<0.001). The predicted values of EE at zero intake (78 kcal/kgBW0.75), were similar to those estimated by NRC (1984). The EE at maintenance condition of the grazing cows (EE=MEI, 125 kcal/kgBW0.75) which are in the range of 96.1 to 125.5 as presented by NRC (1996 pp 6-7) for beef cows. Average daily HR and EE were significantly increased by lactation, P<0.001 and P<0.02 respectively. Grazing ME significantly increased HR and EE, P<0.001 and P<0.00l respectively. In contradiction to the finding in confined ewes and cows, the O2P of the grazing cows was significantly affected by the combined treatments (P<0.00l ); this effect was significantly related to the diet ME (P<0.00l ) and consequently to the MEI (P<0.03). Grazing significantly increased O2P compared to confinement. So, when EE of grazing animals during a certain season of the year is estimated using the HR method, the O2P must be re measured whenever grazing ME changes. A high correlation (R2>0.96) of group average EE and of HR dependency on MEI was also found in confined cows, which were fed six different diets and in growing lambs on three diets. In conclusion, the studies conducted in USA and in Israel investigated in depth the physiological mechanisms of cardiovascular and O2 mobilization, and went on to investigate a wide variety of ruminant species, ages, reproductive states, diets ME, time of intake and time of day, and compared these variables under grazing and confinement conditions. From these combined studies we can conclude that EE can be determined from HR measurements during several days, multiplied by O2P measured over a short period of time (10-15 min). The study showed that RE could be determined during the growing phase without slaughtering. In the near future the development microelectronic devices will enable wide use of the HR method to determine EE and energy balance. It will open new scopes of physiological and agricultural research with minimizes strain on animals. The method also has a high potential as a tool for herd management.

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