Книги з теми "Dose area product"

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1

Braber, Helleke, Jeroen Dera, Jos Joosten, and Maarten Steenmeijer, eds. Branding Books Across the Ages. NL Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2021. http://dx.doi.org/10.5117/9789463723916.

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For many, literature and marketing are considered opposite phenomena. This book discusses cases in which the two are closely connected. It argues that literature is subject to the same mechanisms as other commercial products: our experience of literary texts is prefigured by brands, trademarks that identify a product and differentiate it from its competitors. From the early modern period onwards, literary authors and their texts are constantly ‘branded’ and have been both the object and the trailblazer of a complex marketing process. The authors of this volume analyze this branding process throughout the centuries, focusing on the Netherlands. To what extent is our experience of Dutch literature prefigured by brands, and what role does branding play when introducing European authors in the Dutch literary field (or vice versa)? By answering these questions, Branding Books Across the Ages seeks to show how literary scholars understand branding – a phenomenon that has long been intertwined with literature.
2

Hart, David, D. G. Jones, and B. F. Wall. Estimation of Effective Dose in Diagnostic Radiology from Entrance Surface Dose and Dose-area Product Measurement (NRPB). National Radiological Protection Board, 1994.

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3

NE technology dose area product meter type 2640A and data logging software. London: Department of Health, MedicalDevices Directorate, 1994.

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4

Fielding, Nigel G. Does Training Produce Professional Policing? Oxford University Press, 2018. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780198817475.003.0007.

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The chapter uses contemporary policing problems and challenges to evaluate how well training prepares recruits, auxiliaries, detectives, and managers for the police role. It reviews patterns of police corruption, misconduct and complaints against officers and considers whether, and how well, training helps police forces counter such problems. It also notes instances of positive responses to failures of service delivery. The discussion moves on to examine the challenge that diversity poses for the police, both at a cultural level and in respect of the specific experience of female officers, ethnic minority officers, and officers with alternative sexual orientations. The lessons of sickness, stress and injury on duty are considered in relation to how effectively training and supervision helps counter these. A discussion of public confidence and trust is used to address the concept of police legitimacy and to place it in relation to the acquisition of professional competence.
5

Owen, David. Reason, Belief, and the Passions. Edited by Paul Russell. Oxford University Press, 2014. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199742844.013.17.

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Hume said that reason alone cannot motivate and that passions are required to produce volitions and actions. It is argued that the widely, though not universally, held “Humean” view of motivation—that beliefs require desires to motivate actions—does not accurately reflect Hume’s own view. The author argues here that beliefs, especially beliefs about pleasure, do motivate. But beliefs are produced by probable reasoning. And this seems to imply that reason alone does motivate, i.e., produces, via beliefs, volitions and actions. It is argued that the seeming inconsistency that appears to result is only apparent. An interpretation of what Hume means by “reason alone” is provided.
6

Framarin, Christopher. Habit and Karmic Result in the Yogaśāstra. Edited by Jonardon Ganeri. Oxford University Press, 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199314621.013.16.

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The most popular interpretation of the theory of karma in the Yogaśāstra states that actions produce merit and demerit in the form of habits (saṃskāras) to repeat similar actions in the future. This chapter argues that this interpretation is implausible. The Yogaśāstra does outline an influential account of habit-formation. It also offers an explanation of how actions produce karmic results that correspond with the quality of the actions that produced them. These two processes, however, are generally distinct.
7

Qu, Lirong, and Darrell J. Triulzi. Blood product therapy in the ICU. Oxford University Press, 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/med/9780199600830.003.0267.

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Transfusions are among the most common medical procedures in the intensive care unit. Several randomized controlled trials (RCT) indicate that restrictive red cell transfusion practice using a haemoglobin of <7g/dL is safe in critically-ill patients. Although similar RCT are not available for plasma or platelet transfusion guidelines, a large body of observational studies suggest that plasma transfusion for an invasive procedure has not been shown to be of benefit in patients with INR <2.0. Similarly, in thrombocytopenic patients, the target platelet count for bleeding or for an invasive procedure is 50,000/µl. Viral transmission risk has become exceedingly low. Other risks such as transfusion-associated circulatory overload and, to a lesser extent, transfusion-related acute lung injury, are much more common. Storage of red cells does not seem to be associated with adverse clinical outcomes. Alternatives using haemostatic agents, salvaged blood, and adherence to evidence-based transfusion guidelines probably reduce the need for transfusion in critically-ill patients.
8

O’Donoghue, John L. Neurologic Manifestations of Organic Chemicals. Oxford University Press, 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/med/9780199937837.003.0176.

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Organic chemicals can produce many different effects on the nervous system. The nervous system functions are affected by a variety of different organic chemicals. Organic chemicals that induce neurotoxicity may be naturally occurring or synthetic. Those that are naturally occurring products of plants or animals are referred to as “toxins,” whereas those that are synthetic are referred to as “toxicants”; however, publications and regulations sometimes use these terms interchangeably. Underlying these functional changes are cellular and subcellular changes that mediate the clinical and pathological appearance of the neurotoxicity. The ability to make a diagnosis of organic-chemical-induced neurotoxicity is dependent on being able to link a clinical situation with an exposure in a dose-related manner. Treatment and management of organic-chemical-induced neurotoxicity in affected individuals is dependent upon the specific chemical involved and the underlying mechanism by which toxicity occurs.
9

Jay, Gregory S. How Does It Feel to Be a Trademark? Oxford University Press, 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780190687229.003.0003.

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Hurst’s best-selling novel of the 1930s portrayed the life of a New Woman business tycoon and the African American maid whose family waffle recipe became the basis for an “Aunt Jemima” kind of product and fortune. Stereotypes such as the “mammy” and “tragic mulatta” are either damaging caricatures or images to expose racism, depending on the reader’s interpretation of the text. The novel’s use of limited point of view works to satirize Bea Pullman’s racism even as the novel looks sympathetically on her quasi-feminist ambitions. The decision of the light-skinned Peola to leave the United States presents an indictment of society’s racism, though it breaks her mother’s heart. The film version of the novel from 1934 offers an interesting comparison to more stereotypical black images in cinema at the time, though some critics still found it offensive.
10

Radcliffe, Elizabeth S. Morality and Motivation. Oxford University Press, 2018. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780199573295.003.0006.

