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Статті в журналах з теми "Double- direct shear apparatus":

1

Pincus, HJ, DJ DeGroot, JT Germaine, and CC Ladd. "The Multidirectional Direct Simple Shear Apparatus." Geotechnical Testing Journal 16, no. 3 (1993): 283. http://dx.doi.org/10.1520/gtj10049j.

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2

Hanzawa, Hideo, Nigel Nutt, Tom Lunne, Y. X. Tang, and Michael Long. "A Comparative Study Between the NGI Direct Simple Shear Apparatus and the Mikasa Direct Shear Apparatus." Soils and Foundations 47, no. 1 (February 2007): 47–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.3208/sandf.47.47.

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3

Lings, M. L., and M. S. Dietz. "An improved direct shear apparatus for sand." Géotechnique 54, no. 4 (May 2004): 245–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1680/geot.2004.54.4.245.

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4

Taslagyan, Karén A., Dave H. Chan, and Norbert R. Morgenstern. "A Direct Shear Apparatus With Vibrational Loading." Geotechnical Testing Journal 38, no. 1 (November 2014): 20140078. http://dx.doi.org/10.1520/gtj20140078.

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5

Chao, Teng, Liu Zhijun, Wang Xuegang, and He Liping. "Analysis and Improvement of Oblique Shear Phenomenon of Direct Shear Apparatus." IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 768, no. 1 (May 2021): 012090. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/768/1/012090.

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6

Pincus, HJ, and N. Takada. "Mikasa's Direct Shear Apparatus, Test Procedures and Results." Geotechnical Testing Journal 16, no. 3 (1993): 314. http://dx.doi.org/10.1520/gtj10052j.

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7

Kondo, Hiroshi, Yoshiaki Noda, and Noboru Sugiyama. "Trial production of dynamic direct shear testing apparatus." Journal of Terramechanics 24, no. 1 (January 1987): 120. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-4898(87)90092-9.

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8

Barla, G., M. Barla, and M. E. Martinotti. "Development of a New Direct Shear Testing Apparatus." Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering 43, no. 1 (March 2009): 117–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00603-009-0041-5.

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9

Cui, Ying Hui, Jian Kun Liu, and Peng Lv. "Research of the Permafrost Dynamic Load Direct Shear Apparatus." Applied Mechanics and Materials 405-408 (September 2013): 454–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/amm.405-408.454.

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The dynamic parameters of the permafrost are very important for engineering design, also using in the numerical calculation. The dynamic parameters directly affect the correctness of engineering design and numerical simulation. Beijing Jiaotong University developed a novel dynamic load direct shear apparatus to measure these parameters. In the paper, it is analyzed Power systems, measurement and control systems of the dynamic load direct shear apparatus, and gave a verification experiment, the results show that dynamic load direct shear apparatus can complete its purpose.
10

Oloo, S. Y., та D. G. Fredlund. "A method for determination of ϕb for statically compacted soils". Canadian Geotechnical Journal 33, № 2 (травень 1996): 272–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/t96-006.

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The unsaturated shear strength parameter, ϕb, is usually determined using triaxial of direct shear apparatus that have been modified to allow for the control and (or) measurement of pore-air and pore-water pressures. A fairly high level of expertise is required for the characterization of ϕb using these modified apparatus. A simple procedure for determining ϕb for statically compacted soils at different water contents is presented along with a method of analysis. The tests can be performed on a conventional direct shear apparatus. The unsaturated shear strength parameter, ϕb, obtained using the proposed procedure is shown to be comparable to that obtained using the modified direct shear test. Since the proposed procedure utilizes standard laboratory direct shear equipment and takes a relatively short time to complete, it offers an easy and convenient alternative for the determination of ϕb for statically compacted soils. Key words: shear strength, matric suction, unsaturated soils, statically compacted soils, direct shear test.

Дисертації з теми "Double- direct shear apparatus":

1

Tzortzopoulos, Georgios. "Controlling earthQuakes (CoQuake) in the laboratory using pertinent fault stimulating techniques." Electronic Thesis or Diss., Ecole centrale de Nantes, 2021. TEL.

