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Статті в журналах з теми "Dose area product":

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Petoussi-Henss, H., W. Panzer, M. Zankl, and G. Drexler. "Dose-Area Product and Body Doses." Radiation Protection Dosimetry 57, no. 1-4 (January 1995): 363–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rpd/57.1-4.363.

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Petoussi-Henss, H., W. Panzer, M. Zankl, and G. Drexler. "Dose-Area Product and Body Doses." Radiation Protection Dosimetry 57, no. 1-4 (January 1995): 363–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.rpd.a082561.

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Choi, Jae-Ho, Gu-Jun Kang, and Seo-Goo Chang. "Comparison on the Dosimetry of TLD and PLD by Dose Area Product." Journal of the Korea Contents Association 12, no. 3 (March 2012): 244–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.5392/jkca.2012.12.03.244.

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Sakamoto, Hajime, Hiroshi Kobayashi, Hiroaki Ikegawa, Shinji Ohshima, Yoshihito Aikawa, Yoshitomo Sano, and Tsutomu Araki. "Estimation of Operator Dose by Dose Area Product Meter." Japanese Journal of Radiological Technology 62, no. 7 (2006): 951–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.6009/jjrt.62.951.

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Pillai, A., and M. Jain. "Dose area product measurement in orthopaedic trauma." Radiography 10, no. 2 (May 2004): 103–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radi.2004.02.002.

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Crawley, M. T., S. Mutch, M. Nyekiova, C. Reddy, and H. Weatherburn. "Calibration frequency of dose–area product meters." British Journal of Radiology 74, no. 879 (March 2001): 259–61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1259/bjr.74.879.740259.

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McDonald, S., C. J. Martin, C. L. Darragh, and D. T. Graham. "Dose–area product measurements in paediatric radiography." British Journal of Radiology 69, no. 820 (April 1996): 318–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1259/0007-1285-69-820-318.

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Vano, E., L. Gonzalez, J. I. Ten, J. M. Fernandez, E. Guibelalde, and C. Macaya. "Skin dose and dose–area product values for interventional cardiology procedures." British Journal of Radiology 74, no. 877 (January 2001): 48–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1259/bjr.74.877.740048.

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Faulkner, K., H. P. Busch, P. Cooney, J. F. Malone, N. W. Marshall, and D. J. Rawlings. "An International Intercomparison of Dose-Area Product Meters." Radiation Protection Dosimetry 43, no. 1-4 (October 1992): 131–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rpd/43.1-4.131.

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Machado, S. O., H. Schelin, V. Denyak, D. Filipov, A. Bunick, J. Ledesma, and S. A. Paschuk. "Dose-area product in pediatric barium meal procedures." Radiation Physics and Chemistry 155 (February 2019): 53–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radphyschem.2018.07.019.

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Дисертації з теми "Dose area product":

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Costa, Nathalia Almeida. "Desenvolvimento de uma metodologia de calibração e testes de medidores de produto Kerma-Área." PublishedVersion, Universidade de São Paulo, 2013. http://www.teses.usp.br/teses/disponiveis/85/85131/tde-14082013-144903/.

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A grandeza produto kerma-área (PKA) é importante para estabelecer níveis de referência em exames de radiologia diagnóstica. Essa grandeza pode ser obtida por meio de medidores do PKA. O uso desses medidores é fundamental para avaliar a dose de radiação em procedimentos radiológicos, além de ser um bom indicador para que os limites de dose na pele do paciente não sejam excedidos. Algumas vezes, esses medidores vêm acoplados a equipamentos de radiação X, o que dificulta sua calibração. Neste trabalho foi desenvolvida uma metodologia de calibração de medidores do PKA. O instrumento utilizado para este fim foi o Patient Dose Calibrator (PDC). Ele foi desenvolvido para ser utilizado como referência na verificação da calibração de medidores do PKA e kerma no ar usados na dosimetria de pacientes e para verificação da consistência e do comportamento de sistemas de controle de exposição automáticos. Por se tratar de um equipamento novo, que, no Brasil, ainda não é utilizado como equipamento de referência para calibração, foi realizado, também o controle de qualidade deste equipamento, com testes de caracterização, a calibração e a avaliação da dependência energética. Após os testes, ficou provado que o PDC pode ser utilizado como instrumento de referência para a calibração a ser realizada in situ, de forma que as características de cada equipamento de radiação X onde os medidores do PKA são utilizados sejam consideradas. A calibração foi, então, realizada com medidores do PKA portáteis e em um equipamento de radiologia intervencionista que possui um medidor do PKA acoplado. Os resultados foram bons e ficou provada a necessidade de calibração desses medidores e a importância da calibração in situ com um medidor de referência.
The quantity kerma area product (PKA) is important to establish reference levels in diagnostic radiology exams. This quantity can be obtained using a PKA meter. The use of such meters is essential to evaluate the radiation dose in radiological procedures and is a good indicator to make sure that the dose limit to the patient\'s skin doesnt exceed. Sometimes, these meters come fixed to X radiation equipment, which makes its calibration difficult. In this work, it was developed a methodology for calibration of PKA meters. The instrument used for this purpose was the Patient Dose Calibrator (PDC). It was developed to be used as a reference to check the calibration of PKA and air kerma meters that are used for dosimetry in patients and to verify the consistency and behavior of systems of automatic exposure control. Because it is a new equipment, which, in Brazil, is not yet used as reference equipment for calibration, it was also performed the quality control of this equipment with characterization tests, the calibration and an evaluation of the energy dependence. After the tests, it was proved that the PDC can be used as a reference instrument and that the calibration must be performed in situ, so that the characteristics of each X-ray equipment, where the PKA meters are used, are considered. The calibration was then performed with portable PKA meters and in an interventional radiology equipment that has a PKA meter fixed. The results were good and it was proved the need for calibration of these meters and the importance of in situ calibration with a reference meter.
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Peters, Nazlea Behardien. "Determination of effective dose and entrance skin dose from dose area product values for barium studies in adult patients at a large tertiary hospital in the Western Cape." Thesis, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, 2017. http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11838/2627.

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Thesis (MSc (Radiography))--Cape Peninsula University of Technology, 2018.
Background and objectives The issue of patient doses received during fluoroscopy procedures, raised concerns for the researcher, as there may have been probable past skin injuries or deterministic injuries that may not have been documented. Amongst the radiology staff, there was very little understanding of what the actual dose area product (DAP) value means in real terms of effective dose and entrance skin dose. The aims of the study were to: i) Measure the radiation doses received by the patient and determine a simple means of defining the DAP value to the radiographer in terms of the dose received by the patient. ii) Determine the effective dose, entrance skin dose and the relationship with the DAP value to assist with developing a conversion co-efficient for dose indicators. Method Direct radiation dose measurements can be obtained through DAP meters attached to the diagnostic equipment, but the DAP value is not an direct indication of the effective dose received by the patient. The DAP values captured from the DICOM header information for barium fluoroscopic procedures at a large tertiary was analysed and Diagnostic Reference levels (DRL) were determined for barium swallow, meal and enema procedures. The effective and skin doses were calculated by means of the Monte Carlo program. The results were compared to published values. The relationship between the entrance skin dose and the DAP value was determined and conversion factors were calculated. Results Correlation between the DAP and entrance skin dose and comparative 75th percentile threshold values were determined for barium swallow (BaS), barium meal (BaM) and barium enema (BaE) procedures. Effective to DAP conversation factors for BaS, BaM and BaE are 0.19, 0.26 and 0.60 respectively and 0.15, 0.11 and 0.14 for entrance skin to DAP. Conclusion The the research showed the relationship between the effective dose, entrance skin dose and DAP value and a simple, practical and applicable explanation of the DAP value by means of conversion factors.
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Jurczak, Julien. "Produit dose-surface pour la radiothérapie : application aux protocoles de traitements stéréotaxiques." Electronic Thesis or Diss., université Paris-Saclay, 2022. http://www.theses.fr/2022UPASP025.

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L'évolution des techniques de radiothérapie, en particulier avec l’avènement des traitements stéréotaxiques, a conduit à accroître l'utilisation de petits faisceaux d’irradiation permettant de se conformer au mieux au volume à traiter tout en minimisant l’irradiation des tissus sains environnants. Ce faisant, les conditions cliniques s'éloignent significativement des conditions de référence en dose absorbée dans l’eau en un point, telles que décrites dans les protocoles internationaux. La perte de traçabilité ainsi constatée conduit à une augmentation de l’incertitude sur la dose délivrée au patient. Afin de contourner les difficultés de traçabilité de la dose absorbée en petits champs, le Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNHB) a proposé d’utiliser une approche novatrice. Au lieu de considérer une mesure en un point, une mesure intégrée sur une surface plus grande que le champ d'irradiation a été adoptée au travers d’une autre grandeur : le Produit Dose Surface (Dose Area Product ou DAP). Le travail présenté dans cette thèse porte sur la réalisation de références dosimétriques primaires en Produit Dose Surface dans l’eau (DAPw) pour des tailles de champs carrés et circulaires inférieures ou égales à 15 mm de côté ou de diamètre. En vue du transfert de ces nouvelles références dosimétriques à l’utilisateur, trois chambres d’ionisation plates de même surface sensible que le calorimètre graphite de grande section du LNHB ont été construites et étalonnées par rapport à la référence primaire nouvellement établie, avec une incertitude-type sur le coefficient d’étalonnage inférieure à 0.7% (k=1). Pour les tailles de champs comprises entre 5 mm et 15 mm, les trois chambres présentent le même comportement, avec un coefficient d’étalonnage indépendant de la forme du champ d’une part et qui augmente légèrement, de l’ordre de 1.7% en moyenne, avec la taille de champ d’autre part. Ces résultats prometteurs ouvrent la voie à un changement de par adigme pour la dosimétrie en petits champs.Afin de progresser en direction de l’utilisation clinique du DAP, en particulier au travers des mesures de facteurs d’ouverture du collimateur (FOC), une comparaison a été effectuée entre l’approche classique de la mesure en un point corrigée des facteurs fournis par le protocole IAEA TRS 483, et la dose absorbée en un point déduite du DAP grâce à la connaissance de la cartographie à deux dimensions du faisceau, accessible avec des films radiochromiques. C’est pour cette raison qu’il a été aussi développé dans cette thèse un nouvel instrument optique dédié à la lecture des films radiochromiques, compatible avec une application métrologique. Une fois adoptée, cette nouvelle approche permettrait d’améliorer le paramétrage des logiciels de planification de traitement (TPS), qui est un maillon essentiel de la chaîne de traitement en radiothérapie
Evolution of radiotherapy techniques, in particular with the advent of stereotactic treatments, led to an increased use of small radiation beams allowing a better dose conformation to the volume while sparing the surrounding normal tissues. As a consequence, clinical conditions are significantly different from the reference conditions in terms of absorbed dose in water at a point, as described in international protocols. The loss of traceability thus observed leads to an increased uncertainty of the dose delivered to the patient. In order to overcome the difficulties of absorbed dose traceability in small fields, the Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNHB) suggests an innovative approach. Instead of considering a point measurement, an integrated measurement over an area larger than the irradiation field was adopted through another quantity: the Dose Area Product (DAP). This thesis presents the establishment of primary standards in terms of Dose Area Product in water (DAPw) for square and circular field sizes less than or equal to 15 mm side or diameter. In order to transfer these new dosimetric standards to users, three plane-parallel ionization chambers with the same sensitive area than the large graphite calorimeter of the LNHB were constructed and calibrated against the newly established primary standards, with a standard uncertainty on the calibration coefficient of less than 0.7% (k=1). For field sizes between 5 mm and 15 mm, the three chambers show the same behavior, with a calibration coefficient that is independent of the field shape on the one hand and that increases slightly, about 1.7% on average, with the field size on the other hand. These promising results pave the way for a paradigm shift in small field dosimetry.In order to progress towards the clinical use of DAP, in particular through the measurement of field output correction factors (OF), a comparison was made between the classical approach of point measurement corrected by the factors provided by the IAEA TRS 483 protocol, and the absorbed dose at a point deduced from the DAP thanks to the knowledge of the two-dimensional mapping of the beam, which is accessible with radiochromic films. In that way, a new optical instrument dedicated to radiochromic films reading, compatible with a metrological application, was also developed in this thesis. Once adopted, this new approach would improve the parameterization of the treatment planning system (TPS), which is an essential link in the radiotherapy treatment chain
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Altan, Ozan. "Photocatalytic concrete/cement - how does it function and possible product areas." Student thesis, Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, 2010. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-93486.