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Hume’s argument against moral rationalism says that because morals produce or prevent actions, and reason alone does not, morals cannot be derived from reason alone. The premise concerning morality is perplexing. This premise is best understood as claiming that the moral sentiments by which we judge virtue and vice produce motives when we find ourselves deficient of a morally-approved trait, or when we anticipate the pleasure of self-approval for exhibiting virtues. These motives are produced by self-approbation and self-disapprobation in the same way that motives are typically generated in Hume’s theory: a person retains an idea of a source of pleasure or displeasure and reacts to it with an impression of reflection. Hume’s sentimentalism is a way of explaining how normative concepts originate in impressions rather than in ideas; although internalist, it is consistent with cognitivism, since motives come from the discernment of morality, not from the ideas themselves.
11

Acland, Charles R. Consumer Electronics and the Building of an Entertainment Infrastructure. University of Illinois Press, 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.5406/illinois/9780252039362.003.0011.

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This concluding chapter explores how Hollywood's “technological tentpoles”—films that strategically promote cross-media commodities and new generations of devices, platforms, and hardware—serve as vehicles for the advancement of a broader technological system. In light of this cross-media industrial circumstance, the highly visible, international, big-budget blockbuster production makes manifest the developing relationships among media forms. The blockbuster, in a time of expanding talk and exploitation of “long tail” microcultural economies, advances multiple products and devices at once, and it does so through the formal mechanisms of cross-media promotional deals as well as through indirect support by being the most highly valued content for various platforms. Moving between entertainment industry events and a proliferating field of consumer electronics, the chapter then shows how audiovisual infrastructure is a product not only of economic priorities, but also of the conceptual frames that are circulated about them.
12

Daly, Alica, David Humphreys, Julio Raffo, and Giulia Valacchi, eds. Global Challenges for Innovation in Mining Industries. Cambridge University Press, 2022. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/9781108904209.

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People have been digging in the ground for useful minerals for thousands of years. Mineral materials are the foundation of modern industrial society. As the global population grows and standards of living in emerging and developing countries rises, the demand for mineral products is increasing. Mining ensures that we have an adequate supply of the raw materials to produce all the components of modern life, and at competitive prices. Innovation is central to meeting the diverse challenges faced by the mining industry. It is critical for developing techniques for finding new deposits of minerals, enabling us to recover increasing amounts of minerals from the ground in a cost-effective manner, and ensuring it this is done in a way that is as environmentally responsible. This book provides the first in-depth global analysis of the innovation ecosystem in the mining sector. This book is Open Access.
13

Farquhar-Smith, Paul. The additive analgesia of adrenaline in epidural blockade. Edited by Paul Farquhar-Smith, Pierre Beaulieu, and Sian Jagger. Oxford University Press, 2018. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/med/9780198834359.003.0058.

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The landmark paper discussed in this chapter is ‘Adrenaline markedly improves thoracic epidural analgesia produced by a low-dose infusion of bupivacaine, fentanyl and adrenaline after major surgery’, published by Niemi and Breivik in 1998. The analgesic potential of neuraxial blockade has long been recognized. The extensive opioid receptor expression in areas germane to pain pathways gave credence to the effective clinical application of lower doses of neuraxial opioids compared with systemic administration. Preclinical data also proposed a potential spinal action of α‎2 agonists in achieving analgesia by a number of mechanisms, including a direct antinociceptive action and by reducing elution of other epidural drugs from the spinal effector site. Early clinical data failed to show a clear benefit from the addition of adrenaline to epidural infusions. Niemi and Breivik’s experiment addressed the methodological flaws of previous studies by using combinations of relatively sub-analgesic doses of each of the combined elements.
14

Maier, Esther R. Creating Production Values in a Dramatic Television Series. Oxford University Press, 2018. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780198827436.003.0003.

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This chapter draws on the insights generated through an ethnographic study of a dramatic television series production, to show how the creative and financial imperatives of the project are integrated through the calculative practices of the mid-level managers on the project. The analysis draws on a broader definition of calculative practice that does not restrict calculation to mathematical or numerical computations but also incorporates judgement and intuition. The findings show how the final configuration of the product emerges through monetary valuations or ‘estimates’ prepared by the mid-level managers for each scene in the scripts. In their focus on the creation of ‘production values’ project members also incorporate properties of the product that are not related to money or price into their calculative practice.
15

Laws, Edward R., Whitney W. Woodmansee, and Jay S. Loeffler. Pituitary tumours. Oxford University Press, 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/med/9780199651870.003.0018.

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Pituitary tumours are common, usually benign, lesions ordinarily well controlled by multidisciplinary management. The several subtypes of pituitary tumours reflect the hormones produced by the pituitary gland, and each may require a complex sequential programme of treatment. Modern laboratory evaluation and imaging is capable of extensively characterizing the tumours, and is the basis for the recommended therapies. The tumours that produce excess active levels of pituitary hormones may be amenable to very satisfactory medical therapy, which reduces hormone levels towards normal, and often causes shrinkage of the tumour. Surgical management is appropriate for tumours that are not producing excess hormones but by nature of their bulk can compress the optic nerves and cause visual loss. These tumours respond well to surgical management, which is usually done using the transnasal, transsphenoidal route of access. Patients with persistent or recurrent tumours and persistent hormonal excess can be effectively treated with modern techniques of radiation therapy. A multidisciplinary approach with specialists from different fields concentrating on the patient and the problem offers a comprehensive and effective solution for most patients with pituitary disorders.
16

Wójcik-Gładysz, Anna. Ghrelin – hormone with many faces. Central regulation and therapy. The Kielanowski Institute of Animal Physiology and Nutrition, Polish Academy of Sciences, 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.22358/mono_awg_2020.

