Статті в журналах з теми "Confocal chromatic microscope"

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Пов'язані теми наукових робіт

1

Li, Shaobai, Bofan Song, Tyler Peterson, Jian Hsu, and Rongguang Liang. "MicroLED chromatic confocal microscope." Optics Letters 46, no. 11 (May 2021): 2722. http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/ol.427477.

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2

Liu Qian, 刘乾, 王洋 Wang Yang, 杨维川 Yang Weichuan, and 袁道成 Yuan Daocheng. "Chromatic confocal microscope with linear dispersive objective." High Power Laser and Particle Beams 26, no. 5 (2014): 51010. http://dx.doi.org/10.3788/hplpb20142605.51010.

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3

LIU Qian, 刘乾, 杨维川 YANG Wei-chuan, 袁道成 YUAN Dao-cheng, and 王洋 WANG Yang. "Design of linear dispersive objective for chromatic confocal microscope." Optics and Precision Engineering 21, no. 10 (2013): 2473–79. http://dx.doi.org/10.3788/ope.20132110.2473.

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4

Luo, Ding, Cuifang Kuang, and Xu Liu. "Fiber-based chromatic confocal microscope with Gaussian fitting method." Optics & Laser Technology 44, no. 4 (June 2012): 788–93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.optlastec.2011.10.027.

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5

Gu, Min. "Image Formation in Femtosecond Confocal Interference Microscopy." Microscopy and Microanalysis 4, no. 1 (February 1998): 63–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s1431927698980060.

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Three-dimensional image formation in an interference confocal scanning microscope under ultra-short pulsed beam illumination is investigated in this study. The novelty of this new image system is that it keeps advantages in femtosecond interferometry but also provides a femtosecond-resolved three-dimensional image without necessarily using an ultrafast detector. For a 5-fs pulsed beam illumination, spatial resolution in the axial and transverse directions in this system is improved by approximately 45% and 15%, respectively, compared with that in the case of continuous wave illumination. However, strong chromatic aberration caused by an ultrashort pulsed beam can result in a degradation of spatial and temporal resolution, whereas weak chromatic aberration may lead to an improvement in transverse resolution.
6

Vaishakh, Manu. "Optical sectioning in reciprocal fiber-optic based chromatic confocal microscope." Optik 123, no. 16 (August 2012): 1450–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijleo.2011.07.066.

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7

Yu, Qing, Kun Zhang, Ruilan Zhou, Changcai Cui, Fang Cheng, Shiwei Fu, and Ruifang Ye. "Calibration of a Chromatic Confocal Microscope for Measuring a Colored Specimen." IEEE Photonics Journal 10, no. 6 (December 2018): 1–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/jphot.2018.2875562.

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8

Russ, J. Christian, and John C. Russ. "3-D image analysis of serial focal sections from confocal scanning laser microscopy." Proceedings, annual meeting, Electron Microscopy Society of America 47 (August 1989): 152–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0424820100152732.

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The Confocal Scanning Laser Microscope (CSLM) is used in two quite different imaging modes: reflection and transmission. Most instruments maintain their confocal optics only when operated in reflection mode, in which light reflected or emitted from points in the sample or on its surface, lying in the focal plane of the microscope, is detected to form an image. Point elevations can be measured by scanning through a range of focal distances. Recording in memory the maximum brightness at each pixel forms an image containing the “in-focus” information for the entire irregular surface or object (Figure 1). These are powerful capabilities and account for much of the current use of confocal microscopes for metrology of rough surfaces, and for use with fluorescent dyes.True transmission confocal imaging can be achieved by passing the light from the source through the specimen to a mirror, reflecting it back through the specimen again (maintaining the focus in the same plane), and thence to the detector. This is shown schematically in Figure 2. This is only possible with monochromatic light, because of sample-induced chromatic aberrations.
9

Chun, Byung Seon, Kwangsoo Kim, and Daegab Gweon. "Three-dimensional surface profile measurement using a beam scanning chromatic confocal microscope." Review of Scientific Instruments 80, no. 7 (July 2009): 073706. http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3184023.

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10

Niggli, E., D. W. Piston, M. S. Kirby, H. Cheng, D. R. Sandison, W. W. Webb, and W. J. Lederer. "A confocal laser scanning microscope designed for indicators with ultraviolet excitation wavelengths." American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology 266, no. 1 (January 1994): C303—C310. http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.1994.266.1.c303.