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La sismicité anthropique a augmenté depuis les dernières décennies en raison de l’intense activité humaine pour la production d’énergie. Cependant, malgré le fait que la simple injection de fluides peut induire/ déclencher des tremblements de terre, dans cette thèse, nous montrons que l’interaction stratégique entre les extractions et les injections de fluides peut contrôler de tels événements sismiques et éventuellement les prévenir. Plus précisément, nous construisons un nouveau cadre mathématique de contrôle robuste des tremblements de terre, qui est ensuite exploité dans des simulations numériques de failles de glissement et de réservoirs de gaz, ainsi que dans de nouvelles expériences de laboratoire à l’échelle décimétrique. Tout d’abord, les paramètres clés qui constituent une stratégie conventionnelle d’atténuation des séismes sont identifiés. Des expériences de substitution sur du papier poreux absorbant montrent que sans la connaissance précise des propriétés de la faille, les injections de fluide risquent de nucléer plus rapidement un grand événement sismique. Afin de faire face à de telles incertitudes, des outils mathématiques rigoureux sont développés en utilisant la théorie moderne du contrôle. Ces outils nécessitent un minimum d’informations sur les propriétés de la faille et les caractéristiques de frottement pour assurer la robustesse. Des simulations numériques sur des failles à glissement latéral vérifient que la prévention des séismes est possible, même en présence de processus de diffusion et en l’absence de mesures suffisantes dans le temps et l’espace. En allant plus loin, les techniques de contrôle développées peuvent également être appliquées dans les grands réservoirs de gaz, où la production de gaz souhaitée peut être atteinte en garantissant des niveaux de sismicité acceptables. Enfin, au cours de cette thèse, un nouvel appareil à triplets d’échelle décimétrique a été conçu, construit et calibré en conséquence. Le contrôle de la pression peut être réalisé, dans cet appareil, en temps réel, grâce à un régulateur de pression électro-pneumatique à réponse rapide. Comme preuve de concept, le régulateur développé est branché dans cet appareil et en utilisant des spécimens imprimés en 3D à base de sable (pour promouvoir la répétabilité expérimentale), nous parvenons, pour la première fois, à prévenir les tremblements de terre en laboratoire et à conduire le système de manière asismique vers un point d’équilibre de plus faible énergie
Anthropogenic seismicity has been increased since the last decades due to the intense human activity for energy production. However, despite the fact that merely injection of fluids can induce/trigger earthquakes, in this thesis, we show that the strategic interplay between fluid extractions and injections can control such seismic events and eventually prevent them. More specifically, a novel mathematical framework of robust earthquake control is built which in turn is exploited in numerical simulations of strike-slip faults and gas reservoirs, as well as in new laboratory experiments of decimetric scale. First, the key parameters which constitute a conventional earthquake mitigation strategy are identified. Surrogate experiments on absorbent porous paper show that without the precise knowledge of the fault properties, fluid injections risk to nucleate faster a large seismic event. In order to tackle such uncertainties, rigorous mathematical tools are developed using modern control theory. These tools require minimal information of fault’s properties and frictional characteristics to assure robustness. Numerical simulations on strike-slip faults verify that earthquake prevention is possible, even in the presence of diffusion processes and the absence of sufficient measurements both in time and space. Going a step further, the developed control techniques can also be applied in large gas reservoirs, where the desired gas production can be achieved assuring acceptable seismicity levels. Finally, during this thesis, a novel triplet apparatus of decimetric scale has been designed, constructed and calibrated accordingly. Pressure control can be achieved, in this machine, in real-time, through a fast response electro-pneumatic pressure regulator. As a proof of concept, the developed controller is plugged in this apparatus and by using sand-based 3D-printed specimens (to promote experimental repeatability), we manage, for the first time, to prevent laboratory earthquakes and drive the system aseismically to an equilibrium point of lower energy
2

Dietz, Matthew S. "Developing an holistic understanding of interface friction using sand with direct shear apparatus." Electronic Thesis or Diss., University of Bristol, 2000. http://hdl.handle.net/1983/55218bdd-b641-4365-a921-5a7ca0d475bc.

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3

DeGroot, Don Johan. "The multidirectional direct simple shear apparatus with application to design of offshore Arctic structures." Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1992. http://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/12834.

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4

Ahmed, Imtiaz 1955. "Investigation of normalized behavior of resedimented Boston Blue Clay using Geonor direct simple shear apparatus." Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1990. http://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/45698.

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5

Cocheteau, Natacha. "Caractérisation et modélisation d'une adhérence moléculaire renforcée." Electronic Thesis or Diss., Aix-Marseille, 2014. http://www.theses.fr/2014AIXM4700/document.