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Discovered in 1999, ghrelin, is one of the peptides co-creating the hypothalamicgastrointestinal axis, otherwise known as the brain-gut axis. Ghrelin participates in many physiological processes and spectrum of its activity is still being discovered. This 28 amino acid peptide ‒ a product of the ghrl gene, was found in all vertebrates and is synthesized and secreted mainly from enteroendocrine X/A cells located in the gastric mucosa of the stomach. Expression of the ghrelin receptor has been found in many nuclei of the hypothalamus involved in appetite regulation. Therefore it’s presumed that ghrelin is one of the crucial hormones deciphering the energy status required for the maintenance of organism homeostasis. Ghrelin acts as a signal of starvation or energy insufficiency and its level in plasma is reduced after the meal. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related peptide (AgRP; NPY/AgRP) neurons located in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) area are the main target of ghrelin in the hypothalamus. This subpopulation of neurons is indispensable for inducing orexigenic action of ghrelin. Moreover ghrelin acting as a neurohormone, mainly in the hypothalamus area, plays an important role in the regulation of growth and reproduction processes. Indeed, ghrelin action on reproductive processes has been observed in the systemic effects exerted at both hypothalamus-pituitary and gonadal levels. Similarly the GH-releasing ghrelin action was observed both on the hypothalamus level and directly on the somatotrophic cells in the pituitary and this dose-related GH releasing activity was found in in vitro as well as in in vivo experiments. In recent years, numerous studies revealed that ghrelin potentially takes part in the treatment of diseases associated with serious disturbances in the organism energy balance and/or functioning of the gastrointestinal tract. It was underlined that ghrelin may be a hormone with a broad spectrum of therapeutic effect on obesity and anorexia nervosa, as well as may also have protective effect on neurodegenerative diseases, inflammatory disorders or functional changes in the body caused by cancers. In overall, ghrelin treatment has been tested in over 100 preclinical studies with healthy volunteers as well as patients with various types of cancer, eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. It was observed that ghrelin has an excellent clinical safety profile and emerging side effects occurred only in 3–10% of patients and did not constitute a sufficient premise to discontinue the therapy. In general, it can be concluded that ghrelin may be sufficiently used as a prescription drug.
17

Warner, Genoa R., and Terrence J. Collins. Sustainable Chemistry. Oxford University Press, 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/med/9780190490911.003.0013.

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Unsustainable chemical products and processes cause damage to the earth that will become irreparable without ethical principles that prioritize the good of future generations. A serious challenge is posed by anthropogenic endocrine disruptors, synthetic chemicals that can alter development and impair health at current exposure levels. These low-dose adverse effects caused by everyday chemicals represent one of the great challenges of green science. Solutions require interdisciplinary collaboration among the fields of sustainable chemistry, environmental health sciences, and integrative environmental medicine. Their joint mission is to advance assessment, design, stewardship, and regulation of chemical products and processes and to promote environmental and health performances that are valued as much as the historically dominant economic and technical performances. The Chemistry and Sustainability Bookcase and the framework for strategic sustainable development are organizational tools for tackling these challenges. Solutions already built by interdisciplinary partnerships offer examples of practical transgenerational justice.
18

Stone Peters, Julie. Law as Performance. Oxford University Press, 2022. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780192898494.001.0001.

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Tirades against legal theatrics are nearly as old as law itself, and yet so is the age-old claim that law must not merely be done, but “seen to be done.” Law as Performance traces the history of legal performance and spectatorship through the early modern period. Viewing law as the product not merely of edicts or doctrines but of expressive action, it investigates the performances that literally created law: in civic arenas, courtrooms, and judges’ chambers; on scaffolds; and in the streets. It examines the legal codes, learned treatises, trial reports, lawyers’ manuals, execution narratives, rhetoric books, images (and more) that confronted these performances, praising their virtues or denouncing their evils. In so doing, it recovers a long, rich, and largely overlooked tradition of jurisprudential thought about law as a performance practice. This tradition not only generated an elaborate poetics and politics of legal performance. It provided western jurisprudence with a set of constitutive norms that shaped the very identity of law. That identity emerged, in part, through an opposition: law stood for cool deliberation, by-the-book rules, and sovereign discipline; theatre stood for deceptive artifice, entertainment, histrionics, melodrama. And yet legal performance, even at its most theatrical, also appeared fundamental to law’s realization—a central mechanism for shaping legal subjects, key to persuasion, essential to deterrence, indispensable to law’s power—as it still does today.
19

Stone Peters, Julie. Law as Performance. Oxford University Press, 2022. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780192898494.001.0001.

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Tirades against legal theatrics are nearly as old as law itself, and yet so is the age-old claim that law must not merely be done, but “seen to be done.” Law as Performance traces the history of legal performance and spectatorship through the early modern period. Viewing law as the product not merely of edicts or doctrines but of expressive action, it investigates the performances that literally created law: in civic arenas, courtrooms, and judges’ chambers; on scaffolds; and in the streets. It examines the legal codes, learned treatises, trial reports, lawyers’ manuals, execution narratives, rhetoric books, images (and more) that confronted these performances, praising their virtues or denouncing their evils. In so doing, it recovers a long, rich, and largely overlooked tradition of jurisprudential thought about law as a performance practice. This tradition not only generated an elaborate poetics and politics of legal performance. It provided western jurisprudence with a set of constitutive norms that shaped the very identity of law. That identity emerged, in part, through an opposition: law stood for cool deliberation, by-the-book rules, and sovereign discipline; theatre stood for deceptive artifice, entertainment, histrionics, melodrama. And yet legal performance, even at its most theatrical, also appeared fundamental to law’s realization—a central mechanism for shaping legal subjects, key to persuasion, essential to deterrence, indispensable to law’s power—as it still does today.
20

Rothfield, Philipa. Experience and its Others. Edinburgh University Press, 2018. http://dx.doi.org/10.3366/edinburgh/9781474429344.003.0005.

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This chapter draws on Deleuzian thought in order to think through the role of experience within dance and the activity of dancing more generally. It contrasts phenomenological approaches to dancing, which appeal to notions of subjective agency, with a Deleuzian re-reading of subjectivity. In the process, it refers to Deleuze’s reading of Nietzsche, using Nietzsche’s concept of force to account for the many ways in which forces combine to produce movement. The notion of force is able to explain the way action unfolds without being the product of human agency. It offers a way of rethinking phenomenological notions of agency. According to this account, relations of force underlie action, as well as the many modes of interiority (subjectivity). But these two kinds of formation (of force) are different in kind. They belong to differing types (of force). The pursuit of action, including the utilisation of experience in action, constitutes a certain type of ethos, which Deleuze calls the active type, whereas the formation of experience belongs to ‘the reactive apparatus’, that which reacts but does not act. The active type drives a wedge between the dancing and the dancer. Deleuze’s treatment of Nietzsche can be adapted to account for the variety of dance practices, their production of training and technique, custom and virtuosity. In particular, it is able to account for the specific ways in which postmodern dance displaces the subjectivity of the dancer.
21

Morgan, Jonathan. Torts and Technology. Edited by Roger Brownsword, Eloise Scotford, and Karen Yeung. Oxford University Press, 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199680832.013.23.