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In this paper we describe the modifications necessary to upgrade, at affordable cost, a commercially available confocal laser scanning microscope for use with ultraviolet (UV) excitation. The optical problems associated with these modifications are described in detail, and easy solutions to solve them are suggested. The optical resolution of the instrument was tested with fluorescent beads and was found to be close to diffraction limited. The light losses due to lateral chromatic aberration were assessed in a thick fluorescent specimen and were found to be comparable to those usually observed with visible light. For a more visual example of the resolution of this instrument, isolated ventricular heart muscle cells were loaded with the fluorescent Ca2+ indicator indo 1. This allowed us to visualize subcellular structural detail and to illustrate the optical sectioning capability of the UV confocal microscope when recording indo 1 emission. Dual-emission line scans were used to perform ratiometric time-resolved detection of Ca2+ transients in voltage-clamped heart muscle cells loaded with the salt form of indo 1. The system presented in this paper should significantly broaden the range of fluorescent indicators that can be used in confocal microscopy.
11

Xin, Huolin L., Christian Dwyer, David A. Muller, Haimei Zheng, and Peter Ercius. "Scanning Confocal Electron Energy-Loss Microscopy Using Valence-Loss Signals." Microscopy and Microanalysis 19, no. 4 (May 2013): 1036–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s1431927613001438.

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AbstractFinding a faster alternative to tilt-series electron tomography is critical for rapidly evolving fields such as the semiconductor industry, where failure analysis could greatly benefit from higher throughput. We present a theoretical and experimental evaluation of scanning confocal electron energy-loss microscopy (SCEELM) using valence-loss signals, which is a promising technique for the reliable reconstruction of materials with sub-10-nm resolution. Such a confocal geometry transfers information from the focused portion of the electron beam and enables rapid three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction by depth sectioning. SCEELM can minimize or eliminate the missing-information cone and the elongation problem that are associated with other depth-sectioning image techniques in a transmission electron microscope. Valence-loss SCEELM data acquisition is an order of magnitude faster and requires little postprocessing compared with tilt-series electron tomography. With postspecimen chromatic aberration (Cc) correction, SCEELM signals can be acquired in parallel in the direction of energy dispersion with the aid of a physical pinhole. This increases the efficiency by 10×–100×, and can provide 3D resolved chemical information for multiple core-loss signals simultaneously.
12

Juskaitis and Wilson. "A method for characterizing longitudinal chromatic aberration of microscope objectives using a confocal optical system." Journal of Microscopy 195, no. 1 (July 1999): 17–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2818.1999.00488.x.

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13

Wan, H., C. Soeller, D. R. Garrod, C. Robinson, and M. B. Cannell. "Quantitative Immunocytochemistry of Proteins Using 2- Photon Microscopy and Digital Image Analysis." Microscopy and Microanalysis 4, S2 (July 1998): 416–17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s1431927600022200.

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The two photon microscope provides optical sectioning of fluorescent specimens with a resolution comparable to that obtained in confocal microscopy (see refs 2,3). However, the excited volume in 2-photon microscopy is limited to the focal volume (unlike conventional fluorescence microscopy where excitation occurs throughout the specimen). This means that photodamage is limited to the plane of section being examined. Thus, the light emitted from each point in the specimen depends on the amount of fluorochrome present without the problem of prior illumination (of other planes within the specimen) reducing the photon yield so a better signal to noise ratio can be obtained when examination of multiple image planes is needed. Since 2-photon excitation spectra are wide and chromatic aberration is eliminated (because the emitted light does not have to be focused on a pinhole), it is possible to excite several fluorochromes simultaneously and map their positions with high accuracy.
14

Maddox, Paul, Julie Canman, Sonia Grego, Wendy Salmon, Clare Waterman-Storer, and E. D. Salmon. "A spinning disk confocal microscope system for rapid high resolution, multimode, fluorescence speckle microscopy and GFP imaging in living cells." Microscopy and Microanalysis 7, S2 (August 2001): 8–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s1431927600026118.

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High resolution fluorescent speckle microscopy (FSM) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) imaging in living cells can require image recording at low densities of fluorophores (10 or less/resolvable unit) with low light excitation to prevent photobleaching. This needs efficient optical components, a high quantum efficiency detector, and a digital image acquisition and display system for time-lapse recording of multiple channels. Recently, Shinya and Ted Inoue have described the advantages of the Yokogawa CSU-10 spinning-disk confocal scanning unit for obtaining high quality fluorescent images with brief exposures and low fluorescence bleaching. Based on their findings, we have combined the CSU-10 unit with a high sensitivity pan-chromatic CCD camera to facilitate high spatial and temporal resolution imaging of fluorescence in living cells. in addition, the high signal-to-noise in images obtained with this instrument provides the opportunity to obtain 3-D views of extraordinary resolution and image quality after iterative constrained de-convolution.Our imaging system is constructed around a Nikon TE300 inverted microscope equipped with either a 60X or 100X Plan Apochromat objective, and standard epi-fluorescence optics for visual inspection of the specimen to locate cells for recording.
15