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Анотація:
Le collage par adhérence moléculaire est un collage basé sur la mise en contact de deux surfaces sans l'utilisation de colle ou matériaux additionnels. Ce procédé de collage est utilisé dans de nombreuses applications, notamment dans les domaines de l'optique terrestre et spatiale. Bien qu'un prototype ait déjà passé avec succès l'environnement spatial - où les contraintes d'utilisations sont différentes de celles rencontrées sur Terre - la spatialisation de cette technologie nécessite une caractérisation plus fine du procédé ainsi qu'une amélioration de la tenue mécanique des interfaces adhérées afin de valider les normes de l'Agence spatiale Européenne. Pour répondre à cette problématique de spatialisation de la technologie, des essais mécaniques ainsi que des analyses chimiques ont été réalisés dans le but d'étudier l'influence de certains paramètres du procédé ) sur la tenue mécanique et l'énergie de collage. Ces essais ont également été réalisés afin de comparer les deux matériaux étudiés : le verre de silice et le Zérodur vis-à-vis de l'adhésion. A l'issue de ces essais, les paramètres à appliquer permettant de doubler la tenue mécanique des interfaces adhérées ont été déterminés. Parallèlement, une loi phénoménologique reliant l'énergie de collage aux précédents paramètres du procédé a été développée ainsi qu'un modèle macroscopique visant à décrire l'intensité d'adhésion. Ces deux modèles une fois couplés permettent de modéliser le comportement normal de l'interface en fonction des paramètres du procédé. Enfin, ces deux lois sont implémentées dans un code éléments finis afin de simuler la propagation de la fissure lors de l'essai de clivage au coin
Direct bonding consists in joining two surfaces without the use of any adhesive or additional material. This process is used in several applications, particularly in terrestrial and spatial optics. Although a prototype passed with success spatial environment - where constraints involved are very different from those encountered on Earth - this technology requires a more detailed characterization and an improvement of the mechanical strength of bonded interfaces in order to validate the European Space Agency standards. To address this issue, mechanical tests (double shear tests, cleavage tests and wedge tests) and chemical analysis (wetting tests and XPS spectroscopy) were performed in order to study the influence of some process parameters (roughness, relative air humidity during room temperature bonding, the annealing temperature and time) on the mechanical strength and the bonding energy. These tests compared the two materials used: fused silica glass and Zerodur glass. As a result of these tests, optimal parameters doubling the mechanical strength were also obtained. In the same time, a phenomenological law relating the bonding energy to the previous parameters is developed as well as a macroscopic model to describe the adhesion intensity. Both models when coupled describe the normal behavior of the bonded interface depending on the process parameters. Then, the both laws are implemented in a finite elements model in order to simulate the crack propagation during the wedge test
6

Chern, Kuen-Huei, and 陳坤輝. "Establishment of the rock direct shear apparatus." 學位論文 ; thesis, 1996. http://ndltd.ncl.edu.tw/handle/66597230392163350801.

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Анотація:
碩士
國立臺灣科技大學
營建工程技術學系
84
The purpose of research is to build a set of direct shear testing apparatus.The apparatus can be connected to MTS one- hundred-ton material testing machine and ELE pressure system to form a set of rock direct shear testing system.The good testing results can be obtained by MTS super servo- control and data- acquisition ability. A series of direct shear tests were performed to understand the mechanical behavior of intact rock marble,intact sepentinite, intact sandstone and jointed marble in the study.The shear strength parameters(c , φ),shear stress vs. shear displacement, normal displacement vs. shear displacement,normal stress vs. normal displacement curves were analyzed.The effect of temperature, anisotropy,jointed properties were also investigated, and some curve fitting equation were suggested.
7

Wang, Bor Wen, and 王博文. "Modifications of a cylindrical Direct Shear Apparatus and the Investigation of the Direct Shear Characteristics of Geotextiles." 學位論文 ; thesis, 1996. http://ndltd.ncl.edu.tw/handle/11046098721804782119.