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Concrete is one of our most important and most widely used building material but the process of making concrete causes major environmental pressures. Concrete can also look dirty and boring with age, but some regard that the aging effects caused by algae and mosses provide a beautiful patina. Concrete has come a long way in its development and after many years of research a new innovative method in material science has shown that by using nanotechnology to cement-based materials such as concrete structures, mortar, paint, pavement, etc., a photocatalytic effect is given. Photocatalytic technique has been applied for about 10 years in various materials forself-cleaning and in recent years, particularly an air-cleaning effect. The self-cleaning effect allows particularly exposed surfaces to retain their aesthetic appearance over the years and protects it against moss, algae, pollution and also against graffiti. The air-cleaning effect may be the more interesting feature from an environmental and health point of view. The air-cleaning effect can lead to significantly improving the air quality in heavily trafficked areas, especially in terms of the reduction of nitrogen oxides (NOx concentration in the air. The photocatalytic concrete can thus become an important cog in solving environmental and health problems as well as helping to reduce levels of air pollution arising from heavily trafficked areas. The report is a brief literature review on the subject photocatalytic concrete.
Betong är en av våra viktigaste och mest använda byggmaterial men som under produktionsprocessen förorsakar stora miljöbelastningar. Betong kan också under åren se smutsig och tråkig ut, men det finns dem som anser att åldringseffekten som orsakas av alger och mossor ger en vacker patina. Betong har kommit en lång väg i sin utveckling och efter många års forskning har en ny innovativ metod inom materialvetenskap visat att med hjälp av nanoteknik kan cementbaserade material som t.ex. betongkonstruktioner, murbruk, färg, trottoar etc. ges en fotokatalytisk effekt. Tekniken fotokatalys har tillämpats under ca 10 år i olika material för att få en självrengörande och de senaste åren framför allt en luftrengörande effekt. Den självrengörande effekten tillåter särskilt utsatta ytor behålla sitt estetiska utseende under årens gång och skyddar den mot mossor, alger, föroreningar och även mot klotter. Den luftrengörande effekten kanske är den mer intressanta egenskapen ur miljö- och hälsosynpunkt. Luftrengörande effekten kan leda till att luftkvaliteten vid tungt trafikerade platser förbättras avsevärt, framför allt i form av minskning halten av kväveoxider (NOx Rapporten är en översiktlig litteraturstudie i ämnet fotokatalytisk betong. ) i luften. Den fotokatalytiska betongen kan med andra ord bli en viktig kugge i att lösa miljö- och hälsoproblemen samt bidra till att sänka halten av luftföroreningar som uppstår på hårt trafikerade platser. Rapporten är en översiktlig litteraturstudie i ämnet fotokatalytisk betong.
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Underwood, Tracy Sarah Amy. "The dosimetry of small, megavoltage photon fields : correction factors, dose area products and detector designs." Electronic Thesis or Diss., University of Oxford, 2013. http://ora.ox.ac.uk/objects/uuid:0266f2b0-93fe-4588-ab42-d7db0f59a3cb.

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In recent years, small fields have come to play a key role in advanced radiotherapy, yet protocols to perform dosimetry under small field conditions are still in their infancy. In 2008, the IAEA and AAPM published a formalism [Med. Phys. 35, 5179-5186] recommending the use of point-dose correction factors. This thesis uses Monte Carlo simulations to demonstrate that the values of these correction factors depend strongly on both detector design and field size, as well as other variables such as detector off-axis position and detector azimuthal angle. Mass density is found to be the principal determinant of detector water non-equivalence. Furthermore, it is shown that it is possible to compensate for the mass-density of a detector cavity by incorporating additional components of contrasting mass-density into that detector’s design. For small cavities, such design modifications enable the detector’s small- to large- field response ratio to be matched to that of a “point-like” water-structure: ideal detector performance can be achieved across a variety of irradiation conditions. For existing commercial detectors, a Dose Area Product (DAP) formalism is also developed and shown to be much more robust than the point-dose correction factor approach. In conclusion, correction factor values for existing detector designs depend on a host of variables and their calculation typically relies on the use of time-intensive Monte Carlo methods. This thesis indicates that future moves towards density-compensated detector designs or DAP-based protocols can simplify the methodology of small field dosimetry.
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Oliveira, Rosely Magalhaes de. "A producao do conhecimento em saude em escala local: repensando relacao entre a investigacao cientifica e a experiencia dos grupos populares." Rio de Janeiro : [s.n.], 2000. http://teses.cict.fiocruz.br/pdf/oliveirarmd.pdf.

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Borges, Umarac da Nóbrega. "Análise dos resultados da implantação do Projeto PROMOS no APL de calçados de Patos-PB: estudo de caso." PublishedVersion, Universidade Federal da Paraí­ba, 2011. http://tede.biblioteca.ufpb.br:8080/handle/tede/5223.

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Made available in DSpace on 2015-05-08T14:53:25Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 ArquivoTotalUmarac.pdf: 1791246 bytes, checksum: 6e7513116f9137349536b36e03dc4ed2 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2011-02-28
Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior - CAPES
The development of companies characterized as members of clusters (APLs) has if shown, in several parts of the world, as a alternative for the economical development of the area where are inserted. In spite of, it is important to observe that the success of that development is associated to the benefits originating from of the high cooperation degree among the companies that compose such arrangements. This dissertation treats of an analysis of the results of the implantation of the Methodology of Development of Local Productive Arrangements, developed by the Project Promos/Sebrae and applied in APL of shoes of the city of Patos, located state of Paraíba. The study looked for to verify which the critical factors of successes and failures in the implantation of the referred project, as well as, to identify in the literature which the most appropriate concept to define geographical concentrations as the one of studied APL. For such, it developed a research of exploratory and descriptive nature, in the form of a case study with the twenty companies that composed the group of vanguard of the project. As variables of the research were defined: the actions developed by the Projeto Promos, the decisive factors for the formation of APL, and the sustainability of the own project. In that context, the research appropriated of indicators used by Projeto Promos's methodology, comparing them in different moments. The results show in a clear plenty way which the factors that contributed in a positive and negative way, ending that there was not sustainability of the actions, what characterizes the failure of the project when analyzed their results in general extent.
O desenvolvimento de empresas caracterizadas como integrantes de Arranjos Produtivos Locais (APLs) tem se mostrado, em várias partes do mundo, como uma alternativa para o desenvolvimento econômico da região onde estão inseridas. Não obstante, é importante observar que o sucesso desse desenvolvimento está associado aos benefícios oriundos do alto grau de cooperação entre as empresas que compõem tais arranjos. Esta dissertação trata de uma análise dos resultados da implantação da Metodologia de Desenvolvimento de Arranjos Produtivos Locais, desenvolvida pelo Projeto Promos/Sebrae e aplicada no APL de calçados da cidade de Patos, localizada no interior da Paraíba. O estudo buscou verificar quais os fatores críticos de sucessos e insucessos na implantação do referido projeto, bem como, identificar na literatura qual o conceito mais apropriado para definir concentrações geográficas como a do APL estudado. Para tal, desenvolveu uma pesquisa de natureza exploratória e descritiva, na forma de um estudo de caso com as vinte empresas que compunham o grupo de vanguarda do projeto. Como variáveis da pesquisa foram definidas: as ações desenvolvidas pelo Projeto Promos, os fatores determinantes para a formação de APL, e a sustentabilidade do próprio projeto. Nesse contexto, a pesquisa se apropriou de indicadores utilizados pela metodologia do Projeto Promos, comparando-os em momentos distintos. Os resultados mostram de forma bastante clara quais os fatores que contribuíram positiva e negativamente, concluindo que não houve sustentabilidade das ações, o que caracteriza o insucesso do projeto quando analisado os seus resultados em âmbito geral.
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Delgado, Sónia Regina Soares. "Cooperação internacional e desenvolvimento em Cabo Verde: o caso particular dos protocolos de parceria da ARFA no âmbito do setor farmacêutico." MasterThesis, [s.n.], 2012. http://hdl.handle.net/10284/3721.