Brugés Martelo, Javier, Mattias Andersson, Consolatina Liguori, and Jan Lundgren. "Three-dimensional scanning electron microscopy used as a profilometer for the surface characterization of polyethylene-coated paperboard." Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal 36, no. 2 (March 2021): 276–83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/npprj-2021-0003.

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Abstract In food packaging, low-density polyethylene (PE) coating is applied to paperboards to act as a functional barrier and to provide the smoothness required to enhance printability. These characteristics are related to the material’s surface roughness, the parameter monitored during the manufacturing process. Measurement of surface roughness using optical profilometry has gained importance in the paper industry. The optical instruments used to measure surface roughness are limited spatially by the relationship with the light wavelength at which they operate. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is an alternative for overcoming the spatial resolution limitation, and the use of stereo-photogrammetry on SEM images can be seen as an alternative profilometry technique to measure surface roughness. In this investigation, the surface topography of industrially manufactured high-quality PE-coated paperboard was studied, comparing the SEM stereo-photogrammetry technique with a reference profilometry method, i. e., chromatic confocal microscopy (CCM). We found close agreement between the calculated surface roughness and the results of the techniques used and compared them according to the new ISO 25178 Geometric Product Specifications. We concluded that SEM stereo-photogrammetry provides comparable accurate alternative profilometry method for characterizing the surface roughness of PE-coated paperboard in the micrometer scale.
16

Brismar, H., O. Trepte, and B. Ulfhake. "Spectra and fluorescence lifetimes of lissamine rhodamine, tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate, texas red, and cyanine 3.18 fluorophores: influences of some environmental factors recorded with a confocal laser scanning microscope." Journal of Histochemistry & Cytochemistry 43, no. 7 (July 1995): 699–707. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/43.7.7608524.

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We report on the spectra and fluorescence lifetimes of four commonly used fluorophores: lissamine rhodamine (LRSC); tetramethyl rhodamine isothiocyanate (TRITC); Texas Red; and cyanine 3.18 (Cy-3). Fluorescence lifetime recordings revealed that these spectrally overlapping fluorophores can be individually detected by their lifetimes, indicating that at least four fluorophores can be individually identified in discrete tissue domains by confocal microscopy. A further advantage of lifetime recordings is that fluorophores that emit light within the same wavelength band can be used and chromatic aberrations are therefore circumvented, thereby improving the spatial accuracy in imaging of multiple fluorophores. Low and high pH, respectively, tended to influence fluorophore emission spectra and fluorescence lifetime. IgG conjugation of the fluorophores tended to shift the spectra towards longer wavelengths and to change the fluorescence lifetimes. The IgG-conjugated form of the fluorophores may, when applied to tissue specimens, change the emission spectrum and lifetime. In addition, different tissue embedding procedures may influence fluorescence lifetime. These observations emphasize the importance of spectral and lifetime characterization of fluorescent probes within the chemical context in which they will be used experimentally. Changes in spectra and fluorescence lifetimes may be a useful tool to gain information about the chemical environment of the fluorophores.
17

Tiziani, H. J., R. Achi, and R. N. Kramer. "Chromatic confocal microscopy with microlenses." Journal of Modern Optics 43, no. 1 (January 1996): 155–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09500349608232730.

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18

Lyda, W., M. Gronle, D. Fleischle, F. Mauch, and W. Osten. "Advantages of chromatic-confocal spectral interferometry in comparison to chromatic confocal microscopy." Measurement Science and Technology 23, no. 5 (March 2012): 054009. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0957-0233/23/5/054009.

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19

Jeong, Dawoon, Se Jin Park, Hansol Jang, Hyunjoo Kim, Jaesun Kim, and Chang-Seok Kim. "Swept-Source-Based Chromatic Confocal Microscopy." Sensors 20, no. 24 (December 2020): 7347. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20247347.