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This chapter discusses tort law and how it applies to the risks posed by emerging technology. Tort law’s role here is significant. But how does tort adapt to injuries caused by technological innovations, and how should it react? With the increasing pace of technological advances, are the inherited conceptual structures of tort law sufficiently adaptable to both current and yet-unknown developments, or are novel statutory solutions required? We must also ask if tort liability is ultimately able to reconcile the competing demands of compensation, deterrence, and innovation. These questions are considered in various contexts including product liability, internet speech, and the prospect of ‘driverless cars’.
22

Veatch, Robert M., Amy Haddad, and E. J. Last. Benefiting the Patient and Others. Edited by Robert M. Veatch, Amy Haddad, and E. J. Last. Oxford University Press, 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/med/9780190277000.003.0005.

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Chapter 4 begins Part II of the book, a series of chapters dealing with basic ethical principles. This chapter takes up the principles that an action of a pharmacist is morally right insofar as it produces benefit and wrong insofar as it produces harm. The names of these principles are beneficence and nonmaleficence. First, considering benefit to the patient, cases deal with the relation of health to other benefits and whether benefits should be assessed on a case-by-case basis. Then the duties of the pharmacist to benefit society, specific nonpatients, the profession, and the pharmacist’s family are considered. The subject matter of the cases includes antihypertensive medication, high-dose chemotherapy, outdated drugs, health maintenance organization cost saving, and the tension between the pharmacist’s duty to the patient and his or her duty to family.
23

Arthur, Richard T. W. Continuance through Time. Oxford University Press, 2018. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780198812869.003.0008.

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This final chapter concerns questions of the continuity of existence through time. There are various difficulties: if substances produce their own states, how is this compatible with divine concurrence? And if creation is continuous and yet their states are instantaneous, how does Leibniz avoid reducing monadic duration to a discontinuous aggregate of states? It is argued that a solution to these profound difficulties requires a recognition that monadic states are actually discrete and of finite duration, each containing other smaller states to infinity; yet they are physically continuous, in that each state issues by degrees from the preceding one, and there is no assignable instant at which change does not occur. It is also explained how momentaneous states and forces are to be understood in terms of Leibniz’s foundation for the differential calculus.
24

Biernoff, Suzannah. Picturing Pain. Edinburgh University Press, 2018. http://dx.doi.org/10.3366/edinburgh/9781474400046.003.0009.

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What does pain look like? Charles Darwin’s The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals (1872) includes a well-known list of the visible and physiological signs of pain. Published a year after The Descent of Man, it sets out to show that the human face is the product not of divine fashioning, but of descent with modification. Joy, melancholy, fear, disgust, contempt, anguish: for Darwin, the body language of human emotion – and pain – provides compelling evidence for evolution, and his account of pain appropriately begins in the animal kingdom. There are some major obstacles to the study of emotional expression, however. The facial movements involved, notes Darwin, are often ‘extremely slight, and of a fleeting nature’.
25

Li, Wai-Yee. Concepts of Authorship. Edited by Wiebke Denecke, Wai-Yee Li, and Xiaofei Tian. Oxford University Press, 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199356591.013.24.

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What are the words and phrases used to designate authorship in classical Chinese literature? What are the anecdotes and stories told to emblematize or dramatize the contexts and meanings of authorship? How does the attribution to or the invention of an author define or control the meanings of a text? How do markers of authorial presence function in a text? How does genre shape authorial voice? How do anonymous texts generate authors? How do images of authors (as distinct from historical actors) produce texts? Many scholars believe that authorship becomes increasingly individualistic and self-conscious for the period covered by this volume. How valid is this historical trajectory? In exploring these questions, this chapter examines notions of orality, textual authority, textual transmission, patronage, commentary, editorial labor, forgery, anonymity, originality, imitation, and collective authorship.
26

Foley, Richard. Secondary Differences. Oxford University Press, 2018. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780190865122.003.0003.

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This chapter argues that inquiries in the sciences ideally move toward an endpoint, a definitive account that is accurate and complete, and on which there is consensus, whereas issues in the humanities are open-ended, with major new insights and revisions always to be expected. While progress in the sciences is movement toward an agreed-upon endpoint, progress in the humanities is toward greater precision, breadth, and coherence, with individual progress highly prized even when it does not lead to consensus. The chapter also argues there are other differences. While the sciences tend to rely on deference to expert authority and to value simple theories, the humanities are more wary of deference and simplicity. The methods of the sciences, which minimize indexicality and perspectivality, and place value on discoveries of conscious phenomena derived from information not steeped in mentality, are not well suited to produce insights about the variety of human experience, whereas the humanities make use of considerations heavily inflected with mentality and hence are better able to produce insights about human experiences and perspectives.
27

Gartzke, Erik A., and Paul Poast. Empirically Assessing the Bargaining Theory of War: Potential and Challenges. Oxford University Press, 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780190228637.013.274.