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Trabalho de Dissertação apresentado à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para a obtenção do grau de Mestre em Cooperação Internacional e Desenvolvimento
Este trabalho relaciona cooperação internacional, desenvolvimento e saúde, procurando aferir de que formas a cooperação internacional em saúde, estabelecida ao nível do sector farmacêutico em Cabo Verde, em particular através dos protocolos internacionais estabelecidos pela Agência de Regulação e Supervisão dos Produtos Farmacêuticos e Alimentares, tem contribuído e pode continuar a contribuir para uma melhor dinâmica de desenvolvimento. Evidencia-se a forma como a cooperação internacional tem evoluído enquadrando, em cada momento, os contributos teóricos do desenvolvimento. Explicita-se a forma como a preocupação com as diversas interconexões entre a saúde e desenvolvimento, são parte integrante deste percurso, demonstrando a validade do seu reconhecimento enquanto elemento indutor de desenvolvimento, e constituindo-se como elemento relevante para a cooperação internacional. No âmbito das interconexões entre saúde e desenvolvimento, evidencia-se a relevância da regulação do setor farmacêutico, ao nível da qualidade, preço e acesso aos bens e serviços em saúde, como essencial para a saúde básica e, por essa via, para o processo de crescimento e desenvolvimento. Neste âmbito, evidenciam-se as diferentes formas de cooperação internacional na saúde, realçando a harmonização, o alinhamento e a coordenação da cooperação internacional como vectores necessários ao alinhamento dos fluxos internacionais da ajuda ao desenvolvimento, e à implementação de projetos de cooperação em sintonia com as políticas e prioridades de cada país. Tomando-se por referência a realidade de Cabo Verde no período entre 1990 e 2010, ao nível da organização do setor da saúde, da evolução dos indicadores de saúde e do cumprimento dos Objectivos do Desenvolvimento do Milénio, este trabalho procede à análise de protocolos de parceria internacional no âmbito da Agência de Regulação e Supervisão dos Produtos Farmacêuticos e Alimentares, estabelecidos com as suas congéneres brasileiras e portuguesas. Evidencia-se a relevância da regulação dos produtos farmacêuticos em termos de qualidade, preço e acesso, para a promoção da saúde e, por essa via, para o crescimento e desenvolvimento de Cabo Verde. Nesse sentido, apresentam-se linhas de ação a serem incorporadas nos protocolos de parceria da Agência de Regulação e Supervisão dos Produtos Farmacêuticos e Alimentares, através de aprofundamento dos protocolos já existentes e estabelecimento de novas parcerias. This research relates international cooperation, development, and health and reflects on the forms in which international cooperation in health, set at the level of the pharmaceutical sector in Cape Verde through the international protocols established by the Agency for Regulation and Supervision of Food and Drugs, has contributed (and may better contribute) to the country’s growth and development dynamics. The work emphasizes how international cooperation has gradually integrated the theoretical contributions of development in its framework. It enlightens how concerns with several health and development interconnections were part of this evolvement, ultimately leading to the acknowledgement of health as a development-inducing factor, and thereby becoming a relevant dimension of international cooperation. The study further highlights the relevance of regulating the pharmaceutical sector, especially in what concerns quality, price, and access to goods and services in the health market, elements that are perceived as essential to basic health and accordingly also to growth and development. Within this context, different forms of international cooperation in health are presented, and harmonization, alignment, and coordination of international cooperation, as well as the implementation cooperation projects in accordance to the policies and priorities of each country, are all affirmed as essential for the alignment of international development aid flows. Within this theoretical framework, the research then refers to the reality of Cape Verde, from 1990 to 2010. It firstly observes the organization of the health sector, the evolution of health indicators, and the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. It then analyses the international protocols established between the Agency for Regulation and Supervision of Food and Drugs, and its Brazilian and Portuguese counterparts. The relevance of pharmaceutical regulation in terms of quality, price and access to health, and its contribution to better heath and as such to growth and development in Cape Verde is thus underlined. Finally, the research presents several proposals within the scope of the international cooperation established by the Agency for Regulation and Supervision of Food and Drugs, either by deepening the existing protocols or by establishing new international partnerships.
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Galzerano, Leandro. "Estabelecimento de pastagens de tifton 85 sob doses de aduba??o nitrogenada." PublishedVersion, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, 2008. https://tede.ufrrj.br/jspui/handle/tede/577.

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Made available in DSpace on 2016-04-28T14:59:45Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 2008 - Leandro Galzerano.pdf: 1398173 bytes, checksum: 3b9bc8540a1e5f744b54fffefe6a7828 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2008-08-05
Coordena??o de Aperfei?oamento de Pessoal de N?vel Superior
This work was carried out in order to obtain subsidies under the definition of strategies for nitrogen fertilization of pastures of tifton 85, based on monitoring the dynamics changes in the structure of swards. The underlying assumption was that the application of increasing levels of N is a powerful tool for that purpose. The experiment was developed over a Planosol of occurrence in the experimental field of the Universidade Federal Rural Rio de Janeiro, city of Serop?dica, Brazil, during the establishment of the pasture, between the months of October, 2006 to January 2007. Treatments consisted of four levels of N (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg N-urea. ha-1), in single application, in plots of 4 x 4 m, arranged in blocks fully randomized, with four repetitions. Together with nitrogen fertilization, the plots received 80 kg P.ha-1 and 150 kg K.ha-1, and Ca as calcareo (1.0 tn.ha-1). The variables were: frequency of occurrence of plants; height of the canopy, leaf growth and leaf area index (LAI), the interception of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and the production and partition of dry matter. The results showed that the frequency of occurrence, height and interception of PAR varied according to a standard logistic, whose parameters have been modified to a greater or lesser degree, by the levels of N added. Similarly, at the 87 days after planting, the LAI and the total dry matter produced, but not its partition between leaves and stems, responded to changes in N mineral available in the soil. It was concluded that the application of increasing levels of Nurea, during the establishment of grass tifton 85 was an efficient experimental strategy for the induction of quantitative changes during the development time of swards structure.
O presente trabalho foi realizado com o prop?sito de definir estrat?gias de aduba??o nitrogenada em pastagens de tifton 85, baseadas no monitoramento de mudan?as din?micas na estrutura dos doss?is forrageiros. O experimento foi desenvolvido numa ?rea de Planossolo no campo experimental da Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, munic?pio de Serop?dica, RJ, durante a fase de estabelecimento da pastagem, entre os meses de outubro de 2006 a janeiro de 2007. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro n?veis de N (0; 50; 100 e 150 kg N-ur?ia.ha-1), em aplica??o ?nica, dispostos em parcelas de 4 x 4 m, arranjadas em blocos inteiramente casualizados, com quatro repeti??es. Em conjunto com a aduba??o nitrogenada, as parcelas receberam 80 kg P.ha-1 e 150 kg K.ha-1. O solo foi corrigido com 1,0 tn.ha-1 de calc?reo. As vari?veis estudadas foram: freq??ncia de ocorr?ncia de plantas; altura do dossel, crescimento foliar e ?ndice de ?rea foliar (IAF), intercepta??o de radia??o fotossinteticamente ativa (RFA) e produ??o e parti??o da mat?ria seca. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que a freq??ncia de ocorr?ncia; altura e a intercepta??o de RFA variaram temporalmente de acordo com um padr?o log?stico, cujos par?metros foram modificados, em maior ou menor grau, pelos n?veis de N adicionados. De forma similar, aos 87 dias p?s- plantio, o IAF e a mat?ria seca total produzida, mas n?o a sua parti??o entre folhas e colmos, responderam ?s varia??es do N mineral dispon?vel no solo. Foi conclu?do que a aplica??o de n?veis crescentes de Nur?ia, durante a fase de estabelecimento do capim tifton 85 foi uma estrat?gia experimental eficiente para a indu??o de varia??es quantitativas durante o desenvolvimento temporal da estrutura dos doss?is.
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Brites, Alice Dantas. "Monitoramento dos efeitos ecológicos e socioeconômicos da comercialização de produtos florestais não madereiros." PublishedVersion, Universidade de São Paulo, 2010. http://www.teses.usp.br/teses/disponiveis/90/90131/tde-24032011-215203/.

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A comercialização de produtos florestais não madeireiros (PFNMs) popularizou-se como atividade promotora do desenvolvimento socioeconômico de comunidades florestais com baixo impacto ambiental. Há evidências, contudo, de que a exploração possa produzir efeitos ecológicos e socioeconômicos negativos, sugerindo que é necessário monitorar tais iniciativas. A comercialização frequentemente ocorre em áreas remotas e em contextos de pobreza, como é o caso de muitas daquelas da Amazônia brasileira. Desta forma, é necessário que o monitoramento restrinja-se a avaliar os efeitos evidenciados como mais comuns em estudos anteriores. Este estudo revisa e sintetiza as evidências científicas dos efeitos da exploração de PFNMs sobre parâmetros ecológicos e socioeconômicos e, a partir daí, indica aqueles mais relevantes ao monitoramento. O estudo também levanta até que ponto o monitoramento é implementado no contexto da Amazônia brasileira e avalia quais os parâmetros importantes e viáveis de monitoramento neste caso específico. Para isso, foram realizadas revisões sistemáticas da literatura e a consulta a profissionais da área através do método Delphi. Os resultados indicam que efeitos ecológicos negativos são frequentes, principalmente quando se coletam folhas ou cascas. Alterações em órgãos ou processos fisiológicos e a taxa de sobrevivência dos espécimes explorados são parâmetros que devem ser monitorados, em particular quando se coletam frutos e partes vegetativas. Para todos os tipos de PFNMs, o tamanho e a estrutura populacional são parâmetros prioritários ao monitoramento. A riqueza de espécies da comunidade explorada merece atenção, principalmente quando se coletam frutos. Para os aspectos socioeconômicos, efeitos positivos foram mais frequentes que negativos. A contribuição da renda monetária obtida com o comércio na renda total, a regularidade de ingresso desta renda e o papel dos PFNMs como recursos de salvaguarda são parâmetros do capital financeiro prioritários ao monitoramento. Para o capital social, o empoderamento feminino, a coesão de grupo e o acesso aos benefícios gerados pela comercialização devem ser monitorados. Na Amazônia brasileira são poucas as iniciativas de implementação do monitoramento da comercialização de PFNMs. Embora este seja considerado importante, existem dificuldades que derivam principalmente da falta de apoio institucional, políticas de incentivo e de recursos financeiros. Os profissionais participantes do Delphi consideram que os parâmetros ecológicos mais importantes a monitorar neste contexto são o tamanho e a estrutura populacional do recurso explorado, o aumento da taxa de mortalidade, a quantidade total de recurso extraída e a técnica de coleta utilizada. Para os parâmetros econômicos, aspectos do mercado, como o preço pago ao coletor, a demanda e a qualidade do produto, bem como a renda monetária obtida pelos indivíduos são os parâmetros considerados mais importantes. Por fim, para os aspectos sociais, os efeitos na cultura, na qualidade de vida e na organização interna da comunidade foram priorizados. Os profissionais indicam que é viável estabelecer o monitoramento dos parâmetros levantados.
Amazon, non-timber forest products, ecological effects, socioeconomic effects, monitoring.

