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1

Pincus, HJ, DJ DeGroot, JT Germaine, and CC Ladd. "The Multidirectional Direct Simple Shear Apparatus." Geotechnical Testing Journal 16, no. 3 (1993): 283. http://dx.doi.org/10.1520/gtj10049j.

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2

Hanzawa, Hideo, Nigel Nutt, Tom Lunne, Y. X. Tang, and Michael Long. "A Comparative Study Between the NGI Direct Simple Shear Apparatus and the Mikasa Direct Shear Apparatus." Soils and Foundations 47, no. 1 (February 2007): 47–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.3208/sandf.47.47.

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3

Lings, M. L., and M. S. Dietz. "An improved direct shear apparatus for sand." Géotechnique 54, no. 4 (May 2004): 245–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1680/geot.2004.54.4.245.

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4

Taslagyan, Karén A., Dave H. Chan, and Norbert R. Morgenstern. "A Direct Shear Apparatus With Vibrational Loading." Geotechnical Testing Journal 38, no. 1 (November 2014): 20140078. http://dx.doi.org/10.1520/gtj20140078.

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5

Chao, Teng, Liu Zhijun, Wang Xuegang, and He Liping. "Analysis and Improvement of Oblique Shear Phenomenon of Direct Shear Apparatus." IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 768, no. 1 (May 2021): 012090. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/768/1/012090.

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6

Pincus, HJ, and N. Takada. "Mikasa's Direct Shear Apparatus, Test Procedures and Results." Geotechnical Testing Journal 16, no. 3 (1993): 314. http://dx.doi.org/10.1520/gtj10052j.

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7

Kondo, Hiroshi, Yoshiaki Noda, and Noboru Sugiyama. "Trial production of dynamic direct shear testing apparatus." Journal of Terramechanics 24, no. 1 (January 1987): 120. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-4898(87)90092-9.

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8

Barla, G., M. Barla, and M. E. Martinotti. "Development of a New Direct Shear Testing Apparatus." Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering 43, no. 1 (March 2009): 117–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00603-009-0041-5.

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9

Cui, Ying Hui, Jian Kun Liu, and Peng Lv. "Research of the Permafrost Dynamic Load Direct Shear Apparatus." Applied Mechanics and Materials 405-408 (September 2013): 454–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/amm.405-408.454.

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The dynamic parameters of the permafrost are very important for engineering design, also using in the numerical calculation. The dynamic parameters directly affect the correctness of engineering design and numerical simulation. Beijing Jiaotong University developed a novel dynamic load direct shear apparatus to measure these parameters. In the paper, it is analyzed Power systems, measurement and control systems of the dynamic load direct shear apparatus, and gave a verification experiment, the results show that dynamic load direct shear apparatus can complete its purpose.
10

Oloo, S. Y., та D. G. Fredlund. "A method for determination of ϕb for statically compacted soils". Canadian Geotechnical Journal 33, № 2 (травень 1996): 272–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/t96-006.

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The unsaturated shear strength parameter, ϕb, is usually determined using triaxial of direct shear apparatus that have been modified to allow for the control and (or) measurement of pore-air and pore-water pressures. A fairly high level of expertise is required for the characterization of ϕb using these modified apparatus. A simple procedure for determining ϕb for statically compacted soils at different water contents is presented along with a method of analysis. The tests can be performed on a conventional direct shear apparatus. The unsaturated shear strength parameter, ϕb, obtained using the proposed procedure is shown to be comparable to that obtained using the modified direct shear test. Since the proposed procedure utilizes standard laboratory direct shear equipment and takes a relatively short time to complete, it offers an easy and convenient alternative for the determination of ϕb for statically compacted soils. Key words: shear strength, matric suction, unsaturated soils, statically compacted soils, direct shear test.
11

Lee, K. M., and V. R. Manjunath. "Soil-geotextile interface friction by direct shear tests." Canadian Geotechnical Journal 37, no. 1 (February 2000): 238–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/t99-124.