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What explains war? The so-called bargaining approach has evolved quickly in the past two decades, opening up important new possibilities and raising fundamental challenges to previous conventional thinking about the origins of political violence. Bargaining is intended to explain the causes of conflict on many levels, from interpersonal to international. War is not the product of any of a number of variables creating opportunity or willingness, but instead is caused by whatever factors prevent competitors from negotiating the settlements that result from fighting. Conflict is thus a bargaining failure, a socially inferior outcome, but also a determined choice.Embraced by a growing number of scholars, the bargaining perspective rapidly created a new consensus in some circles. Bargaining theory is radical in relocating at least some of the causes of conflict away from material, cultural, political, or psychological factors and replacing them with states of knowledge about these same material or ideational factors. Approaching conflict as a bargaining failure—produced by uncertainty and incentives to misrepresent, credible commitment problems, or issue indivisibility—is the “state of the art” in the study of conflict.At the same time, bargaining theories remain largely untested in any systematic sense: theory has moved far ahead of empirics. The bargaining perspective has been favored largely because of compelling logic rather than empirical validity. Despite the bargaining analogy’s wide-ranging influence (or perhaps because of this influence), scholars have largely failed to subject the key causal mechanisms of bargaining theory to systematic empirical investigation. Further progress for bargaining theory, both among adherents and in the larger research community, depends on empirical tests of both core claims and new theoretical implications of the bargaining approach.The limited amount of systematic empirical research on bargaining theories of conflict is by no means entirely accident or the product of lethargy on the part of the scholarly community. Tests of theories that involve intangible factors like states of belief or perception are difficult to pursue. How does one measure uncertainty? What does learning look like in the midst of a war? When is indivisibility or commitment a problem, and when can it be resolved through other measures, such as ancillary bargains? The challenge before researchers, however, is to surmount these obstacles. To the degree that progress in science is empirical, bargaining theory needs testing.As should be clear, the dearth of empirical tests of bargaining approaches to the study of conflict leaves important questions unanswered. Is it true, for example, as bargaining theory suggests, that uncertainty leads to the possibility of war? If so, how much uncertainty is required and in what contexts? Which types of uncertainty are most pernicious (and which are perhaps relatively benign)? Under what circumstances are the effects of uncertainty greatest and where are they least critical? Empirical investigation of the bargaining model can provide essential guidance to theoretical work on conflict by identifying insights that can offer intellectual purchase and by highlighting areas of inquiry that are likely to be empirical dead ends. More broadly, the impact of bargaining theory on the study and practice of international relations rests to a substantial degree on the success of efforts to substantiate the perspective empirically.
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Miller, David, Claire Harkins, Matthias Schlögl, and Brendan Montague. Addiction aware? Corporate social responsibility. Oxford University Press, 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198753261.003.0008.

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This chapter considers whether corporate social responsibility (CSR) across ‘addictive industries’ is a vehicle for corporations to make a positive contribution to the health and welfare of consumers, and in turn, to society, or is a fig leaf used as part of wider corporate strategy. The chapter argues that CSR is used to promote ineffective actions by corporations in responding to the health harms of their products, while simultaneously undermining effective statutory action. Examples of CSR by the tobacco, alcohol, and gambling industries are used to examine these activities within the context of strategic corporate activity. We argue that CSR should be viewed critically and that its strategic deployment should be regarded as strands of marketing and lobbying rather than as corporate altruism. Despite many claims, CSR does not contribute positively to reducing harm associated with addictive products and services: our analysis suggests that this was never the intention.
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Massimini, Marcello, and Giulio Tononi. Brain Islands. Translated by Frances Anderson. Oxford University Press, 2018. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780198728443.003.0003.

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This chapter examines the clinical problem of detecting consciousness in brain-injured patients who emerge from coma in a state of behavioral unresponsiveness. Intensive care medicine is artificially producing, as a by-product of saving many lives, brains that may remain isolated, split, or fragmented. In extreme cases, large cortical islands or an archipelago of islands may survive totally dissociated from the world outside. Can these islands sustain consciousness? Does it feel like anything to be a big chunk of isolated human cortex? Scientific and philosophical doubts aside, we need to urgently address this question. The text underscores the necessity and difficulty of developing brain-based objective measures of consciousness, which are independent of sensory processing and motor behavior.
30

Margulis, Elizabeth Hellmuth. Psychology of Music: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press, 2018. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/actrade/9780190640156.001.0001.

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There is a long tradition of thinking about music as a product of the human mind. Whether considering composition, performance, listening, or appreciation, the constraints and capabilities of the human mind play a formative role. The field that has emerged around this approach is known as the psychology of music. It seeks to answer fundamental questions of broad and enduring interest—questions like “What is musicality?” and “How does music move us?” The Psychology of Music: A Very Short Introduction explores how the psychology of music confronts these questions. It connects the science to larger humanistic questions about music that are of interest to practicing musicians, music therapists, musicologists, and the general public alike.
31

Vaziri, Nosratola D. Oxidative stress and its implications in chronic kidney disease. Edited by David J. Goldsmith. Oxford University Press, 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/med/9780199592548.003.0112.

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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced at low levels physiologically and their production conveys signals and has specific functions. Control mechanisms ensure that this does not cause damage. ROS are highly reactive and cytotoxic and are also deliberately produced by inflammatory cells (granulocytes, macrophages) to kill pathogens. If these chemicals are released inappropriately or excessively, or if control mechanisms are under-functioning, bystander or unintended tissue damage may be caused. The concept of oxidative stress is based on the idea that in certain states, commonly inflammatory states, release of oxygen radicals may be excessive, or control mechanisms weakened, so that tissue damage occurs. In CKD, both overproduction and diminished control may apply. No effective therapies acting via these pathways have been established so far though there remain some candidates.
32

Scudder, Mary F. Beyond Empathy and Inclusion. Oxford University Press, 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780197535455.001.0001.

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Beyond Empathy and Inclusion: The Challenge of Listening in Democratic Deliberation considers how to improve democracy under the politically divided conditions we currently face. The book argues that while democracy does not require that citizens reach an agreement, it does require that they listen to one another. The book goes on to offer a systematic theory of listening acts to explain the democratic force of listening. Modeled after speech act theory, Scudder’s listening act theory shows how we do something in listening, independent of the outcomes of listening. In listening to our fellow citizens, we recognize their moral equality of voice. Being heard by our fellow citizens is what ensures we have a say in the laws to which we are held. The book offers a realistic view of listening, one that does not assume it will always produce empathy or even understanding. Listening is not the answer to all of our problems. In fact, listening can even produce certain undemocratic effects. The book argues that despite these challenges and risks, listening is a key responsibility of democratic citizenship. It also tackles questions regarding the limits of toleration in a democratic society. Do we owe listening even to democracy’s enemies? The book shows how listening can be used defensively, to protect against threats to democracy. The democratic listening this book prescribes is admittedly hard, especially in pluralistic societies. This volume investigates how to motivate citizens to listen seriously, attentively, and humbly even to those with whom they disagree.
33

van der Hoeven, Frank, and Alexander Wandl. Hotterdam: How space is making Rotterdam warmer, how this affects the health of its inhabitants, and what can be done about it. TU Delft Open, 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.47982/bookrxiv.1.