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Анотація:
碩士
國立屏東技術學院
土木工程技術研究所
84
The objective of the study is to modify a previous developed cylindrical direct shear apparatus for geosynthetics in order to evaluate the effect of necking phenomena on friction behavior of soil/geotextile during direct shear test. The use of cylindrical geometry for the apparatus has the intention of eliminating the necking deformation of geotextile test sample dueto longitudinal extension during direct shear test. A series of direct shear tests between various types of geotextiles and a white quartz sand were performed using the modified apparatus and a traditional large scale direct shear apparatus. The tested geotextiles included a woven fabric, a non-woven needle-punched geotextile, and a nonwoven heated bonded geotextile. A wide range of wide width tensile tests with different test speeds were conducted to evaluate the strength of the geotextiles. Based on the results of tensile tests, it is recommended that theuse of 5 mm/min. test speed for nonwoven wide width tensile test can significant minimize speed effect. However, the use of 1 mm/min. test speed rate for wide width tensile test of woven fabric is recommended. Based on the results obtained from the traditional large scale directshear tests between geotextiles and quartz sand, the use of maximum displacement rate of 1 mm/min. for soil/geotextile direct shear test is recommended. Theresults of direct shear tests indicated that the increase of water content of granular soils would reduce the friction resistance at soil/geotextile interface. The increase of water content of the quartz sand from dry condition to saturated condition would reduce the friction angle of soil/geotextile of 2 to 8 degrees for the conditions of tested. The effect of water content of soil on friction resistance of soil/geotextile direct shear test is more significant for the traditional large scale direct shear device than that of cylindrical direct shear apparatus. The results of the tests also shown that contact efficiencies of friction angle of dry loose sand/geotextiles are about 0.75 and 0.85 for woven fabric and nonwoven geotextiles, respectively. The contact efficiency of wet loose sand/geotextiles is about 0.70. The typical contact efficiencies of fri-ction angle of wet dense sand/geotextiles are about 0.815 and 0.95 for woven fabric and nonwoven geotextiles, respectively. Due to the presence of longit-udinal and hoop tensile stresses on cylindrical test sample, the friction resis-tance at soil/geotextile interface of cylindrical direct shear test sample is less than that presence on the geotextile sample for traditional large scale direct shear test. However, the reasons to cause the difference of test resultsbetween traditional and cylindrical direct shear apparatuses required further investigation.
8

Tseng, Hsiao-Chian, and 曾孝欽. "Development of a Multi-Purpose Shear Test System for Soft Rocks-Direct shear and Simple Shear Apparatus." 學位論文 ; thesis, 2003. http://ndltd.ncl.edu.tw/handle/11754689634744927071.

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Анотація:
碩士
國立交通大學
土木工程系
91
Development of a Multi-Purpose Shear Test System for Soft Rocks - Direct Shear and Simple Shear Apparatus Student: Hsiao-Chian Tseng Advisor: Dr. Jyh-Jong Liao Dr. Yii-Wen Pan Department of Civil Engineering National Chiao Tung University Abstract Due to the low strength and high deformability of poorly cemented sedimentary rocks, the conventional soil or rock mechanics test equipments are not suitable for determining the mechanical properties of those rocks. In order to propose reasonable engineering approaches in the soft rock area, the mechanical behavior of the rocks has to be investigated in details. To study the mechanical behavior of soft rocks, we need to develop a test system, which is appropriate for testing soft rocks. The geotechnical group, NCTU, aims to develop a multi-purpose shear test system for soft rocks. The system can perform direct shear test, simple shear tests, torsional shear tests, and triaxial tests. This thesis has designed and built a servo-controlled shear apparatus including direct shear test and simple shear test apparatus. The maximum normal and shear capacity of the system are 20 tons and 10 tons, respectively. The equipment was designed to conduct direct shear and simple shear tests under various conditions including constant normal force, constant normal displacement, and constant stiffness, especially for soft rock specimen. A series of experiments were carried out to verify the design objectives. It was confirmed the designed equipment could be operated according to the designed purposes. Keywords : soft rock, direct shear, simple shear, multi-purpose shear test system.
9

Lin, Win, and 林文屹. "Development of High Speed Large Direct Shear Device with Double Shear Planes." 學位論文 ; thesis, 2005. http://ndltd.ncl.edu.tw/handle/27489523148602049321.