Книги з теми "Dose area product":

1

Braber, Helleke, Jeroen Dera, Jos Joosten, and Maarten Steenmeijer, eds. Branding Books Across the Ages. NL Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2021. http://dx.doi.org/10.5117/9789463723916.

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For many, literature and marketing are considered opposite phenomena. This book discusses cases in which the two are closely connected. It argues that literature is subject to the same mechanisms as other commercial products: our experience of literary texts is prefigured by brands, trademarks that identify a product and differentiate it from its competitors. From the early modern period onwards, literary authors and their texts are constantly ‘branded’ and have been both the object and the trailblazer of a complex marketing process. The authors of this volume analyze this branding process throughout the centuries, focusing on the Netherlands. To what extent is our experience of Dutch literature prefigured by brands, and what role does branding play when introducing European authors in the Dutch literary field (or vice versa)? By answering these questions, Branding Books Across the Ages seeks to show how literary scholars understand branding – a phenomenon that has long been intertwined with literature.
2

Hart, David, D. G. Jones, and B. F. Wall. Estimation of Effective Dose in Diagnostic Radiology from Entrance Surface Dose and Dose-area Product Measurement (NRPB). National Radiological Protection Board, 1994.

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3

NE technology dose area product meter type 2640A and data logging software. London: Department of Health, MedicalDevices Directorate, 1994.

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4

Fielding, Nigel G. Does Training Produce Professional Policing? Oxford University Press, 2018. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780198817475.003.0007.

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The chapter uses contemporary policing problems and challenges to evaluate how well training prepares recruits, auxiliaries, detectives, and managers for the police role. It reviews patterns of police corruption, misconduct and complaints against officers and considers whether, and how well, training helps police forces counter such problems. It also notes instances of positive responses to failures of service delivery. The discussion moves on to examine the challenge that diversity poses for the police, both at a cultural level and in respect of the specific experience of female officers, ethnic minority officers, and officers with alternative sexual orientations. The lessons of sickness, stress and injury on duty are considered in relation to how effectively training and supervision helps counter these. A discussion of public confidence and trust is used to address the concept of police legitimacy and to place it in relation to the acquisition of professional competence.
5

Owen, David. Reason, Belief, and the Passions. Edited by Paul Russell. Oxford University Press, 2014. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199742844.013.17.

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Hume said that reason alone cannot motivate and that passions are required to produce volitions and actions. It is argued that the widely, though not universally, held “Humean” view of motivation—that beliefs require desires to motivate actions—does not accurately reflect Hume’s own view. The author argues here that beliefs, especially beliefs about pleasure, do motivate. But beliefs are produced by probable reasoning. And this seems to imply that reason alone does motivate, i.e., produces, via beliefs, volitions and actions. It is argued that the seeming inconsistency that appears to result is only apparent. An interpretation of what Hume means by “reason alone” is provided.
6

Framarin, Christopher. Habit and Karmic Result in the Yogaśāstra. Edited by Jonardon Ganeri. Oxford University Press, 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199314621.013.16.

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The most popular interpretation of the theory of karma in the Yogaśāstra states that actions produce merit and demerit in the form of habits (saṃskāras) to repeat similar actions in the future. This chapter argues that this interpretation is implausible. The Yogaśāstra does outline an influential account of habit-formation. It also offers an explanation of how actions produce karmic results that correspond with the quality of the actions that produced them. These two processes, however, are generally distinct.
7

Qu, Lirong, and Darrell J. Triulzi. Blood product therapy in the ICU. Oxford University Press, 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/med/9780199600830.003.0267.

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Transfusions are among the most common medical procedures in the intensive care unit. Several randomized controlled trials (RCT) indicate that restrictive red cell transfusion practice using a haemoglobin of <7g/dL is safe in critically-ill patients. Although similar RCT are not available for plasma or platelet transfusion guidelines, a large body of observational studies suggest that plasma transfusion for an invasive procedure has not been shown to be of benefit in patients with INR <2.0. Similarly, in thrombocytopenic patients, the target platelet count for bleeding or for an invasive procedure is 50,000/µl. Viral transmission risk has become exceedingly low. Other risks such as transfusion-associated circulatory overload and, to a lesser extent, transfusion-related acute lung injury, are much more common. Storage of red cells does not seem to be associated with adverse clinical outcomes. Alternatives using haemostatic agents, salvaged blood, and adherence to evidence-based transfusion guidelines probably reduce the need for transfusion in critically-ill patients.
8

O’Donoghue, John L. Neurologic Manifestations of Organic Chemicals. Oxford University Press, 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/med/9780199937837.003.0176.

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Organic chemicals can produce many different effects on the nervous system. The nervous system functions are affected by a variety of different organic chemicals. Organic chemicals that induce neurotoxicity may be naturally occurring or synthetic. Those that are naturally occurring products of plants or animals are referred to as “toxins,” whereas those that are synthetic are referred to as “toxicants”; however, publications and regulations sometimes use these terms interchangeably. Underlying these functional changes are cellular and subcellular changes that mediate the clinical and pathological appearance of the neurotoxicity. The ability to make a diagnosis of organic-chemical-induced neurotoxicity is dependent on being able to link a clinical situation with an exposure in a dose-related manner. Treatment and management of organic-chemical-induced neurotoxicity in affected individuals is dependent upon the specific chemical involved and the underlying mechanism by which toxicity occurs.
9

Jay, Gregory S. How Does It Feel to Be a Trademark? Oxford University Press, 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780190687229.003.0003.

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Hurst’s best-selling novel of the 1930s portrayed the life of a New Woman business tycoon and the African American maid whose family waffle recipe became the basis for an “Aunt Jemima” kind of product and fortune. Stereotypes such as the “mammy” and “tragic mulatta” are either damaging caricatures or images to expose racism, depending on the reader’s interpretation of the text. The novel’s use of limited point of view works to satirize Bea Pullman’s racism even as the novel looks sympathetically on her quasi-feminist ambitions. The decision of the light-skinned Peola to leave the United States presents an indictment of society’s racism, though it breaks her mother’s heart. The film version of the novel from 1934 offers an interesting comparison to more stereotypical black images in cinema at the time, though some critics still found it offensive.
10

Radcliffe, Elizabeth S. Morality and Motivation. Oxford University Press, 2018. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780199573295.003.0006.

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Hume’s argument against moral rationalism says that because morals produce or prevent actions, and reason alone does not, morals cannot be derived from reason alone. The premise concerning morality is perplexing. This premise is best understood as claiming that the moral sentiments by which we judge virtue and vice produce motives when we find ourselves deficient of a morally-approved trait, or when we anticipate the pleasure of self-approval for exhibiting virtues. These motives are produced by self-approbation and self-disapprobation in the same way that motives are typically generated in Hume’s theory: a person retains an idea of a source of pleasure or displeasure and reacts to it with an impression of reflection. Hume’s sentimentalism is a way of explaining how normative concepts originate in impressions rather than in ideas; although internalist, it is consistent with cognitivism, since motives come from the discernment of morality, not from the ideas themselves.

Частини книг з теми "Dose area product":

1

Struelens, L., K. Bacher, and M. Zankl. "Dose-Area-Product to Effective Dose in Interventional Cardiology and Radiology." In IFMBE Proceedings, 181–84. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2009. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-03902-7_51.

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2

Dimov, Asen, Ivan Tsanev, and Dimitar Penev. "Technique and Gender Specific Conversion Coefficients for Estimation of Effective Dose from Kerma Area Product During X-Ray Radiography of Chest." In IFMBE Proceedings, 719–23. Singapore: Springer Singapore, 2018. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-9035-6_133.

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3

Brad, Stelian. "Domain Analysis with TRIZ to Define an Effective “Design for Excellence” Framework." In Creative Solutions for a Sustainable Development, 426–44. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2021. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-86614-3_34.

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AbstractDesign for Excellence (DfEx) is the name given to an engineering process where a product is designed to meet a set of objective functions that cover its lifecycle. There are negative correlations between different objective functions in this set and issues related to technological complexity are added, since modern products typically fall into the category of smart connected mechatronic products. This context leads to complexity in terms of tackling the design process. Simultaneous engineering and PLM platforms can only partially handle such levels of complexity. To our knowledge, the subject of DfEx was treated in current researches from a limited perspective, which does not necessarily cover the complexity of the present-day context. In order to formulate a reliable DfEx framework, this research considers a strategy based on tools that manage in a systematic way the process of identifying the comprehensive set of barriers and conflicts that obstruct DfEx. This research highlights the level of complexity in setting up a reliable methodology to DfEx of modern, sophisticated mechatronic products. A set of guidelines to be placed at the foundation of an effective DfEx methodology is formulated with the support of TRIZ.
4

Glass, Bertram, and Marie José Kersten. "Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma and Primary Mediastinal Lymphoma." In The EBMT/EHA CAR-T Cell Handbook, 67–74. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2022. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-94353-0_12.