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This paper describes large-size direct shear tests on soil-geotextile interfaces. Medium-grained, uniform sand and three varieties of woven and nonwoven geotextiles manufactured with different techniques are utilized to investigate the soil-geotextile interface friction coefficient (f*). Tests were carried out using an apparatus specifically designed for interface testing, and results were compared with those obtained from the conventional direct shear equipment. The results obtained from this study indicated that the determination of peak interface behaviour was not a trivial matter, as the results were significantly affected by the boundary and testing conditions of the testing apparatus. The residual interface behaviour was investigated by multiple reversal direct shear tests. Since the use of multiple reversal direct shear tests on the proposed apparatus can impose a high degree of shear displacement and stress uniformity on the soil-geotextile interface, a more reliable definition of the residual interface friction can be obtained. The results indicate that woven-nonwoven geotextile interfaces exhibit a significant postpeak strength loss after a number of shear cycles. In the case of woven geotextiles, this is attributed to the opening up of the filaments associated with the physical damage caused during shear, whereas for nonwoven geotextiles it is due to the pulling out or tearing of filaments.Key words: geotextile, direct shear test, interface friction coefficient, peak shear strength, residual shear strength.
12

He, Peng, Liuying Sun, and Zhen Wang. "Direct Shear Test of Unsaturated Soil." Earth Sciences Research Journal 21, no. 4 (October 2017): 183–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.15446/esrj.v21n4.66103.

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The present study focuses on some tentative laboratory tests using a newly-constructed modified direct shear test apparatus. The single-stage and multistage direct shear tests were performed to determine the shear rate and test scheme of unsaturated shear test. Shear strength parameters of unsaturated soil in different conditions are obtained and the tests indicate good agreement with typical theories of unsaturated soil, the nonlinear matric suction failure envelope is determined. Some shear strength equations are also fitted through the experimental results.
13

McCOMBER, DIANE R., ROBERT A. LOHNES, and ELIZABETH M. OSMAN. "Double Direct Shear Test for Potato Texture." Journal of Food Science 52, no. 5 (September 1987): 1302–4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1987.tb14068.x.

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14

Chabannes, Morgan, Fr閐閞ic Becquart, and Nor-Edine Abriak. "Shear Strength of Unbound Crop by-Products Using the Direct Shear Box Apparatus." Journal of Renewable Materials 7, no. 9 (2019): 855–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.32604/jrm.2019.06779.

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15

Dong, Yun, Yong Cun Wang, Li Guo Lu, and Wei Wang. "The Improved Shear Strength Calculation Method in Direct Shear Test." Applied Mechanics and Materials 405-408 (September 2013): 353–57. http://dx.doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/amm.405-408.353.

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Direct shear test is broadly used to get the strength of soil, joints, and specific material in the field of geotechnical engineering because its simple structure and easier operation. But the current direct shear strength calculation does not concern on the variation of the shearing surface during the test, has no regard for the effects of the shearing area on the shear strength, so the test result is not the really strength of the samples. To discovery the affection of the shearing surface on the direct shear strength, three different calculation methods of shear surface and its affection on the shear strength were put forward based on the new mathematical model and large number of experimental with improvement direct shear apparatus, the new calculation method makes the result more accuracy and closer to the really shear strength of the samples.
16

Sreng, Sokkheang, Hiroki Ishikawa, Takuya Kusaka, Takashi Okui, and Akitoshi Mochizuki. "Development of high precision direct shear apparatus for liquefaction testing." Japanese Geotechnical Society Special Publication 2, no. 5 (2016): 268–72. http://dx.doi.org/10.3208/jgssp.jpn-145.

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17

Suits, L. D., T. C. Sheahan, Noel Boylan, and Michael Long. "Development of a Direct Simple Shear Apparatus for Peat Soils." Geotechnical Testing Journal 32, no. 2 (2009): 101703. http://dx.doi.org/10.1520/gtj101703.

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18

Hamidi, A., G. Habibagahi, and M. Ajdari. "A Modified Osmotic Direct Shear Apparatus for Testing Unsaturated Soils." Geotechnical Testing Journal 36, no. 1 (December 2012): 20120092. http://dx.doi.org/10.1520/gtj20120092.

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19

Barbero, M., F. Barpi, M. Borri-Brunetto, and O. Pallara. "An Apparatus for In Situ Direct Shear Tests on Snow." Experimental Techniques 40, no. 1 (February 2016): 149–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40799-016-0019-7.