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Анотація:
碩士
逢甲大學
土木工程所
93
The major superiority for a direct shear test device is to determine shear strength for a known planar failure surface. The feature for a traditional small direct shear test device is that samples obtained directly from drilling cores can be utilized. However, since the size of a sample is small enough, the effects for the structures on the failure plane formed during deposition can hardly be included in the test result. Also, during transferring horizontal shear force via the upper and the lower shear boxes, additional moment can be induced such that one end of the upper shear box will be lifted upward. A gap between the upper and the lower shear boxes is then clearly shown. Thereafter, lateral earth pressure near the gap is released thoroughly and some of the sample is forced to flow out through the gap. Such test conditions are seriously deviated from the theoretical ones. For improving the above-mentioned defects for the traditional small direct shear test, the authors of this paper develop a high speed large direct shear test device with double shear planes. The new device can not only take the effects of structure on the sliding plane, but also has the capability to determine the shear strength for a plane sliding quickly during the occurrence of a large earthquake.
10

Chiang, Chen-Li, and 江呈立. "Improvement&Practial Applications of High Speed Large Direct Shear Device with Double Shear Planes." 學位論文 ; thesis, 2006. http://ndltd.ncl.edu.tw/handle/51253510594983378897.

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Анотація:
碩士
逢甲大學
土木工程所
94
A large direct shear test device with double shear planes was first developed in Feng-Chia University in 2005. It was proved that there is a tendency for the obtained results to be better than those obtained from using traditional direct shear test device with single shear plane. However, it was found in the developing process that the normal forces, acting on both the upper and the lower shear planes by applying downward vertical force only from the top side of the specimen, actually cannot transmit totally from the upper shear plane to the lower one. To allow the normal forces acting on both the upper and lower shear planes to be equal, a new system for applying forces was redesigned. Then, the new test device accompany with a traditional large direct shear test device were utilized to perform direct shear tests for four different types of sands such that special functions and features for the newly developed device can be studied. Results from this thesis reveal that (1) the new device with a system that can apply forces simultaneously from both top and bottom sides of a specimen to its upper and lower shear planes has the tendency to provide reasonable test results; (2) as compared with the single-shear-plane direct shear test device, the double-shear-plane one can provide better test results; (3) it was indicated by the test results from different types of sands that when shear velocities are in the range of slow, the resulting shear strength is increased with the increase in shear velocity, however, when shear velocities are increased from the range of slow to that of fast, the resulting shear strength is decreased with the increase in shear velocity; (4) a smaller increment of the coefficient of lateral earth pressure is obtained for the middle shear box as compared with those obtained from the upper and lower ones; such results directly indicate the complexity of stress distributions in the direct shear test specimen.

Частини книг з теми "Double- direct shear apparatus":

1

Okawara, Masafumi, Toshiyuki Mitachi, and Makoto Tanada. "Development of an automatic cyclic direct shear test apparatus for landslide slope stability analysis." In Slope Stability Engineering, 715–19. London: Routledge, 2021. http://dx.doi.org/10.1201/9780203739600-10.

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"direct double-shear(ing) ring apparatus." In Dictionary Geotechnical Engineering/Wörterbuch GeoTechnik, 382. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2014. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-41714-6_42187.

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"(torsion-)ring apparatus for direct single shear." In Dictionary Geotechnical Engineering/Wörterbuch GeoTechnik, 1412. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2014. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-41714-6_201940.

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Yamamoto, H., K. Morichi, H. Matsuoka, Y. Tanaka, and D. Sun. "Frictional behaviour between clay and steel by direct shear type apparatus." In Deformation Characteristics of Geomaterials / Comportement Des Sols Et Des Roches Tendres. Taylor & Francis, 2003. http://dx.doi.org/10.1201/noe9058096043.ch30.

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5

Mirzaii, A., S. Yasrebi, and E. Hefzi. "A new unsaturated direct shear apparatus for measuring shear strength of unsaturated soils Part 2." In Unsaturated Soils, 309–15. CRC Press, 2010. http://dx.doi.org/10.1201/b10526-40.

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Hefzi, E., S. Yasrebi, and A. Mirzaii. "A new unsaturated direct shear apparatus for measuring shear strength of unsaturated soils Part 1." In Unsaturated Soils, 665–70. CRC Press, 2010. http://dx.doi.org/10.1201/b10526-103.

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Moradian, Z., C. Gravel, A. Fathi, G. Ballivy, P. Rivard, and M. Quirion. "Developing a high capacity direct shear apparatus for the large scale laboratory testing of rock joints." In Rock Mechanics for Resources, Energy and Environment, 315–20. CRC Press, 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1201/b15683-52.

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Mayumi, T., T. Yamasaki, K. Kato, and A. M. K. B. Abeysinghe. "Measurement of the strength parameter on undisturbed slip surface by new Slip Surface Direct Shear box apparatus." In Landslides, 641–47. Routledge, 2018. http://dx.doi.org/10.1201/9780203749197-92.