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Heat waves will occur in Rotterdam with greater frequency in the future. Those affected most will be the elderly – a group that is growing in size. In the light of the Paris heat wave of August 2003 and the one in Rotterdam in July 2006, mortality rates among the elderly in particular are likely to rise in the summer. METHOD The aim of the Hotterdam research project was to gain a better understanding of urban heat. The heat was measured and the surface energy balance modelled from that perspective. Social and physical features of the city we identified in detail with the help of satellite images, GIS and 3D models. We determined the links between urban heat/surface energy balance and the social/physical features of Rotterdam by multivariable regression analysis. The crucial elements of the heat problem were then clustered and illustrated on a social and a physical heat map. RESULTS The research project produced two heat maps, an atlas of underlying data and a set of adaptation measures which, when combined, will make the city of Rotterdam and its inhabitants more aware and less vulnerable to heat wave-related health effects. CONCLUSION In different ways, the pre-war districts of the city (North, South, and West) are warmer and more vulnerable to urban heat than are other areas of Rotterdam. The temperature readings that we carried out confirm these findings as far as outdoor temperatures are concerned. Indoor temperatures vary widely. Homes seem to have their particular dynamics, in which the house’s age plays a role. The above-average mortality of those aged 75 and over during the July 2006 heat wave in Rotterdam can be explained by a) the concentration of people in this age group, b) the age of the homes they live in, and c) the sum of sensible heat and ground heat flux. A diverse mix of impervious surfaces, surface water, foliage, building envelopes and shade make one area or district warmer than another. Adaptation measures are in the hands of residents, homeowners and the local council alike, and relate to changing behaviour, physical measures for homes, and urban design respectively.
34

Beninger, Richard J. Drug abuse and incentive learning. Oxford University Press, 2018. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780198824091.003.0010.

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Drug abuse and incentive learning explains how abused drugs, including nicotine, ethanol, marijuana, amphetamine, cocaine, morphine, and heroin, produce conditioned place preference and are self-administered; dopamine receptor antagonists block these effects. Stimuli that become reliable predictors of drug reward produce burst firing in dopaminergic neurons, but the drug retains its ability to activate dopaminergic neurons. Thus, repeated drug users experience two activations of dopaminergic neurotransmission, one upon exposure to the conditioned stimuli signaling the drug and another upon taking the drug. This may lead to long-term neurobiological changes that contribute to withdrawal and addiction. Withdrawal can be remediated by abstinence but this does not reduce the conditioned incentive value of cues associated with drug taking; those cues can lead to relapse. Effective treatment will include detoxification and systematic exposure to drug taking-associated conditioned incentive stimuli in the absence of drug so that those stimuli lose their ability to control responses.
35

Mikkola, Mari. Pornography. Oxford University Press, 2019. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780190640064.001.0001.

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Everyday and philosophical debates concerning pornography are fraught with many difficult questions. These include: What is pornography? What does pornography do (if anything at all)? Is the consumption of pornography a harmless private matter, or does pornography violate women’s civil rights? What, if anything, should legally be done about pornography? Can there be feminist pornography? Answering these questions is complicated by confusion over the conceptual and political commitments of different anti- and pro-pornography positions, and whether these positions are even in tension with one another: different people understand the concept of pornography differently and easily end up talking past one another. This book provides an opinionated and accessible introduction to contemporary philosophical debates on pornography, which will be conducted from a feminist perspective. The book’s starting point is morally neutral, and it provides a comprehensive discussion of various philosophical positions on pornography that are found in ethics, aesthetics, feminist philosophy, political philosophy, epistemology, and social ontology. Topics include: whether pornography subordinates and silences women; free speech versus hate speech; whether pornography produces a distinct kind of knowledge; whether it objectifies and if so, in what sense; how should we think about the aesthetics of pornography; what difference do nonheteronormative, female-friendly and/or queer pornography make to philosophical debates. The book clarifies different stances in the debate, thus helping readers to understand what is at stake in philosophical examinations of pornography. In so doing, it also offers readers important methodological insights about doing philosophical work on something so this-worldly as pornography.
36

Steane, Andrew. Purpose and Cause. Oxford University Press, 2018. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780198824589.003.0007.

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The distinction between purpose (‘in order that what?’) and cause (‘owing to what?’) is spelled out. The aim is to unpick the confusion of these concepts that takes place in the writing of Richard Dawkins, especially in The Selfish Gene. Science is a discipline which is competent to address the second question, but which mostly does not address the first. However, it does not follow from this that scientific discourse must conclude that there is no purpose, or that the question of purpose is meaningless. To think that is to misunderstand the very nature of the discourse which scientific model-making embarks upon. Rather, intellectual discipline must be respected. The question of purpose is informed by science, but not answered by it. Furthermore, high-level languages applied to human life are valid and insightful. The products of Darwinian evolution are not defined by their role in multiplication of genes.
37

Garnett, Liz. Choral Pedagogy and the Construction of Identity. Edited by Frank Abrahams and Paul D. Head. Oxford University Press, 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199373369.013.7.

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This chapter examines how theories of identity construction can usefully inform choral praxis. It starts with an outline of key concepts in theories of identity and how they can help us understand the processes by which choirs inculcate their members into their particular choral culture. It then examines three areas particularly salient for the choral leader. The first is the phenomenon of “non-singers”: how they emerge as a by-product of western cultural discourses, and what can be done to rehabilitate them. The second is the interpenetration of social and musical identity categories: how elements we may think of as “purely” musical are constructed in terms of wider social categories, including the habitus of the cultural environment, and the implications for how we frame the choral techniques we use. The third is the relationship between individual and group: how an ensemble establishes a corporate, supra-personal identity, and ways to facilitate this.
38

Breuning, Marijke. Pedagogy and Foreign Policy Analysis. Oxford University Press, 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780190846626.013.275.