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20

Mortara, Giuseppe, Antonio Mangiola, and Vito Nicola Ghionna. "Cyclic shear stress degradation and post-cyclic behaviour from sand–steel interface direct shear tests." Canadian Geotechnical Journal 44, no. 7 (July 2007): 739–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/t07-019.

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The sliding interaction between sand and structural materials is involved in many geotechnical applications and is particularly important for the derivation of the shaft capacity of piles. Such interaction develops principally at the interface between the sand mass and the structural surface, and the comprehension of such interaction can be analysed through soil–structure interface tests. In particular, by using a modified version of the interface direct shear apparatus, that is, the constant normal stiffness direct shear apparatus, the friction characteristics of the interface and the role of the soil deformability on the experimental results can be studied. This paper focuses on the stress degradation occurring in these types of tests when cyclic loading is applied on sand–steel interfaces. Also, the post-cyclic response is analysed and compared to the response under monotonic conditions.Key words: interface, sand, shear stress, cyclic loading, stress degradation.
21

Gan, J. K. M., D. G. Fredlund, and H. Rahardjo. "Determination of the shear strength parameters of an unsaturated soil using the direct shear test." Canadian Geotechnical Journal 25, no. 3 (August 1988): 500–510. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/t88-055.

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Multistage direct shear tests have been performed on saturated and unsaturated specimens of a compacted glacial till. A conventional direct shear apparatus was modified in order to use the axis-translation technique for direct shear tests on unsaturated soils. The soil can be subjected to a wide range of matric suctions. The testing procedure and some typical results are presented. Nonlinearity in the failure envelope with respect to matric suction was observed. Suggestions are made as to how best to handle the nonlinearity from a practical engineering standpoint. Key words: shear strength, unsaturated soils, negative pore-water pressures, soil suction, direct shear.
22

Zahran, Khaled, and Hany El Naggar. "Effect of Sample Size on TDA Shear Strength Parameters in Direct Shear Tests." Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board 2674, no. 9 (July 2020): 1110–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0361198120934482.

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Tire-derived aggregate (TDA), a relatively new construction material, has been gaining acceptance as a backfill material for embankments, trenches, and earth-retaining structures because of its lightweight and excellent geotechnical properties. Type A TDA has a basic geometric shape, with particles approximately 12 to 100 mm in size. As a result of the simplicity and accuracy of the direct shear test, most laboratories choose this test in preference to more complex tests. However, TDA requires large-scale direct shear apparatus because of the consistently large size of its particles, and few facilities own this type of apparatus. Depending on the shear box dimensions, the aspect ratio of the particle size to the box dimensions may lead to variations in the shear strength results of the sample being evaluated. This research focuses on studying the effect of TDA sample size on the shear strength results of direct shear tests by using five different shear box sizes. The findings show that the angle of internal friction increases slightly as the dimensions of the shear box decrease. It was found that the maximum variation in the angle of internal friction and the cohesion results of the different shear boxes was only 1.9° and 2.4 kPa, respectively. These differences should be taken into consideration when TDA shear test results are used in the geotechnical design. It is recommended that a shear box with an aspect ratio (W/Dmax) greater than or equal to 4 should be used when evaluating the shear strength parameters of TDA.
23

FUKUSHIMA, Shinji, and Akira KITAJIMA. "Development and Applicability of Super Large Scale Direct Shear Test Apparatus." Doboku Gakkai Ronbunshu, no. 645 (2000): 137–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.2208/jscej.2000.645_137.

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24

ISHIKAWA, Hiroki, Yujian LIU, Akitoshi MOCHIZUKI, Syouji OKADA, and Sokkheang SRENG. "Development of new direct shear apparatus and discussion on its effectiveness." Jiban Kogaku Janaru (Japanese Geotechnical Journal) 4, no. 1 (2009): 11–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.3208/jgs.4.11.

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25

Suits, L. D., T. C. Sheahan, Ahmed H. Abdelrahman, Alaa K. Ashmawy, and Mohamed Abdelmoniem. "An Apparatus for Direct Shear, Pullout, and Uniaxial Testing of Geogrids." Geotechnical Testing Journal 31, no. 6 (2008): 100761. http://dx.doi.org/10.1520/gtj100761.