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Тези доповідей конференцій з теми "Double- direct shear apparatus":

1

L. Urai, J., R. Schmitz, W. van der Zee, and P. Vrolijk. "Experimental Investigation of Clay Smear Processes in a Geotechnical Direct Shear Apparatus." In First EAGE International Conference on Fault and Top Seals - What do we know and where do we go? European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers, 2003. http://dx.doi.org/10.3997/2214-4609.201405849.

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2

Tasalloti, Ali, Gabriele Chiaro, Alessandro Palermo, and Laura Banasiak. "Effect of Rubber Crumbs Volumetric Content on the Shear Strength of Gravelly Soil in Direct Shear Apparatus." In Geo-Congress 2020. Reston, VA: American Society of Civil Engineers, 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/9780784482827.029.

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Liu, Xiao, Erjuan Luo, Yingjie Duan, Chunming Xue, and Bo Liu. "Design and analysis of new direct shear apparatus based on parallel mechanism technology." In 2017 IEEE 2nd Information Technology, Networking, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (ITNEC). IEEE, 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/itnec.2017.8284919.

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Amarasinghe, Ruslan S., Dharma Wijewickreme, and Hisham T. Eid. "Some Observations on Soil-Pipe Interface Shear Strength in Direct Shear Under Low Effective Normal Stresses and Large Displacements." In 2016 11th International Pipeline Conference. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/ipc2016-64100.

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Experimental work is undertaken at the University of British Columbia (UBC) to study the soil-pipe interface shear strength at levels of shear displacements and effective normal stresses typically encountered in offshore soil-pipe interaction problems. A macro-scale interface direct shear apparatus having a test specimen footprint of 1.72 m × 1.75 m was designed and built for this purpose. The apparatus is capable of testing various soil-pipe interfaces under effective normal stresses in the range of 3 kPa to 6 kPa. A maximum shear displacement of 1.2 m is achievable at rates ranging from 0.1 μm/s to 1 mm/s. Sensors mounted at the interface enable the accurate determination of the effective normal stress at the interface when fully saturated fine-grained soils are tested. This paper presents some observations arising from a series of interface direct shear tests involving fine-grained soils of different plasticity against bare and epoxy coated steel surfaces.
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Ali, Liaqat, Sarfraz Ali, and Ammar Maqbool. "Large Direct Shear Test Apparatus for In Situ Testing of Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Sites." In GeoHunan International Conference 2009. Reston, VA: American Society of Civil Engineers, 2009. http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/41041(348)13.

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Alam, Md Shah, Claude Daley, Bruce Colbourne, Greg Hermanski, Bob Gagnon, Steve Bruneau, Geoff Clarke, and Bruce Quinton. "Double Pendulum Dynamic Impact Test Set-up for Ice-grillage Collision." In SNAME 10th International Conference and Exhibition on Performance of Ships and Structures in Ice. SNAME, 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.5957/icetech-2012-134.

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This paper details the development of a double pendulum dynamic impact test apparatus to study the behavior of collisions between ice and structural grillages, typical of those used in ship structures. Direct collisions between ice and ships involve high impact energy and can cause substantial damage to the ship structure. In order to apply this type of impact energy in a controlled and repeatable way, a double pendulum dynamic impact test frame has been developed. The frame consists of two pendulums: one to carry an ice sample and the other to carry a test grillage structure. The overall size of the apparatus is 4m × 5m × 8m. The live weight of each pendulum is approximately 3000 kg. In operation, the pendulums will be lifted and then released simultaneously to impact each other in a vertical position. The frame is instrumented to measure the impact force and deflection of the grillage.
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Martel, Joseph, and Bradford A. Bruno. "Shear Stress Measurement in Microfluidic Systems: Liquid Crystal Technique." In ASME 2008 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition. ASMEDC, 2008. http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/imece2008-68708.