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Chromatic confocal microscopy (CCM) has been intensively developed because it can exhibit effective focal position scanning based on the axial chromatic aberration of broadband light reflected from a target. To improve the imaging speed of three-dimensional (3D) surface profiling, we have proposed the novel concept of swept-source-based CCM (SS-CCM) and investigated the usefulness of the corresponding imaging system. Compared to conventional CCM based on a broadband light source and a spectrometer, a swept-source in the proposed SS-CCM generates light with a narrower linewidth for higher intensity, and a single photodetector employed in the system exhibits a fast and sensitive response by immediately obtaining spectrally encoded depth from a chromatic dispersive lens array. Results of the experiments conducted to test the proposed SS-CCM system indicate that the system exhibits an axial chromatic focal distance range of approximately 360 μm for the 770–820 nm swept wavelength range. Moreover, high-speed surface profiling images of a cover glass and coin were successfully obtained with a short measurement time of 5 ms at a single position.
20

Shi, Kebin, Peng Li, Shizhuo Yin, and Zhiwen Liu. "Chromatic confocal microscopy using supercontinuum light." Optics Express 12, no. 10 (2004): 2096. http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/opex.12.002096.

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21

Manders, E. M. M. "Chromatic shift in multicolour confocal microscopy." Journal of Microscopy 185, no. 3 (March 1997): 321–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2818.1997.d01-625.x.

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22

Cohen-Sabban, Joseph. "Merging Phase Shifting Interferometry with Confocal Chromatic Microscopy." Key Engineering Materials 381-382 (June 2008): 287–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/kem.381-382.287.

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The implementation of the basic physical principle of Chromatic Confocal Microscopy in the field of Phase stepping interferometry (PSI) opens new opportunities for the development of an innovative surface metrology method specially dedicated to 3D nanotopography with subnanometric z axis resolution altogether with a very large measuring range: typically up to one hundred micrometers. The basic property of optical sectioning inherent to (chromatic) Confocal imaging is particularly well adapted to Phase stepping Interferometry since it automatically solves the critical and time consuming problem of phase unwrapping computation. The axial chromatic extension of the chromatic confocal setup offers a very fast and easy way to determine the height of the different elementary surfaces forming the measured object. It is then easy to carry out, for each one of those elementary surfaces, a measurement in phase shifting interferometry, at the wavelength corresponding to the altitude indicated by the confocal chromatic, in order to reach subnanometric axial resolutions. The four phases needed for implementing the phase stepping interferometric measuring procedure can be successively realized by adequate spectral shifts instead of the classical axial displacements of the reference mirror which then stands in a fixed position. Consequently this chromatic confocal phase stepping interferometer (CCPSI) has definitely no moving part, the spectral shifts being done by electrooptical means. Typical applications are MEMS and microoptics surface topography and/or roughness metrology. For this purpose we designed a new system incorporating confocal chromatic imaging and phase stepping interferometry. As a direct consequence of the optical sectioning property, this system allows measuring through any type of optical window (for example a cover glass).
23

Garzón, J., D. Duque, A. Alean, M. Toledo, J. Meneses, and T. Gharbi. "Diffractive elements performance in chromatic confocal microscopy." Journal of Physics: Conference Series 274 (January 2011): 012069. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/274/1/012069.

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24

Li, Shaobai, and Rongguang Liang. "DMD-based three-dimensional chromatic confocal microscopy." Applied Optics 59, no. 14 (May 2020): 4349. http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/ao.386863.

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25

Rayer, Mathieu, and Daniel Mansfield. "Chromatic confocal microscopy using staircase diffractive surface." Applied Optics 53, no. 23 (August 2014): 5123. http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/ao.53.005123.

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26

Akinyemi, O., A. Boyde, M. A. Browne, M. Hadravsky, and M. Petran. "Chromatism and confocality in confocal microscopes." Scanning 14, no. 3 (1992): 136–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/sca.4950140303.

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27

Cui, Qi, and Rongguang Liang. "Chromatic confocal microscopy using liquid crystal display panels." Applied Optics 58, no. 8 (March 2019): 2085. http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/ao.58.002085.

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28

Tiziani, H. J., and H. M. Uhde. "Three-dimensional image sensing by chromatic confocal microscopy." Applied Optics 33, no. 10 (April 1994): 1838. http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/ao.33.001838.

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29

Ruprecht, A. K., T. F. Wiesendanger, and H. J. Tiziani. "Chromatic confocal microscopy with a finite pinhole size." Optics Letters 29, no. 18 (September 2004): 2130. http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/ol.29.002130.

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30

Heliot, Laurent, Hervé Kaplan, Laurent Lucas, Christophe Klein, Adrien Beorchia, Martine Doco-Fenzy, Monique Menager, Marc Thiry, Marie-Françoise O’Donohue, and Dominique Ploton. "Electron Tomography of Metaphase Nucleolar Organizer Regions: Evidence for a Twisted-Loop Organization." Molecular Biology of the Cell 8, no. 11 (November 1997): 2199–216. http://dx.doi.org/10.1091/mbc.8.11.2199.