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26

Asahina, D., T. Takemura, S. Kawakita, and Y. Li. "Development of a direct shear testing method using true triaxial apparatus." IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 833, no. 1 (August 2021): 012013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/833/1/012013.

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27

Chen, Gao Feng, Ying Fa Lv, Zhi Huai Huang, and Yan Chang. "Study on Shear Strength Experiments Base on the Modified Direct Shear Apparatus for Unsaturated Soils." Applied Mechanics and Materials 438-439 (October 2013): 1176–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/amm.438-439.1176.

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The unconsolidated-undrained fast shear tests of saturated-unsaturated remolded soil samples under different moisture content which is 1.1%, 10.1%, 14.9%, 19.9%, 24.2%, 29.9%, 37.7% respectively, and normal stress which is 50kPa, 100kPa, 200kPa, 300kPa, 400kPa respectively, were studied by the modified SDJ-1-type strain direct shear apparatus and U.S. Lab VIEW data acquisition system. The shear strength parameters of unsaturated soil samples, i.e. general cohesion and general internal friction angle were obtained based on Mohr-Coulomb strength theory. The test results showed that the general cohesion firstly increased and then reduced with the moisture content increasing, and the general internal friction angle increased with the moisture content decreasing. The function between the general shear strength parameters and the moisture content was studied. The concept of general shear strength parameters was proposed in the paper, and would provide a simple and practical method to obtain the strength parameters for engineering practice.
28

Al-Emami, Omar. "Investigation of soil-steel interface behavior of Iraqi soil by direct shear apparatus." MATEC Web of Conferences 162 (2018): 01003. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/matecconf/201816201003.

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Soil - structure interaction is an important theme observed in many civil engineering structures like fondations. The interface shear strength plays a significant role in the analysis and design of many structures constructed above or under the ground. In this study, a total of 28 specimens were tested at vertical stresses of 100, 200, and 400 kPa using direct shear apparatus under consolidated drained condition. A silty sand soil, as per USCS classification system was prepared in the laboratory at different water contents (4.5%, 8.8%, and 12.5%) and voids ratios (0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1). The frictional resistance of this soil was measured. The soil samples were also sheared against three steel surfaces of different textures (smooth, moderate-rough, and rough). The experimental results showed that the steel surface texture is an effective factor in soil-steel interface shear strength. The interface shear strength of the rough steel surface was found higher than smooth and semi-rough steel surfaces. In addition to the surface roughness, the water content and void ratio also play important roles in interface shear strength.
29

Sard, D., A. G. Paşamehmetolu, and T. Bozda. "Modelling of earthquake fault by a new computer controlled direct-shear apparatus." International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences 34, no. 3-4 (April 1997): 269.e1–269.e15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1365-1609(97)00070-1.

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30

Suits, L. D., T. C. Sheahan, William J. Likos, Alexandra Wayllace, Jonathan Godt, and Ning Lu. "Modified Direct Shear Apparatus for Unsaturated Sands at Low Suction and Stress." Geotechnical Testing Journal 33, no. 5 (2010): 102927. http://dx.doi.org/10.1520/gtj102927.

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31

Ghazizadeh, Shahin, and Christopher A. Bareither. "Stress-controlled direct shear testing of geosynthetic clay liners I: Apparatus development." Geotextiles and Geomembranes 46, no. 5 (October 2018): 656–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geotexmem.2018.06.003.

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32

Srivastava, Lok Priya, Mahendra Singh, and Jattinder Singh. "Development of Large Direct Shear Test Apparatus for Passive Bolt Reinforced Mass." Indian Geotechnical Journal 49, no. 1 (April 2018): 124–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40098-018-0306-6.

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33

Cui, Zhen, Qian Sheng, Mao-chu Zhang, Jun-feng Cao, Xian-cheng Mei, and Qing-zi Luo. "A New Direct Shear Apparatus for Rock Joints Specialized in Cyclic Loading." Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering 54, no. 8 (May 2021): 4321–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00603-021-02495-y.