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AbstractThe outcome of patients with large B cell lymphoma (LBCL) who did not respond to a classical immunochemotherapy regimen at any time or relapsed within 1 year following chemoimmunotherapy is poor. The Scholar-One-Study showed long-term event-free survival for less than 20% of these patients (Crump et al. 2017). The introduction of chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy (CAR-T) is a substantial advancement for these patients, offering long-term remission and a curative prospect for 30 to 40% of patients (summarized in Table 12.1), (Abramson et al. 2020; Neelapu et al. 2017; Schuster et al. 2019b). To date, in Europe, two products (axicabtagene ciloleucel and tisagenlecleucel) have been licenced by the European Medical Agency, and a third product (lisocabtagene maraleucel) will become available in 2021. All these products are licenced for patients who have failed at least two prior lines of systemic therapy. This initially defines, however broad, a range of possible situations in which the application of CART is indicated. The following considerations may help to further define the patient population that should be offered CAR-T cells as the next line of treatment. Studies addressing the potential benefit of CAR-T cells compared to high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation for second-line treatment of LBCL have been fully recruited, but the results are still pending.
5

Bastianel, Marinês, Vera L. N. P. Barros, Augusto Tulmann Neto, Paulo S. Souza, Rose M. Pio, and Rodrigo R. Latado. "Induction and selection of mandarin mutants with fruits containing low number of seeds." In Mutation breeding, genetic diversity and crop adaptation to climate change, 379–85. Wallingford: CABI, 2021. http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/9781789249095.0039.

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Abstract The Brazilian citrus industry has a worldwide presence for production and export of sweet orange juice, but it has little contribution to the production of fruits for the fresh fruit market. One requirement of this market is the production of seedless fruits. The Fremont IAC 543 mandarin produces fruits with good commercial qualities, large numbers of seeds (10-12), and plants with resistance to Alternaria brown spot (ABS), an important disease present in several countries. The objective of this work was to induce and select mutants of Fremont IAC 543 mandarin with seedless fruits or fruits with a low number of seeds, using gamma-ray induced mutagenesis. In vivo buds were irradiated with doses of 20 and 30 Gy of gamma-rays. After irradiation and grafting of 2000 in vivo buds with each mutagenic dose, 4000 plants were produced and planted in an experimental field. During development of these plants, they were pruned several times allowing only the development of M1V4 branches or more advanced ones (without new grafting). A total of 32 branches were selected during the harvesting period because they produced seedless fruits and nine mutant clones were selected after another vegetative multiplication. Fruit and juice qualities, including seed number of the fruits, were evaluated in a further experiment including six mutants and a control. The results obtained showed that all mutants produced fruits with a lower number of seeds (between 3.7 and 9.1 seeds per fruit) in relation to the control (22.0 seeds per fruit), but without the existence of other alterations (fruit metric and chemical characteristics of the juice). All selected mutants (nine) are participating in advanced agronomic evaluation experiments, with a greater number of replicates and several local checks, in order to evaluate commercial yield, presence of chimeras, disease resistance and organoleptic quality of the fruits.
6

Garrett, Steven L. "Nonlinear Acoustics." In Understanding Acoustics, 701–53. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-44787-8_15.

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Abstract A fundamental assumption of linear acoustics is that the presence of a wave does not have an influence on the properties of the medium through which it propagates. By extension, the assumption of linearity also means that a waveform is stable since any individual wave does not interact with itself. Small modifications in the sound speed due to wave-induced fluid convection (particle velocity) and to the wave’s effect on sound speed through the equation of state can lead to effects that could not be predicted within the limitations imposed by the assumption of linearity. Although a wave’s influence on the propagation speed may be small, those effects are cumulative and create distortion that can produce shocks. These are nonlinear effects because the magnitude of the nonlinearity’s influence is related to the square of an individual wave’s amplitude (self-interaction) or the product of the amplitudes of two interacting waves (intermodulation distortion). In addition, the time-average of an acoustically induced disturbance may not be zero. Sound waves can exert forces that are sufficient to levitate solid objects against gravity. The stability of such levitation forces will also be examined along with their relation to resonance frequency shifts created by the position of the levitated object.
7

Chiwona-Karltun, Linley, Leon Brimer, and Jose Jackson. "Improving Safety of Cassava Products." In Root, Tuber and Banana Food System Innovations, 241–58. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2022. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-92022-7_8.

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AbstractCassava was domesticated in the Amazon Basin, where Native Americans selected many bitter varieties, and devised methods for detoxifying them. Cassava reached Africa in the sixteenth century, where rural people soon learned to remove the cyanogenic toxins, e.g., by drying and fermenting the roots. Processing cassava to remove the cyanogenic toxins including the cyanide formed during the processing is time consuming. The work is often done by women, while women and men often prefer bitter cassava varieties for social reasons and superior taste and color. In spite of deep, local knowledge of safe processing, traditional foods made with contaminated water may contain bacterial and fungal pathogens. Improper storage may encourage mycotoxins, such as aflatoxin. Recent advances in industrial processing are developing foods that are free of toxins and microbial contamination. Processing and selling cassava leaves is an emerging but fast-growing sector. Cassava leaves also contain cyanogenic toxins normally in higher concentrations than the cassava roots. In the future, more attention must be paid to the safe processing of cassava leaves and roots, especially as food processing becomes increasingly industrialized worldwide.
8

Atkinson, Martin E. "Development of the central nervous system." In Anatomy for Dental Students. Oxford University Press, 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780199234462.003.0027.

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The early development of the nervous system, the process of neurulation, has already been outlined in Chapter 8 and illustrated in Figure 8.4. To briefly recap, an area of dorsal ectoderm is induced by the underlying notochord to form the neural plate during the third week of development. The lateral edges of the neural plate rise to form the neural folds which eventually fold over and unite in the midline by the end of the fourth week to produce the neural tube. A distinct cell population on the crest of the neural folds, the neural crest, migrates from the forming neural tube to form various structures, including components of the peripheral nervous system. The closed neural tube consists of a large diameter anterior portion that will become the brain and a longer cylindrical posterior section, the future spinal cord. Initially, the neural plate is a single cell layer, but concentric layers of cells can be recognized by the time the neural tube has closed. An inner layer of ependymal cells surrounds the central spinal canal. Neuroblasts, the precursors of neurons, make up the bulk of the neural tube called the mantle layer; this will become the grey matter of the spinal cord. Neuroblasts do not extend processes until they have completed their differentiation. When the cells in a particular location are fully differentiated, the neuronal processes emerging from the neuroblasts form an outer marginal layer which ultimately becomes the white matter of the spinal cord. Figure 19.1B shows that the neural tube changes shape due to proliferation of cells in the mantle layer. This figure also indicates two midline structures in the roof and floor of the tube, known as the roof plate and floor plate. They are important in the determination of the types of neurons that develop from the mantle layer. The floor plate is induced by the expression of a protein product of a gene called sonic hedgehog (SHH) produced by the underlying notochord; the floor plate then expresses the same gene itself. Neuroblasts nearest to the floor plate receive a high dose of SHH protein and respond by differentiating into motor neurons; as seen in Figure 19.1B, these cells group together to form bilateral ventrolateral basal plates.
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Dhavaputhalvi, A. Chitra, and Ally Sornam. "Marketing of Library Management Software Products." In Advances in Library and Information Science, 190–202. IGI Global, 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.4018/978-1-7998-1482-5.ch014.

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Marketing is a human activity and it is the process of developing, promoting, and distributing products in order to satisfy customer needs and wants. Products include both goods and services. Goods are also known as tangible products. Services are things which one may not be able to touch, smell, or taste and are called intangible products. The traditional marketing concept focuses on the flow of goods and services from producer to consumer or user. In modern times, marketing is viewed as the anticipation, management, and satisfaction of demand through the exchange process. Product marketing and service marketing are essentially the same. The basic task of marketing remains the same irrespective of the products or services involved in the deal. Service is an activity or benefit that one party can offer to another that is essentially intangible and does not result in the ownership of anything.
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Dhavaputhalvi, A. Chitra, and Ally Sornam. "Marketing of Library Management Software Products." In Research Anthology on Collaboration, Digital Services, and Resource Management for the Sustainability of Libraries, 337–49. IGI Global, 2021. http://dx.doi.org/10.4018/978-1-7998-8051-6.ch019.

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Marketing is a human activity and it is the process of developing, promoting, and distributing products in order to satisfy customer needs and wants. Products include both goods and services. Goods are also known as tangible products. Services are things which one may not be able to touch, smell, or taste and are called intangible products. The traditional marketing concept focuses on the flow of goods and services from producer to consumer or user. In modern times, marketing is viewed as the anticipation, management, and satisfaction of demand through the exchange process. Product marketing and service marketing are essentially the same. The basic task of marketing remains the same irrespective of the products or services involved in the deal. Service is an activity or benefit that one party can offer to another that is essentially intangible and does not result in the ownership of anything.

Тези доповідей конференцій з теми "Dose area product":

1

Fransson, Veronica, and Anders Tingberg. "Dose-length-product determination on cone beam computed tomography through experimental measurements and dose-area-product conversion." In Physics of Medical Imaging, edited by Hilde Bosmans, Wei Zhao, and Lifeng Yu. SPIE, 2021. http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2575906.

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2

Pugliese, M., N. Scotti, F. Preziuso, and S. Casarella. "A first approach to engineering of DAP (Dose Area Product) information for medical record." In 2017 IEEE 5th Portuguese Meeting on Bioengineering (ENBENG). IEEE, 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/enbeng.2017.7889457.

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3

Vijayan, Sarath, Alok Shankar, Stephen Rudin, and Daniel R. Bednarek. "Integration of kerma-area product and cumulative air kerma determination into a skin dose tracking system for fluoroscopic imaging procedures." In SPIE Medical Imaging, edited by Despina Kontos, Thomas G. Flohr, and Joseph Y. Lo. SPIE, 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2216822.

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4

Tonev, Todor. "ENERGY POTENTIAL IN RURAL ECONOMY." In AGRIBUSINESS AND RURAL AREAS - ECONOMY, INNOVATION AND GROWTH 2021. University publishing house "Science and Economics", University of Economics - Varna, 2021. http://dx.doi.org/10.36997/ara2021.304.