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Pedagogical objectives and educational outcomes play a significant role in foreign policy analysis. The actor-centered approach of foreign policy analysis gives students the unique opportunity to place themselves in the shoes of decision makers and to understand the different constraints, both domestic and international, that influence the policies adopted by decision makers. In other words, foreign policy analysis can have two functions: to teach students about the processes by which foreign policy is made, or the substance of the foreign policies of various countries, and to enhance students’ ability to imagine the perspectives of others. Whether foreign policy analysis does, in fact, manage to develop this ability is an empirical question that also depends on the course emphasis and pedagogies employed. In this sense, pedagogy does not only mean excellent teaching, but also systematic investigation of teaching methods and techniques, student learning outcomes, educational assessment, and curriculum development. The literature on foreign policy analysis, pedagogy, and curriculum emphasizes active learning strategies and the need for clearly articulated learning objectives for the curriculum as a whole and the place of specific courses within it. Examples of active learning pedagogies are case teaching, simulations, and problem-based learning. Despite some very worthwhile research that has been done, there are still some gaps that need to be addressed. One is the lack of empirical work that helps evaluate the merits of the various teaching strategies in foreign policy analysis, and another is the inconsistent findings produced by the empirical studies that do exist.
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Aldrich, Richard J. Intelligence and International Security. Oxford University Press, 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780190846626.013.222.

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Intelligence can be considered a process, a product, and an institution. Institutions in particular point toward the idea of national security, since intelligence services are curiously bound up with both state sovereignty and the core executive. Preemption is perhaps the most important idea that has served to enhance the importance of intelligence. One of the most enduring definitions of intelligence is that it is a special form of information that allows policy makers, or operational commanders, to make more effective decisions. Quite often this intelligence is secret in nature, consisting of information that an opponent does not wish to surrender and actively seeks to hide. And although it is widely accepted that intelligence studies as a field is under-theorized, some areas have received more attention than others. Perhaps because policy makers have seen warning against surprise attack as one of the highest priority intelligence requirements, this area has been the most fully conceptualized. In addition, intelligence agencies themselves have frequently advanced the claim that their ability to lend a general transparency to the international system improves stability. Also, these agencies not only gather intelligence on world affairs but also seek to intervene covertly to change the course of events. Another controversial aspect of intelligence involves the cooperation between intelligence and security services.
40

Chignell, Andrew P., ed. Evil. Oxford University Press, 2019. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780199915453.001.0001.

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What, if anything, is evil? Is it just badness by another name? Is it the shadow side of good, or is it an active force opposed to the good in a Manichean/Star Wars kind of way? Does evil have its source in something personal—a malevolent, striving will that makes the universe tend not just to entropic winding-down but also to outbreaks of targeted hellishness? These are some of the main ontological questions that philosophers raise about evil. There are related epistemological questions: Can we really know evil? Does a victim know evil in a way that is entirely different from the way a perpetrator or witness knows it? Does a perpetrator know evil as evil at all? There are also psychological questions: what motivates people to perpetrate evil? Satan’s rebellion, Iago’s machinations, and Stalin’s gulags might be hard to grasp. But what about less remarkable evils: Can we make sense of how former vacuum oil salesman Adolf Eichmann could regard himself as an effective bureaucrat? And what about structural and symbolic evils—can they be explained in terms of actions on the part of individuals? In Evil: A History, 13original essays tell the story of the concept of evil in the west, starting with its origins in early Hebrew wisdom literature and ending with evolutionary theory and the Holocaust. 13 Reflections contextualize these developments by considering evil through the eyes of poets, mystics, witches, librettists, directors, livestock, and a Google product manager.
41

Callard, Agnes. The Problem of Self-Creation. Oxford University Press, 2018. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780190639488.003.0006.

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The new values, acquisition of which constitutes my act of self-creation, must be either continuous or discontinuous with the ones I already have. If they are continuous, I am not changing but rather working out the implications of the person I already was. If they are discontinuous and the new values contradict or come at a tangent to my old values, the change is not a product of my agency. I change, but I do not change myself. This paradox, adapted from the work of Galen Strawson, can be solved if we allow that the direction of value-dependence may be teleological: the aspirant’s values depend on, and are entailed by, those of the person she is trying to be. The aspirant does not fashion, control, or make the self she creates. Instead, she looks up to that self, tries to understand her, endeavors to find a way to her.
42

Kipnis, Eric, and Benoit Vallet. Tissue perfusion monitoring in the ICU. Oxford University Press, 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/med/9780199600830.003.0138.

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Resuscitation endpoints have shifted away from restoring normal values of routinely assessed haemodynamic parameters (central venous pressure, mean arterial pressure, cardiac output) towards optimizing parameters that reflect adequate tissue perfusion. Tissue perfusion-based endpoints have changed outcomes, particularly in sepsis. Tissue perfusion can be explored by monitoring the end result of perfusion, namely tissue oxygenation, metabolic markers, and tissue blood flow. Tissue oxygenation can be directly monitored locally through invasive electrodes or non-invasively using light absorbance (pulse oximetry (SpO2) or tissue (StO2)). Global oxygenation may be monitored in blood, either intermittently through blood gas analysis, or continuously with specialized catheters. Central venous saturation (ScvO2) indirectly assesses tissue oxygenation as the net balance between global O2 delivery and uptake, decreasing when delivery does not meet demand. Lactate, a by-product of anaerobic glycolysis, increases when oxygenation is inadequate, and can be measured either globally in blood, or locally in tissues by microdialysis. Likewise, CO2 (a by-product of cellular respiration) and PCO2 can be measured globally in blood or locally in accessible mucosal tissues (sublingual, gastric) by capnography or tonometry. Increasing PCO2 gradients, either tissue-to-arterial or venous-to-arterial, are due to inadequate perfusion. Metabolically, the oxidoreductive status of mitochondria can be assessed locally through NADH fluorescence, which increases in situations of inadequate oxygenation/perfusion. Finally, local tissue blood flow may be measured by laser-Doppler or visualized through intravital microscopic imaging. These perfusion/oxygenation resuscitation endpoints are increasingly used and studied in critical care.
43

Weisberg, Herb. Total Survey Error. Edited by Lonna Rae Atkeson and R. Michael Alvarez. Oxford University Press, 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780190213299.013.22.