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Preliminary work towards developing a liquid crystal based technique for direct shear stress measurements over solid surfaces in microfluidic systems is presented. The microfluidic slug flow study which motivated the development of this technique is presented, as is general background on microfluidics. The theory of shear sensitive liquid crystals is reviewed and then expanded upon in regards to the specific type of flow considered in this study; slug flow. A prototype apparatus is described which is capable of generating slugs, and has appropriate optical access to test the liquid crystal shear stress measurement technique. The microchannel (150μm × 250μm laser etched glass), auxiliary flow (Cole-Parmer Infusion 100 Syringe Pump), and optical data collection (Olympus BX51 microscope) subsystems are all described in detail. Procedures for applying the cholesteric liquid crystal mixtures obtained through Pressure Chemicals Ltd. to the microchannel and for collecting liquid crystal data are described as well. Finally, preliminary results are presented, the current status of the technique is stated along with proposed directions for future research work.
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Derksen, Jos. "Direct Simulations of Incipient Erosion of Solid Particle Beds due to Shear Flow." In ASME-JSME-KSME 2011 Joint Fluids Engineering Conference. ASMEDC, 2011. http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/ajk2011-09002.

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Direct numerical simulations of the shear flow over assemblies of uniformly sized solid spheres have been performed using the lattice-Boltzmann method. First non-moving spheres are considered; the random sphere assemblies comprise monolayers, double layers, and triple layers. Then situations with moving spheres were simulated, directly resolving granular bed erosion. The Reynolds numbers based on the sphere radius and the overall shear rates were smaller than one. For the fixed spheres the results were interpreted in terms of the drag force (the force in streamwise direction) and lift force (the force in wall-normal direction) experienced by the spheres as a function of the denseness of the bed and the depth of the spheres in the bed. For the moving spheres the onset of erosion as a function of the Shields number was studied, with results that were in accordance with experimental data.
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Gestring, Ingo, and Dieter Mewes. "Devolatilization of Molten Polymers During Multiphase Flow in a Double Screw Extruder." In ASME 2002 Joint U.S.-European Fluids Engineering Division Conference. ASMEDC, 2002. http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/fedsm2002-31023.

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Devolatilization is a thermal separation process in order to remove low molecular solvents from mixtures of polymers. Extruders with partly filled devolatilization zones are often used for this process. The two-phase flow of the polymer and the evaporating monomers and solvents is complex due to free surfaces. In film flow and two-phase bubbly flow the polymer is heated by dissipation and cooled by evaporation of the low molecular solvent. Temperature and concentration fields are difficult to predict in extruders because of the complex flow field. Therefore the experimental investigations are carried out in special designed apparatus with a flow field similar to that in extruders and in a transparent double-screw extruder to investigate the different flow mechanisms. In order to nucleate bubbles of the volatile component the polymers must be supersaturated and some kind of deformation must exist. The bubble nucleation is shear induced. The changes in concentration during two-phase bubbly flow result in decreasing temperatures. The mass transfer rates are increased due to the large inner surfaces of the bubbles in the foam and so is the cooling by evaporation. The higher the foam expansion the better is the mass transfer.
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Francke, Eric, Michelle K. Elfervig, Ajay Sood, Thomas D. Brown, Donald K. Bynum, and Albert J. Banes. "Fluid-Induced Shear Stress Stimulates Ca2+ Signaling in Human Tendon Epitenon Cells." In ASME 1999 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1999. http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/imece1999-0401.

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Abstract Tendon cells reside in an environment rich in mechanical stimuli and respond to these stimuli with a variety of activities. Whole tendon, ex vivo, responds to cyclic stretch by increasing DNA and collagen synthesis (Banes et al., 1999). Cultured epitenon and internal cells from tendon respond synergistically to cyclic tensile strain and a growth factor (Banes et al., 1995). Tendon cells stimulated by plasma membrane indentation with a micropipet propagate intercellular calcium waves to neighboring cells via gap junctions (Kenamond et al., 1997). Tendon cells subjected to equibiaxial cyclic stretching signal with a transient rise in intracellular calcium (Kenamond et al., 1998). Recently, it has been shown that connective tissue cells are responsive to fluid-induced shear stress similar to cells of the vascular system. Moreover, Brown and coworkers have shown that apparati used to apply substrate tension to cultured cells have limitations that include a potentially confounding component of fluid-induced shear stress (Brown et al., 1998). Hence, there is a concern that a given cell response to substrate stretching may actually involve a response to shear stress or some combination of the two stimuli. We have designed a parallel plate, laminar flow apparatus that provides regulated fluid-induced shear stress and subjected tendon cells to shear stresses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 dynes/cm2. This will enable us to make a direct comparison between fluid-induced shear stress and substrate deformation on tendon cell signaling and downstream gene responses.

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