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In recent years it has taken more study and apply opportunities to produce energy from products of the agricultural economy. It is possible to produce electricity, heat, gas, bioethanol, diesel, etc. from agricultural products. As over the years, a danger of competition between food and energy products in agriculture has been noticed. Therefore, the EC does not support the production of diesel from primary agricultural products. This report examines the potential of Burgas for energy production. The aim is to show the potential for new business opportunities and add value to the agricultural economy.
5

Choi, Jun-Ki, and Karthik Ramani. "An Integrated Decision Analysis for the Sustainable Product Design." In ASME 2008 International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference collocated with the 3rd JSME/ASME International Conference on Materials and Processing. ASMEDC, 2008. http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/msec_icmp2008-72029.

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Engineering designers consider many aspects surrounding a product’s life in order to meet safety, reliability, quality, manufacturing, and cost requirements. Most of the time this is done in an excellent way and the resulting products offers broad functionality with high quality and reasonable price. However serious considerations of integration of environmental requirements are often missed in the product development process. All products contribute to a range of environmental problems. These problems arise through the entire life cycle of products from the creation to the disposal of products. Design for environment (DfE) is the systematic consideration of design performance with respect to environmental, health, and safety objectives over the full product and process life-cycle. It takes place early in a product’s design or upgrade phase to ensure that the environmental consequences of a product’s life cycle are considered. The key issue to success is how to select the most appropriate and effective strategy for a particular product to reduce environmental impacts without disregarding the business strategies in the decision making process. In this paper, a general framework is proposed to integrate the life cycle assessment and decision analysis for prioritizing the design for environment strategy by considering uncertainty issues exist in the decision making process. A case study is illustrated focusing in the product upgrade phase. The ultimate goal is to provide a design advisory tool for product designers in the hopes of facilitating their complex decision making processes by considering the environmental issues in mind.
6

Adeoye, A. O. M., and T. Sze´csi. "The Use of Hybrid System of Classification for the Retrieval and Modification of Mechanical Products." In ASME 2011 International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference. ASMEDC, 2011. http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/msec2011-50157.

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With people becoming more individualistic in their choices they make in personalizing the goods and services they use, as resulted in major development that has been recorded in the customisation world. This individualism has resulted in the increase in demand of customized products in many industries especially in the footwear, kitchen and computer industries. However, little has been done when it comes to mechanically oriented products and little flexibility has been given to the consumers in the co-creation of customized products. The Hybrid system of classification is one way to satisfy the customers’ need for the products that are mechanically oriented in nature thereby meeting their desire needs. This paper presents a framework in which an Hybrid system of classification is used to integrates Customers into the design process by defining, configuring, matching, or modifying personal product that is mechanically oriented in nature and grouping the products into classes and sub-classes using a wide range of product parameters, products configuration which make it possible to add and/or change functionalities of a core product, a coding system for mechanical designs which is applicable to each product in the hierarchy, the use of a database for the products information. And the retrieval system to retrieve a similar product code from the database if the initial customer configuration data does not yield a feasible product code through the application of Analytic Hierarchy Process and finally modifying the existing similar product to suit the customers desire.
7

Fukuda, Shuichi. "Best for Whom? Changing Design for Creative Customers." In ASME 2010 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference. ASMEDC, 2010. http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/detc2010-28330.

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Our traditional design has been producer-centric. But to respond to the frequent and extensive changes and increasing diversification, we have to change our design to user-centric. But it is not a straightforward extension and just listening to the voice of the customer is not enough. Value is defined as value = performance/cost, but performance has been interpreted in the current design solely as functions of a final product and all other factors such as manufacturing are considered as cost. This framework has been effective until recently because there has been asymmetry of information between the producer and the customer. As the producer had a greater amount of information, they only had to produce a product which they think best and it really satisfied the customer who needed a product. The 20th century was the age of products. But as we approached the 21st century, we entered information society and sometimes the customer knows more than the producer. Thus, such a one way flow of development to fill the information (water level) gap doe not work any more, because the gap is quickly disappearing. The difference was evaluated as value in the traditional design and it meant profit for the producer. Therefore, a new approach to create value is called for. One solution is to raise the water level together by the producer and the customer so that the level increase serves for profit for the producer and for the true value for the customer. In order to achieve this goal, we have to identify what is the true value for the customer. We have to step outside of our traditional notion of value being functions of a final product. What is the true value for the customer? It is customers’ satisfaction. Then, how can we satisfy our customers. This paper points out if we note that our customers are very active and creative, we can provide satisfaction to them by getting them involved in the whole process of product development. Then our customers can enjoy not only product experience but also process experience, which will satisfy their needs for self actualization and challenge, i.e., their highest human needs.
8

Liu, Jun, and Qing Wang. "Towards Sustainable Product Design." In ASME 2011 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference. ASMEDC, 2011. http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/detc2011-47736.

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The aim of this paper is to propose a framework to guide engineers’ use of LCA tools to optimize three important stages of a product’s life cycle. The three phases are product concept design, manufacturing process and products end of life recycle. A mountain bike has been used as an example to demonstrate how engineers are guided by the proposed framework. The proposed framework does not only lead industry in a sustainable design direction but also guide them to embed sustainable thinking into every stage of a product life cycle based on their existing resources. Some design tools and techniques have been incorporated with life cycle assessment tools to achieve the sustainable optimization of the products.
9

Ferrero, Vincenzo J., Arvind Shankar Raman, Bryony DuPont, and Karl R. Haapala. "Understanding the Sustainability of Eco-Labeled Products When Compared to Conventional Alternatives." In ASME 2017 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/detc2017-68339.

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Sustainability considerations are becoming an intrinsic part of product design and manufacturing. Today’s consumers rely on package labeling to relay useful information about the environmental impact of a given product. As such, eco-labeling has become an important influence on how consumers interpret the sustainability of products. Three categories of eco-labels are theorized: Type I focuses on the use of labels that are certified by a reputable third party. Type II are eco-labels that are self-declared, potentially lacking scientific merit. Type III eco-labeling indicates the public availability of product LCA data. However, regardless of the type of eco-label used, it is uncertain if eco-labeling directly reflects improved product sustainability. This research focuses on exploring if eco-labeling reflects improved product sustainability by comparing eco-labeled products to conventional alternatives. To do this, we perform a comparative study of eco-labelled and comparable conventional products using a triple bottom line sustainability analysis, including environmental, economic, and social impacts. Here we show that for a selected set of products, eco-labeling does, in fact, have a positive correlation with improved sustainability. However, Type II eco-labeling shows a slight negative correlation with product sustainability. We found only one eco-labeled product (with Type II labeling) that had reduced environmental impact over the conventional alternative. Additionally, the majority of the eco-labeled products in the study are cheaper for the consumer in both initial cost and costs incurred throughout the product’s lifetime. In general, the results confirm that most eco-labels are indicative of improved sustainability. Future research can work towards improving Type II eco-labels, and promote policies that protect against false sustainability claims.
10

Weber Martins, Thiago, Katharina Albrecht, and Reiner Anderl. "Automated Import of XML-Files Containing Optimized Geometric Data to 3D-CAD-Models of Non-Linear Integral Bifurcated Sheet Metal Parts." In ASME 2015 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/detc2015-47076.

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The Collaborative Research Centre 666 has the focus on researching fundamental new methods for the development of optimized products and production processes for integral bifurcated sheet metal parts. Technological innovations have been achieved with respect to new production processes such as linear flow splitting and linear bend splitting as well as to produce products with flexible profiles. The use of state of art product development methodologies can be applied but these are not optimized to deal with the high complexity of the requirements and properties of integral bifurcated sheet metal products. In order to deal with that complexity a new approach of a product development methodology, the algorithm based product development process, has been established. Within the scope of the algorithm based product development methodology a topology optimization, based on mathematical algorithms using product requirements information, is already applied in the conceptual steps of product development process. By using this methodological approach an optimized concept of bifurcated sheet metal can be determined. The results are stored as optimized geometric data in XML-format files. 3D-CAD-Models are generated based on these data. However the import of these data into 3D-CAD-Systems are not fully automated. The developed data model, from earlier works for linear flow splitting and linear bend splitting, does not take into account the variability of the profiles in the third-dimension. In addition the topology optimization does not provide production-orientated design requirements and therefore it does not take into account the production process limits (of linear flow splitting and linear bend splitting). Hence 3D-CAD-Models resulting from the optimized geometric data need to be adapted manually. Therefore new advanced approaches in terms of virtual product development tools need to be explored. This paper describes the development of an interface within the CAD-System Siemens NX which supports the automatic import of XML-files containing the optimized geometric data of non-linear integral bifurcated sheet metal in 3D-CAD-Models. The existing data model is extended considering the requirements of the developed interface in order to represent nonlinear bifurcated profiles. An approach of the interface using the described data model and the NX Open API is introduced and explained.

Звіти організацій з теми "Dose area product":

1

Munhuweyi, Ngonidzashe Portia, Zita Ekeocha, Stephen Robert Byrn, and Kari L. Clase. Resource Modelling for the QC Laboratory at XYZ Pharmaceuticals in Southern Africa. Purdue University, November 2021. http://dx.doi.org/10.5703/1288284317431.

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Quality control (QC) laboratories are critical components in drug manufacturing and running them efficiently contributes to better, consistent supply of cost-effective quality products, while also and preventing deaths due to untimely delivery or unavailability of medicines. Having a resource modelling tool to estimate resources needed to handle a particular demand in a given system is essential for efficient running of QC laboratory. This study was done to establish such a model at XYZ Pharmaceuticals. The list of all products manufactured by XYZ Pharmaceuticals Southern Africa was reviewed; and product families for all products were identified. Analysts’ hands on time (HOT) to process one sample of each of the product families was estimated. The number of analysts required to support the workload at XYZ Pharmaceuticals was calculated using the HOTs for the different product families and the Maslaton’s Calculation Model. A baseline resource model was established.
2

Usai, Jannet, Zita Ekeocha, Stephen Robert Byrn, and Kari L. Clase. Herbal Medicines Registration Process for Zimbabwe Overview of the Process. Purdue University, November 2021. http://dx.doi.org/10.5703/1288284317434.