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The total survey error (TSE) approach is a useful schema for organizing the planning and evaluation of surveys. It classifies the several possible types of errors in surveys, including in respondent selection, response accuracy, and survey administration. While the goal is to minimize these errors, the TSE approach emphasizes that this must be done within limitations imposed by several constraints: the cost of minimizing each type of error, the time requirements for the survey, and ethical standards. In addition to survey errors and constraints, there are several survey effects for which there are no error-free solutions; the size of these effects can be studied even though they cannot be eliminated. The total survey quality (TSQ) approach further emphasizes the need for survey organizations to maximize the quality of the product they deliver to their clients, within the context of TSE tradeoffs between survey errors and costs.
44

Plagnol, Anke C., and Lucia Macchia. Economics of Subjective Well-Being. Oxford University Press, 2018. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780190492908.003.0009.

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In 1974 economist Richard A. Easterlin asked in his seminal article “Does economic growth improve the human lot?” His answer to this question was a resounding no. The paper described what was later to be known as the Easterlin paradox, which is the observation that at one point in time rich nations are on average happier than poor nations, but over time there is no relationship between happiness and gross domestic product (GDP). The Easterlin paradox can also be found at the individual level. Easterlin’s paper is often described as starting the field of the economics of subjective well-being. The Easterlin paradox has been the topic of many published articles, with numerous studies supporting the original findings and some refuting them. This chapter describes the Easterlin paradox and recent evidence confirming or rejecting its existence. Other developments in the economics of subjective well-being are also discussed.
45

Bonnay, Denis. A Clustering-Based Approach to Collective Beliefs. Oxford University Press, 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780190680534.003.0008.

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In this chapter, I argue in favor of a new approach to collective beliefs in unorganized groups, in terms of doxastic clustering. When a group does not have dedicated mechanisms for production of collective beliefs, and when individual beliefs of members of the group are diverse, it does not make much sense to attribute to the group some average beliefs or any other kind of collective beliefs produced by aggregating individual beliefs. Rather, beliefs are meaningfully attributed to coherent subgroups of individuals who share similar opinions. In this case, attribution of collective beliefs involves both clustering, that is partitioning the group into coherent doxastic units, and aggregation, that is aggregating individual opinions within coherent clusters. Adapting standard judgment aggregation theory, I propose a formal framework for doxastic clustering and provide an axiomatic characterization of majoritarian intra-cluster aggregation.
46

Haig, Brian D. Meta-Analysis. Oxford University Press, 2018. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780190222055.003.0005.

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Chapter 5 is concerned with the conceptual foundations of meta-analysis. It deals with large-scale issues having to do with meta-analysis and the nature of science. Meta-analysis is an approach to data analysis that involves the quantitative, or statistical, analysis of data analyses from a number of existing primary studies in a common domain. At its simplest, meta-analysis involves computing the average effect size for a group of studies. The chapter begins by discussing Gene Glass’s rationale for meta-analysis. It then examines David Sohn’s argument that meta-analysis does not produce genuine scientific discoveries. The roles of meta-analysis in relation to the processes of phenomena detection and scientific explanation are also considered.
47

Nobes, Christopher. 7. Internal decision-making: costs and volumes. Oxford University Press, 2014. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/actrade/9780199684311.003.0007.

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‘Internal decision-making: costs and volumes’ looks at decision-making by managers. Management accounting is the provision of financial information to managers to assist them with internal decisions and to help them control organizations. Typical financial documents produced under this category are costing reports, break-even reports, and budgets. Types of cost and how cost information is used for break-even analysis is examined. What sort of decisions can management accounting help with? Why are some costs relevant and others irrelevant? How does a company decide at what volume to operate? What are indirect costs, and how are they taken into account in decisions?
48

Nugent, Christopher M. B. Manuscript Culture. Edited by Wiebke Denecke, Wai-Yee Li, and Xiaofei Tian. Oxford University Press, 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199356591.013.5.

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This chapter examines issues of manuscript culture as they apply to China prior to the spread of print. The discussion is centered around questions of how literary texts were produced, circulated, and changed in contexts in which every reproduction of a text was done by hand and the oral and the written remained closely intertwined. In addition to accounts of how texts were circulated and altered during circulation, the chapter discusses the implications of these aspects of manuscript culture for our understanding of how this literature was experienced by audiences in a context in which texts were more fluid and every instance of textual reproduction entailed individual decisions. Many of the issues discussed here are relevant to later periods as well, as even after the wide spread of printing, texts continued to be produced by hand (and orally) in a range of contexts up through the twentieth century.
49

Vandenberg, Laura N. Classic Toxicology vs. New Science. Oxford University Press, 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/med/9780190490911.003.0012.

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Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are compounds that interfere with hormone action. Many EDCs are agonists or antagonists of estrogen, androgen, or thyroid hormone receptors. EDCs are found in many consumer products and are detected at low doses in humans. Using traditional methods from toxicology and risk assessment, these compounds have often been considered benign based on the low exposure levels and few overt signs of toxicity. However, thousands of epidemiology studies have found associations between EDC exposures and disease outcomes, suggesting that the methods used to prioritize chemicals and identify safe levels of exposure have failed. This chapter discusses the unique properties of EDCs that defy traditional chemical safety expectations. The presumption that chemicals are safe until proved harmful has allowed humans to be exposed to hundreds of chemicals that may be unsafe, at least during sensitive periods of development. Recommendations are offered for revising toxicologic evaluations to protect public health.
50

Birdsell, David S. Political Campaign Debates. Edited by Kate Kenski and Kathleen Hall Jamieson. Oxford University Press, 2014. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199793471.013.007.

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Over more than four decades, debate scholarship has addressed the auspices under which debates are conducted, debate formats, variables in news coverage, and debate’s influence on issue knowledge and candidate support across a wide range of audiences, primarily through examination of general election presidential debates in the United States. Primary debates and debates for other offices have received far less attention. While evidence strongly suggests that debates produce more acclaims than attacks from participants and attend more closely to policy than to character, a systematic understanding of performance and performance variables has eluded debate scholarship. Evidence does show that viewers learn from debates and that they can also influence the formation of opinions about candidates, although both phenomena depend to some extent on prior knowledge and partisanship.

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