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Metaphase nucleolar organizer regions (NORs), one of four types of chromosome bands, are located on human acrocentric chromosomes. They contain r-chromatin, i.e., ribosomal genes complexed with proteins such as upstream binding factor and RNA polymerase I, which are argyrophilic NOR proteins. Immunocytochemical and cytochemical labelings of these proteins were used to reveal r-chromatin in situ and to investigate its spatial organization within NORs by confocal microscopy and by electron tomography. For each labeling, confocal microscopy revealed small and large double-spotted NORs and crescent-shaped NORs. Their internal three-dimensional (3D) organization was studied by using electron tomography on specifically silver-stained NORs. The 3D reconstructions allow us to conclude that the argyrophilic NOR proteins are grouped as a fiber of 60–80 nm in diameter that constitutes either one part of a turn or two or three turns of a helix within small and large double-spotted NORs, respectively. Within crescent-shaped NORs, virtual slices reveal that the fiber constitutes several longitudinally twisted loops, grouped as two helical 250- to 300-nm coils, each centered on a nonargyrophilic axis of condensed chromatin. We propose a model of the 3D organization of r-chromatin within elongated NORs, in which loops are twisted and bent to constitute one basic chromatid coil.
31

Litwin, Dariusz, Jacek Galas, Marek Daszkiewicz, Tadeusz Kryszczyński, Adam Czyżewski, and Kamil Radziak. "Dedicated optical systems of the Institute of Applied Optics." Photonics Letters of Poland 11, no. 2 (July 2019): 29. http://dx.doi.org/10.4302/plp.v11i2.898.

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The paper presents a collection of selected optical systems recently developed in the Institute of Applied Optics-INOS. The collection includes the family of techniques where the continuously modified wavelength facilitates high accuracy measurements of optical and geometrical features of the object in question i.e. the variable wavelength interferometry and confocal chromatic sensors. In addition, the paper refers to the construction of a new type of a spectrometer with rotating plasma and an illumination system supporting the road safety. Full Text: PDF ReferencesM. Pluta, Advanced Light Microscopy (Vol. 3, PWN, Elsevier, Warszawa-Amsterdam-London-New York-Tokyo, 1993). DirectLink M. Pluta, "Object-adapted variable-wavelength interferometry. I. Theoretical basis", Journal of Opt. Soc. Am., A4(11), 2107 (1987). CrossRef M. Pluta, "Variable wavelength microinterferometry of textile fibres", J. Microscopy, 149(2), 97 (1988). CrossRef M. Pluta, "On double‐refracting microinterferometers which suffer from a variable interfringe spacing across the image plane", Journal of Microscopy, 145(2), 191 (1987). CrossRef K. A. El-Farahaty, A. M. Sadik, A. M. Hezma, "Study of Optical and Structure Properties of Polyester (PET) and Copolyester (PETG) Fibers by Interferometry", International Journal of Polymeric Materials 56(7),715 (2007). CrossRef J. Galas, D. Litwin, M. Daszkiewicz, "New approach for identifying the zero-order fringe in variable wavelength interferometry", Proc. SPIE 10142, 101421R (2016). CrossRef A. Sadik, W. A. Ramadan, D. Litwin, "Variable incidence angle method combined with Pluta polarizing interference microscope for refractive index and thickness measurement of single-medium fibres", Measurement Science and Technology, IOP Publishing 14(10), 1753 (2003). CrossRef J. Galas, S. Sitarek; D. Litwin; M. Daszkiewicz, "Fringe image analysis for variable wavelength interferometry", Proc. SPIE 10445, 1044504 (2017). CrossRef D. Litwin, A. M. Sadik, "Computer-aided variable wavelength Fourier transform polarizing microscopy of birefringent fibers.", Optica Applicata 28(2), 139 (1998). DirectLink D. Litwin, J. Galas, N. Błocki, "Automated variable wavelength interferometry in reflected light mode", Proc.SPIE 6188, 61880F (2006). CrossRef M. Pluta, "Variable wavelength interferometry of birefringent retarders", Opt. Laser Technology, 19(3), 131 (1987). CrossRef K. Fladischer et al. "An ellipsoidal mirror for focusing neutral atomic and molecular beams", New journal of Physics, 12(3) 033018 (2010). CrossRef K. Fladischer et al. "An optical profilometer for characterizing complex surfaces under high vacuum conditions", Precision engineering Elsevier 32(3), 182 (2008). CrossRef A.E. Weeks et al. "Accurate surface profilometry of ultrathin wafers", Semiconductor Science and Technology", IOP Publishing, 22(9), 997 (2007). CrossRef D. Litwin et al. "Overview of the measuring systems where a continuously altered light source plays a key role: Part I", Proc. SPIE 10808, 10 8080B (2018). CrossRef D. Litwin et al. "Noise reduction in an optical emission spectrometer with rotating diffraction grating", Proc. SPIE 10142 101421Q (2016). CrossRef D. Litwin et al. "Photonics approach to traffic signs", Proc SPIE 10142 1014214, (2016). CrossRef
32