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Unregistered traditional medicines pose a huge public health threat as the safety and efficacy of these products is unknown. The issue this study addresses is the inadequate regulatory measures for herbal medicines in Zimbabwe. This project was done to describe the current registration process of traditional medicines in Zimbabwe, and to identify the gaps and opportunities they present to improve the regulatory landscape. Regulations and laws governing the registration of herbal medicines in the country and published research on legislation of herbal medicines were reviewed. Two parallel regulatory bodies both registering and controlling the sale of herbal medicines were identified. The Medicines Control Authority of Zimbabwe (MCAZ) and the Traditional Medical Practitioners Association (TMPA) both derive their authority to regulate from the ministry of health and were established through the act of parliament which gives these authorities power to regulate the quality and sale of traditional medicines without giving a prescriptive way of doing it. The registration process, and product evaluations for the two authorities are different. While the MCAZ has a clearly defined registration process, the TMPA does not. However, MCAZ has not been very successful in registering local products with the majority of the registered herbal products being imports and only 2% of total registered products being local herbs. As a recommendation, there is need for collaboration between the regulatory bodies for consistence in quality of herbal products on the market and to improve registration of local herbal products. Developing monographs for local herbs commonly used in the country will also assist local manufacturer to fulfill the quality requirements and successful compilation of dossiers for product registration.
3

Schuck-Zöller, Susanne, Sebastian Bathiany, Markus Dressel, Juliane El Zohbi, Elke Keup-Thiel, Diana Rechid, and Suhari Mirko. Developing criteria of successful processes in co-creative research. A formative evaluation scheme for climate services. Fteval - Austrian Platform for Research and Technology Policy Evaluation, April 2022. http://dx.doi.org/10.22163/fteval.2022.541.

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Climate change and its socio-ecological impacts affect all sectors of society. To tackle the multiple risks of climate change the field of climate services evolved during the last decades. In this scientific field products to be applied in practice are developed in constant interaction between climate service providers and users. To judge the effectiveness of these co-creation endeavours, evaluation is crucial. At present, output and outcome assessments are conducted occasionally in this research field. However, the summative evaluation does not help to adjust the ongoing process of co-creation. Thus, our work focuses on the formative evaluation of co-creative development of science-based climate service products. As the first step, main characteristics of the product development process were identified empirically. Secondly, we determined the six sub- processes of climate service product development and related process steps. Thirdly, we selected the questions for the formative evaluation relevant to all the sub-processes and process-steps. Then, a literature review delivered the theoretical background for further work and revealed further quality aspects. These aspects from literature were brought together with our results from the empirical work. In the end, we created a new scheme of quality criteria and related assessment questions for the different sub-processes in climate services, based on both, empirical and theoretical work. As the authors take into account the process of co-production in a real-life case, the criteria and assessment questions proposed are operational and hands-on. The quality aspects refer to the five principles of applicability, theoretical and empirical foundation, professionalism, transparency of processes and the disclosure of preconditions. They are elaborated comprehensively in our study. The resulting formative evalu- ation scheme is novel in climate service science and practice and useful in improving the co-creation processes in climate services and beyond.
4

Poverenov, Elena, Tara McHugh, and Victor Rodov. Waste to Worth: Active antimicrobial and health-beneficial food coating from byproducts of mushroom industry. United States Department of Agriculture, January 2014. http://dx.doi.org/10.32747/2014.7600015.bard.

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Background. In this proposal we suggest developing a common solution for three seemingly unrelated acute problems: (1) improving sustainability of fast-growing mushroom industry producing worldwide millions of tons of underutilized leftovers; (2) alleviating the epidemic of vitamin D deficiency adversely affecting the public health in both countries and in other regions; (3) reducing spoilage of perishable fruit and vegetable products leading to food wastage. Based on our previous experience we propose utilizing appropriately processed mushroom byproducts as a source of two valuable bioactive materials: antimicrobial and wholesome polysaccharide chitosan and health-strengthening nutrient ergocalciferol⁽ᵛⁱᵗᵃᵐⁱⁿ ᴰ2⁾. ᴬᵈᵈⁱᵗⁱᵒⁿᵃˡ ᵇᵉⁿᵉᶠⁱᵗ ᵒᶠ ᵗʰᵉˢᵉ ᵐᵃᵗᵉʳⁱᵃˡˢ ⁱˢ ᵗʰᵉⁱʳ ᵒʳⁱᵍⁱⁿ ᶠʳᵒᵐ ⁿᵒⁿ⁻ᵃⁿⁱᵐᵃˡ ᶠᵒᵒᵈ⁻ᵍʳᵃᵈᵉ source. We proposed using chitosan and vitamin D as ingredients in active edible coatings on two model foods: highly perishable fresh-cut melon and less perishable health bars. Objectives and work program. The general aim of the project is improving storability, safety and health value of foods by developing and applying a novel active edible coating based on utilization of mushroom industry leftovers. The work plan includes the following tasks: (a) optimizing the UV-B treatment of mushroom leftover stalks to enrich them with vitamin D without compromising chitosan quality - Done; (b) developing effective extraction procedures to yield chitosan and vitamin D from the stalks - Done; (c) utilizing LbL approach to prepare fungal chitosan-based edible coatings with optimal properties - Done; (d) enrichment of the coating matrix with fungal vitamin D utilizing molecular encapsulation and nano-encapsulation approaches - Done, it was found that no encapsulation methods are needed to enrich chitosan matrix with vitamin D; (e) testing the performance of the coating for controlling spoilage of fresh cut melons - Done; (f) testing the performance of the coating for nutritional enhancement and quality preservation of heath bars - Done. Achievements. In this study numerous results were achieved. Mushroom waste, leftover stalks, was treated ʷⁱᵗʰ ᵁⱽ⁻ᴮ ˡⁱᵍʰᵗ ᵃⁿᵈ ᵗʳᵉᵃᵗᵐᵉⁿᵗ ⁱⁿᵈᵘᶜᵉˢ ᵃ ᵛᵉʳʸ ʰⁱᵍʰ ᵃᶜᶜᵘᵐᵘˡᵃᵗⁱᵒⁿ ᵒᶠ ᵛⁱᵗᵃᵐⁱⁿ ᴰ2, ᶠᵃʳ ᵉˣᶜᵉᵉᵈⁱⁿᵍ any other dietary vitamin D source. The straightforward vitamin D extraction procedure and ᵃ ˢⁱᵐᵖˡⁱᶠⁱᵉᵈ ᵃⁿᵃˡʸᵗⁱᶜᵃˡ ᵖʳᵒᵗᵒᶜᵒˡ ᶠᵒʳ ᵗⁱᵐᵉ⁻ᵉᶠᶠⁱᶜⁱᵉⁿᵗ ᵈᵉᵗᵉʳᵐⁱⁿᵃᵗⁱᵒⁿ ᵒᶠ ᵗʰᵉ ᵛⁱᵗᵃᵐⁱⁿ ᴰ2 ᶜᵒⁿᵗᵉⁿᵗ suitable for routine product quality control were developed. Concerning the fungal chitosan extraction, new freeze-thawing protocol was developed, tested on three different mushroom sources and compared to the classic protocol. The new protocol resulted in up to 2-fold increase in the obtained chitosan yield, up to 3-fold increase in its deacetylation degree, high whitening index and good antimicrobial activity. The fungal chitosan films enriched with Vitamin D were prepared and compared to the films based on animal origin chitosan demonstrating similar density, porosity and water vapor permeability. Layer-by-layer chitosan-alginate electrostatic deposition was used to coat fruit bars. The coatings helped to preserve the quality and increase the shelf-life of fruit bars, delaying degradation of ascorbic acid and antioxidant capacity loss as well as reducing bar softening. Microbiological analyses also showed a delay in yeast and fungal growth when compared with single layer coatings of fungal or animal chitosan or alginate. Edible coatings were also applied on fresh-cut melons and provided significant improvement of physiological quality (firmness, weight ˡᵒˢˢ⁾, ᵐⁱᶜʳᵒᵇⁱᵃˡ ˢᵃᶠᵉᵗʸ ⁽ᵇᵃᶜᵗᵉʳⁱᵃ, ᵐᵒˡᵈ, ʸᵉᵃˢᵗ⁾, ⁿᵒʳᵐᵃˡ ʳᵉˢᵖⁱʳᵃᵗⁱᵒⁿ ᵖʳᵒᶜᵉˢˢ ⁽Cᴼ2, ᴼ²⁾ ᵃⁿᵈ ᵈⁱᵈ not cause off-flavor (EtOH). It was also found that the performance of edible coating from fungal stalk leftovers does not concede to the chitosan coatings sourced from animal or good quality mushrooms. Implications. The proposal helped attaining triple benefit: valorization of mushroom industry byproducts; improving public health by fortification of food products with vitamin D from natural non-animal source; and reducing food wastage by using shelf- life-extending antimicrobial edible coatings. New observations with scientific impact were found. The program resulted in 5 research papers. Several effective and straightforward procedures that can be adopted by mushroom growers and food industries were developed. BARD Report - Project 4784
5

Wiley, Jenny L., Camille K. Gourdet, and Brian F. Thomas. Cannabidiol: Science, Marketing, and Legal Perspectives. RTI Press, April 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.3768/rtipress.2020.op.0065.2004.

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Recent loosening of legal restrictions on cannabis and its chemical constituents, including phytocannabinoids such as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), has led to rapid proliferation and wide availability of products containing CBD. Although using pure CBD does not result in THC-like intoxication, it is not risk-free. In this review, we examine CBD from scientific, marketing, and regulatory perspectives. Specifically, we evaluate the evidence used to support statements concerning CBD’s real and putative medical effects and discuss misleading information that has been used in marketing approaches. Also, we explore the current legal landscape surrounding CBD. We conclude that further research is necessary to clarify legitimate therapeutic effects of CBD. Federal regulation is also necessary to assure quality, safety, and efficacy of CBD products. Until new regulations are enacted to ensure purity and label accuracy, consumers should balance any perceived benefits of CBD use against potential risks associated with using products of unknown quality.
6

Spangler, Stephen, Roger Fujan, Carl Broyles, Brian Baker, Justin Jameson, Gerald Piotrowski, John Groboski, and Steve Hutsell. Record Package guidance : best practices. Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.), August 2021. http://dx.doi.org/10.21079/11681/41460.

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The CAD/BIM Technology Center receives numerous questions throughout the year regarding the development of a Record Package that shows as-built conditions. While the Center does produce Standards on the look and organization of CAD drawings that are used to show as-built conditions, users wanted guidance on the Record Package development. The Chicago District had undertaken the development of such guidance, but a formal document was never officially released. The CAD/BIM Community of Practice (CoP) Work Structure Committee finished this guidance and their efforts are reflected in this document.
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Engel, Bernard, Yael Edan, James Simon, Hanoch Pasternak, and Shimon Edelman. Neural Networks for Quality Sorting of Agricultural Produce. United States Department of Agriculture, July 1996. http://dx.doi.org/10.32747/1996.7613033.bard.

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The objectives of this project were to develop procedures and models, based on neural networks, for quality sorting of agricultural produce. Two research teams, one in Purdue University and the other in Israel, coordinated their research efforts on different aspects of each objective utilizing both melons and tomatoes as case studies. At Purdue: An expert system was developed to measure variances in human grading. Data were acquired from eight sensors: vision, two firmness sensors (destructive and nondestructive), chlorophyll from fluorescence, color sensor, electronic sniffer for odor detection, refractometer and a scale (mass). Data were analyzed and provided input for five classification models. Chlorophyll from fluorescence was found to give the best estimation for ripeness stage while the combination of machine vision and firmness from impact performed best for quality sorting. A new algorithm was developed to estimate and minimize training size for supervised classification. A new criteria was established to choose a training set such that a recurrent auto-associative memory neural network is stabilized. Moreover, this method provides for rapid and accurate updating of the classifier over growing seasons, production environments and cultivars. Different classification approaches (parametric and non-parametric) for grading were examined. Statistical methods were found to be as accurate as neural networks in grading. Classification models by voting did not enhance the classification significantly. A hybrid model that incorporated heuristic rules and either a numerical classifier or neural network was found to be superior in classification accuracy with half the required processing of solely the numerical classifier or neural network. In Israel: A multi-sensing approach utilizing non-destructive sensors was developed. Shape, color, stem identification, surface defects and bruises were measured using a color image processing system. Flavor parameters (sugar, acidity, volatiles) and ripeness were measured using a near-infrared system and an electronic sniffer. Mechanical properties were measured using three sensors: drop impact, resonance frequency and cyclic deformation. Classification algorithms for quality sorting of fruit based on multi-sensory data were developed and implemented. The algorithms included a dynamic artificial neural network, a back propagation neural network and multiple linear regression. Results indicated that classification based on multiple sensors may be applied in real-time sorting and can improve overall classification. Advanced image processing algorithms were developed for shape determination, bruise and stem identification and general color and color homogeneity. An unsupervised method was developed to extract necessary vision features. The primary advantage of the algorithms developed is their ability to learn to determine the visual quality of almost any fruit or vegetable with no need for specific modification and no a-priori knowledge. Moreover, since there is no assumption as to the type of blemish to be characterized, the algorithm is capable of distinguishing between stems and bruises. This enables sorting of fruit without knowing the fruits' orientation. A new algorithm for on-line clustering of data was developed. The algorithm's adaptability is designed to overcome some of the difficulties encountered when incrementally clustering sparse data and preserves information even with memory constraints. Large quantities of data (many images) of high dimensionality (due to multiple sensors) and new information arriving incrementally (a function of the temporal dynamics of any natural process) can now be processed. Furhermore, since the learning is done on-line, it can be implemented in real-time. The methodology developed was tested to determine external quality of tomatoes based on visual information. An improved model for color sorting which is stable and does not require recalibration for each season was developed for color determination. Excellent classification results were obtained for both color and firmness classification. Results indicted that maturity classification can be obtained using a drop-impact and a vision sensor in order to predict the storability and marketing of harvested fruits. In conclusion: We have been able to define quantitatively the critical parameters in the quality sorting and grading of both fresh market cantaloupes and tomatoes. We have been able to accomplish this using nondestructive measurements and in a manner consistent with expert human grading and in accordance with market acceptance. This research constructed and used large databases of both commodities, for comparative evaluation and optimization of expert system, statistical and/or neural network models. The models developed in this research were successfully tested, and should be applicable to a wide range of other fruits and vegetables. These findings are valuable for the development of on-line grading and sorting of agricultural produce through the incorporation of multiple measurement inputs that rapidly define quality in an automated manner, and in a manner consistent with the human graders and inspectors.
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Chamovitz, A. Daniel, and Georg Jander. Genetic and biochemical analysis of glucosinolate breakdown: The effects of indole-3-carbinol on plant physiology and development. United States Department of Agriculture, January 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.32747/2012.7597917.bard.

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Genetic and biochemical analysis of glucosinolate breakdown: The effects of indole-3-carbinol on plant physiology and development Glucosinolates are a class of defense-related secondary metabolites found in all crucifers, including important oilseed and vegetable crops in the Brassica genus and the well-studied model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Upon tissue damage, such as that provided by insect feeding, glucosinolates are subjected to catalysis and spontaneous degradation to form a variety of breakdown products. These breakdown products typically have a deterrent effect on generalist herbivores. Glucosinolate breakdown products also contribute to the anti-carcinogenic effects of eating cabbage, broccoli and related cruciferous vegetables. Indole-3-carbinol, a breakdown product of indol-3-ylmethylglucosinolate, forms conjugates with several other plant metabolites. Although some indole-3-carbinol conjugates have known functions in defense against herbivores and pathogens, most play as yet unidentified roles in plant metabolism, and possibly also plant development. At the outset, our proposal had three main hypotheses: (1) There is a specific detoxification pathway for indole-3-carbinol; (2) Metabolites derived from indole-3-carbinol are phloem-mobile and serve as signaling molecules; and (3) Indole-3-carbinol affects plant cell cycle and cell-differentiation pathways. The experiments were designed to enable us to elucidate how indole-3-carbinol and related metabolites affect plants and their interactions with herbivorous insects. We discovered that indole-3- carbinol rapidly and reversibly inhibits root elongation in a dose-dependent manner, and that this inhibition is accompanied by a loss of auxin activity in the root meristem. A direct interaction between indole-3-carbinol and the auxin perception machinery was suggested, as application of indole-3-carbinol rescued auxin-induced root phenotypes. In vitro and yeast-based protein interaction studies showed that indole-3-carbinol perturbs the auxin-dependent interaction of TIR1 with Aux/IAA proteins, supporting the notion that indole-3-carbinol acts as an auxin antagonist. Furthermore, transcript profiling experiments revealed the influence of indole-3-carbinol on auxin signaling in root tips, and indole-3-carbinol also affected auxin transporters. Brief treatment with indole-3-carbinol led to a reduction in the amount of PIN1 and to mislocalization of PIN2. The results indicate that chemicals induced by herbivory, such as indole-3-carbinol, function not only to repel herbivores, but also as signaling molecules that directly compete with auxin to fine tune plant growth and development, which implies transport of indole-3- carbinol that we are as yet unsuccessful in detecting. Our results indicate that plant defensive metabolites also have secondary functions in regulating aspects of plant metabolism, thereby providing diversity in defense-related plant signaling pathways. Such diversity of of signaling by defensive metabolites would be beneficial for the plant, as herbivores and pathogens would be less likely to mount effective countermeasures. We propose that growth arrest can be mediated directly by the herbivory-induced chemicals, in our case, indole-3-carbinol. Thus, glucosinolate breakdown to I3C following herbivory would have two outcomes: (1) Indole-3-carbinaol would inhibit the herbivore, while (2) at the same time inducing growth arrest within the plant. Thus, our results indicate that I3C is a defensive phytohormone that modulates auxin signaling, leading to growth arrest.
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Abeln, Barend, Jan P.A.M. Jacobs, and Machiel Mulder. Seasonal adjustment of daily data with CAMPLET. CIRANO, 2022. http://dx.doi.org/10.54932/hkse4022.

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In the last decade large data sets have become available, both in terms of the number of time series and with higher frequencies (weekly, daily and even higher). All series may suffer from seasonality, which hides other important fluctuations. Therefore time series are typically seasonally adjusted. However, standard seasonal adjustment methods cannot handle series with higher than monthly frequencies. Recently, Abeln et al. (2019) presented CAMPLET, a new seasonal adjustment method, which does not produce revisions when new observations become available. The aim of this paper is to show the attractiveness of CAMPLET for seasonal adjustment of daily time series. We apply CAMPLET to daily data on the gas system in the Netherlands.
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Zilberman, Mark. Methods to Test the “Dimming Effect” Produced by a Decrease in the Number of Photons Received from Receding Light Sources. Intellectual Archive, November 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.32370/iaj.2437.

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The hypothetical “Dimming Effect” describes the change of the number of photons arriving from a moving light source per unit of time. In non-relativistic systems, the “Dimming effect” may occur due to the growing distance of light sources moving away from the receiver. This means that due to the growing distance, the photons continuously require more time to reach the receiver, which reduces the number of received photons per time unit compared to the number of emitted photons. Understandably, the proposed “Dimming effect” must be tested (confirmed or rejected) through observations. a. This article provides the formula for the calculation of “Dimming effect” values using the redshift parameter Z widely used in astronomy. b. The “Dimming effect” can possibly be detected utilizing the orbital movement of the Earth around the Sun. In accordance to the “Dimming effect”, observers on Earth will view 1.0001 more photons per time unit emitted by stars located near the ecliptic plane in the direction of the Earth orbiting the Sun. And, in contrast, observers will view only 0.9999 photons per time unit emitted by stars located near the ecliptic plane in the direction opposite to the Earth orbiting the Sun. Calculating precise measurements of the same stars within a 6-month period can possibly detect this difference. These changes in brightness are not only for specific stars, as the change in brightness takes place for all stars near the ecliptic in the direction of the Earth’s orbit around the Sun and in the opposite direction. c. The “Dimming effect” can possibly be detected in a physics laboratory using a moving light source (or mirror) and photon counters located in the direction of travel and in the opposite direction. d. In theory, Dilation of time can also be used for testing the existence of the “Dimming effect.” However, in experiments on Earth this effect appears in only the 14th digit after the decimal point and testing does not appear to be feasible. e. Why is it important to test the “Dimming effect?” If confirmed, it would allow astronomers to adjust values of "Standard Candles" used in astronomy. Since “Standard Candles” are critical in various cosmological models, the “Dimming effect” can correct models and/or reveal and support new models. If it is proved that the “Dimming effect” does not exist, it will mean that the number of photons arriving per unit of time does not depend on the speed of the light source and observer, which is not so apparent.

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