Wang, P., A. I. Kirkland, and P. D. Nellist. "Chromatic Confocal Electron Microscopy with a Finite Pinhole Size." Journal of Physics: Conference Series 371 (July 2012): 012002. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/371/1/012002.

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33

Chen, Cheng, Richard Leach, Jian Wang, Xiaojun Liu, Xiangqian Jiang, and Wenlong Lu. "Two-dimensional spectral signal model for chromatic confocal microscopy." Optics Express 29, no. 5 (February 2021): 7179. http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/oe.418924.

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34

Olsovsky, Cory, Ryan Shelton, Oscar Carrasco-Zevallos, Brian E. Applegate, and Kristen C. Maitland. "Chromatic confocal microscopy for multi-depth imaging of epithelial tissue." Biomedical Optics Express 4, no. 5 (April 2013): 732. http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/boe.4.000732.

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35

Chen, Liang-Chia, Duc Trung Nguyen, and Yi-Wei Chang. "Precise optical surface profilometry using innovative chromatic differential confocal microscopy." Optics Letters 41, no. 24 (December 2016): 5660. http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/ol.41.005660.

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36

Chan, Ming-Che, Tzu Hsin Liao, Chi-Sheng Hsieh, Shie-Chang Jeng, and Guan-Yu Zhuo. "Imaging of nanoscale birefringence using polarization-resolved chromatic confocal microscopy." Optics Express 29, no. 3 (January 2021): 3965. http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/oe.414511.

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37

Yu, Qing, Yali Zhang, Wenjian Shang, Shengchao Dong, Chong Wang, Yin Wang, Ting Liu, and Fang Cheng. "Thickness Measurement for Glass Slides Based on Chromatic Confocal Microscopy with Inclined Illumination." Photonics 8, no. 5 (May 2021): 170. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/photonics8050170.

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Chromatic confocal microscopy is a widely used method to measure the thickness of transparent specimens. In conventional configurations, both the illumination and imaging axes are perpendicular to the test specimen. The reflection will be very weak when measuring high-transparency specimens. In order to overcome this limitation, a special chromatic confocal measuring system was developed based on inclined illumination. This design was able to significantly improve the signal-to-noise ratio. Compared with conventional designs, the proposed system was also featured by its biaxial optical scheme, instead of a coaxial one. This biaxial design improved the flexibility of the system and also increased the energy efficiency by avoiding light beam splitting. Based on this design, a prototype was built by the authors’ team. In this paper, the theoretical model of this specially designed chromatic confocal system is analyzed, and the calculating formula for the thickness of transparent specimen is provided accordingly. In order to verify its measurement performance, two experimental methodology and results are presented. The experimental results show that the repeatability is better than 0.54 μm, and the axial measurement accuracy of the system could reach the micron level.
38

Yu, Qing, Kun Zhang, Changcai Cui, Ruilan Zhou, Fang Cheng, Ruifang Ye, and Yi Zhang. "Method of thickness measurement for transparent specimens with chromatic confocal microscopy." Applied Optics 57, no. 33 (November 2018): 9722. http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/ao.57.009722.

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39

Lin, Paul C., Pang-Chen Sun, Lijun Zhu, and Yeshaiahu Fainman. "Single-shot depth-section imaging through chromatic slit-scan confocal microscopy." Applied Optics 37, no. 28 (October 1998): 6764. http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/ao.37.006764.

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40

Kim, Taejoong, Sang Hoon Kim, DukHo Do, Hongki Yoo, and DaeGab Gweon. "Chromatic confocal microscopy with a novel wavelength detection method using transmittance." Optics Express 21, no. 5 (March 2013): 6286. http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/oe.21.006286.

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41

Lin, Yuxiang, and Arthur F. Gmitro. "Errors in confocal fluorescence ratiometric imaging microscopy due to chromatic aberration." Applied Optics 50, no. 1 (December 2010): 95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/ao.50.000095.

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42

Huisman, André, Lennert S. Ploeger, Hub F. J. Dullens, Neal Poulin, William E. Grizzle, and Paul J. van Diest. "Development of 3D Chromatin Texture Analysis Using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy." Analytical Cellular Pathology 27, no. 5-6 (January 2005): 335–45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2005/494605.

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Introduction: Analysis of nuclear texture features as a measure of nuclear chromatin changes has been proven to be useful when measured on thin (5–6 μm) tissue sections using conventional 2D bright field microscopy. The drawback of this approach is that most nuclei are not intact because of those thin sections. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) allows measurements of texture in 3D reconstructed nuclei. The aim of this study was to develop 3D texture features that quantitatively describe changes in chromatin architecture associated with malignancy using CLSM images. Methods: Thirty-five features thoughtfully chosen from 4 categories of 3D texture features (discrete texture features, Markovian features, fractal features, grey value distribution features) were selected and tested for invariance properties (rotation and scaling) using artificial images with a known grey value distribution. The discriminative power of the 3D texture features was tested on artificially constructed benign and malignant 3D nuclei with increasing nucleolar size and advancing chromatin margination towards the periphery of the nucleus. As a clinical proof of principle, the discriminative power of the texture features was assessed on 10 benign and 10 malignant human prostate nuclei, evaluating also whether there was more texture information in 3D whole nuclei compared to a single 2D plane from the middle of the nucleus. Results: All texture features showed the expected invariance properties. Almost all features were sensitive to variations in the nucleolar size and to the degree of margination of chromatin. Fourteen texture features from different categories had high discriminative power for separating the benign and malignant nuclei. The discrete texture features performed less than expected. There was more information on nuclear texture in 3D than in 2D. Conclusion: A set of 35 3D nuclear texture features was used successfully to assess nuclear chromatin patterns in 3D images obtained by confocal laser scanning microscopy, and as a proof of principle we showed that these features may be clinically useful for analysis of prostate neoplasia.
43

de Saint Phalle, B., and W. Sullivan. "Incomplete sister chromatid separation is the mechanism of programmed chromosome elimination during early Sciara coprophila embryogenesis." Development 122, no. 12 (December 1996): 3775–84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/dev.122.12.3775.

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Sex in Sciara coprophila is determined by maternally supplied factors that control the number of paternal X chromosomes eliminated during the syncytial embryonic divisions. Confocal microscopy and FISH demonstrate that the centromeres of the X chromosomes separate at anaphase and remain functional during the cycle in which the X chromosomes are eliminated. However, a region of the sister chromatids fails to separate and the X chromosomes remain at the metaphase plate. This indicates that failure of sister chromatid separation is the mechanism of chromosome elimination. Elimination of the X chromosomes requires the presence of a previously discovered Controlling Element that acts in cis during male meiosis. Using an X-autosome translocation, we demonstrate that the Controlling Element acts at-a-distance to prevent sister chromatid separation in the arm of an autosome. This indicates that the region in which sister chromatid separation fails is chromosome-independent. Although chromosome elimination occurs in all somatic nuclei and is independent of location of the nuclei within the embryo, the decision to eliminate is made at the level of the individual nucleus. Programmed X chromosome elimination occurs at different cycles in male and female embryos. These observations support a model in which elements on the X chromosome are titrating maternally supplied factors controlling the separation of sister X chromatids.
44

Duque, D., J. Garzón, and T. Gharbi. "A study of dispersion in chromatic confocal microscopy using digital image processing." Optics & Laser Technology 131 (November 2020): 106414. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.optlastec.2020.106414.

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45

Noguchi, Junko, and Kiichi Fukui. "Chromatin arrangements in intact interphase nuclei examined by laser confocal microscopy." Journal of Plant Research 108, no. 2 (June 1995): 209–16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/bf02344346.

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46

Tadrous, Paul Joseph. "Subcellular Microanatomy by 3D Deconvolution Brightfield Microscopy: Method and Analysis Using Human Chromatin in the Interphase Nucleus." Anatomy Research International 2012 (January 2012): 1–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/848707.

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Anatomy has advanced using 3-dimensional (3D) studies at macroscopic (e.g., dissection, injection moulding of vessels, radiology) and microscopic (e.g., serial section reconstruction with light and electron microscopy) levels. This paper presents the first results in human cells of a new method of subcellular 3D brightfield microscopy. Unlike traditional 3D deconvolution and confocal techniques, this method is suitable for general application to brightfield microscopy. Unlike brightfield serial sectioning it has subcellular resolution. Results are presented of the 3D structure of chromatin in the interphase nucleus of two human cell types, hepatocyte and plasma cell. I show how the freedom to examine these structures in 3D allows greater morphological discrimination between and within cell types and the 3D structural basis for the classical “clock-face” motif of the plasma cell nucleus is revealed. Potential for further applications discussed.
47

Agoyan, Marion, Gary Fourneau, Guy Cheymol, Ayoub Ladaci, Hicham Maskrot, Christophe Destouches, Damien Fourmentel, et al. "Confocal chromatic sensor for displacement monitoring in research reactor." EPJ Web of Conferences 253 (2021): 04021. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/epjconf/202125304021.

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Confocal chromatic microscopy is an optical technique allowing measuring displacement, thickness, and roughness with a sub-micrometric precision. Its operation principle is based on a wavelength encoding of the object position. Historically, the company STIL based in the south of France has first developed this class of sensors in the 90’s. Of course, this sensor can only operate in a sufficiently transparent medium in the used spectral domain. It presents the advantage of being contactless, which is a crucial advantage for some applications such as the fuel rod displacement measurement in a nuclear research reactor core and in particular for cladding-swelling measurements. The extreme environmental conditions encountered in such experiments i.e. high temperature, high pressure, high radiations flux, strong vibrations, surrounding turbulent flow can affect the performances of this optical system. We then need to implement mitigation techniques to optimize the sensor performance in this specific environment. Another constraint concerns the small volume available in the irradiation rig next to the rod to monitor, implying the challenge to conceive a miniaturized sensor able to operate under these constraints.
48

Máté, Gabriell, and Dieter W. Heermann. "A generalized Potts model for confocal microscopy images." International Journal of Modern Physics B 29, no. 08 (March 2015): 1550048. http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/s0217979215500484.

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Much as being among the least invasive mainstream imaging technologies in life sciences, the resolution of confocal microscopy is limited. Imaged structures, e.g., chromatin-fiber loops, have diameters around or beyond the diffraction limit, and microscopy images show seemingly random spatial density distributions only. While such images are important because the organization of the chromosomes influences different cell mechanisms, many interesting questions can also be related to the observed patterns. These concern their spatial aspects, the role of randomness, the possibility of modeling these images with a random generative process, the interaction between the densities of adjacent loci, the length-scales of these influences, etc. We answer these questions by implementing a generalization of the Potts model. We show how to estimate the model parameters, test the performance of the estimation process and numerically prove that the obtained values converge to the ground truth. Finally, we generate images with a trained model and show that they compare well to real cell images.
49

Lee, Dong Hyeok, Min Gyu Kim, and Nahm Gyoo Cho. "The Spatial Synchronization of Areal Measurement Data Sets by Multi-Probes." Key Engineering Materials 625 (August 2014): 346–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/kem.625.346.

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In this paper, to release this induced errors and improve the accuracy of the measured data, a new spatial synchronization method is proposed to spatially synchronize the three-dimensional surface data sets obtained by variety surface topography measuring instruments. The proposed spatial synchronization method minimizes the geometrical error components using the data interpolation, the least squares method, and the two-dimensional cross correlation function. For verification of the method, it was applied to the measured data sets measured with a chromatic confocal microscopy, a laser scanning confocal microscopy, and an ellipsometer. Based on the experimental results, the accuracy or the proposed method is analyzed and evaluated.
50

Ferreira, J., and M. Carmo-Fonseca. "Genome replication in early mouse embryos follows a defined temporal and spatial order." Journal of Cell Science 110, no. 7 (April 1997): 889–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.110.7.889.

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The spatial and temporal organisation of replication sites during early mouse embryogenesis was analysed using high resolution confocal and video fluorescence microscopy. The results show that distinct replication patterns occur in the transcriptionally inactive pronuclei of 1-cell embryos as well as in the transcriptionally active nuclei from 2- and 16/32-cell embryos. This indicates that specific chromatin regions are replicated at different times during S-phase and provides the first evidence that mechanisms controlling the temporal and spatial replication of DNA are already present in the haploid pronuclei of the mammalian zygote. Furthermore the data demonstrate that the male and female pronuclei in one-cell embryos replicate their genomes asynchronously. Finally, we observe changes in the dynamics of embryonic genome replication during early development which correlate with gross chromatin structure transitions detected at the electron microscope level. Taken together these results indicate that DNA synthesis in the mouse zygote follows a defined four-dimensional order which may evolve during development and differentiation.

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