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34

Wang, Jun, Meng-Jie Ying, Fei-Yu Liu, Hong-Tao Fu, Jun-Feng Ni, and Jing Shi. "Effect of Particle-Size Gradation on Coarse Sand-Geotextile Interface Response in Cyclic and Postcyclic Direct Shear Test." Advances in Civil Engineering 2020 (September 2020): 1–11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/1323296.

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In order to investigate the influence of sand particle-size gradation on cyclic and postcyclic shear strength behaviour on sand-geotextile interfaces, a series of monotonic direct shear (MDS), cyclic direct shear (CDS), and postcyclic direct shear (PCDS) tests were performed using a large-scale direct shear apparatus. The influence of cyclic shear history on the direct shear behaviour of the interface was studied. The results indicated that cyclic shear stress degradation occurred at the sand-geotextile interface. Shear volumetric contraction induced by the cyclic direct shear increased with the increase in cycle number. The lowest final contraction value was observed in discontinuously graded sand. In the MDS tests, there were great differences in interface shear strength due to the different particle-size gradations, whereas the differences between shear volumes were negligible. In the PCDS tests, the shear stress-displacement curves exhibited postpeak stress hardening behaviour for different particle-size gradations, and differences in shear volumes were detected. The well-graded sand-geotextile interface had a higher value of shear stiffness and a higher damping ratio relative to the other interfaces. Postcyclic shear stress degradation was observed for the discontinuously graded sand-geotextile interface.
35

Szypcio, Zenon. "Stress-Dilatancy for Soils. Part IV: Experimental Validation for Simple Shear Conditions." Studia Geotechnica et Mechanica 39, no. 1 (March 2017): 81–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/sgem-2017-0008.

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Abstract This paper validates the frictional state theory using published experimental data from simple, direct and ring shear tests. Simple shear is treated as a special case of plane strain conditions. In order to define complete stress and strain, additional assumptions are made: in the direct shear and ring shear tests, simple shear is assumed to occur in the shear band. For Φo = Φ′cv = Φ′r, the stress-dilatancy relationship obtained from the frictional state theory is similar to the relationships proposed by Taylor and Bolton. Further experiments, especially those that use a hollow cylindrical shear apparatus, are necessary to fully validate the frictional state theory in simple shear conditions.
36

Salama, Imane, and Christophe Dano. "Direct interface shear tests on Dunkirk sand." E3S Web of Conferences 92 (2019): 13003. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/20199213003.

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After a field test campaign conducted in Dunkirk (north of France) on open-ended steel piles aiming to study the ageing phenomenon, laboratory scale shear tests were designed to study the behaviour of the sand-steel interface. In order to carry out this laboratory investigation, the direct interface shear apparatus was used for characterizing Dunkirk sand (in dry or unsaturated conditions with about 6% water content as in the field) consolidated on initially smooth mild steel plates at different consolidation time intervals (0, 1 and 7 days) and different consolidation stresses (50, 100, 200 and 300 kPa). The test program also included two normal boundary conditions (Constant normal load CNL and constant volume CV) so that they can be compared to the field results and determine the most approaching configuration. More, the unsaturated condition induced a corrosion of the mild steel plates, causing a layer of sand remaining glued to the plate after removing the shear box. Traces of corrosion were also observed on the lower part of the sand samples (in contact with the plate). These observations lead to the interpretation of an increase of the mechanical properties (local cohesion and increase of the friction angle). In order to follow the evolution of the corrosion for each plate, thickness measurements of the sand layer stuck on the plates were carried out.
37

Soból, Emil, Wojciech Sas, and Alojzy Szymański. "Scale Effect in Direct Shear Tests on Recycled Concrete Aggregate." Studia Geotechnica et Mechanica 37, no. 2 (June 2015): 45–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/sgem-2015-0019.

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Abstract The depletion of natural resources is forcing researchers to explore the possibilities of new aggregates, such as recycled concrete aggregate (RCA). In this article, the mechanical properties and the influence of the size of the direct shear box on the obtained parameters were examined. The study was conducted in two apparatus: medium (120 × 120 mm) and large (250 × 250 mm). In each of these devices, a total of 6 tests were performed: 3 for dry sample and 3 at optimum moisture content. From the results, the conclusions described below have been drawn
38

Maghool, Farshid, Arul Arulrajah, Mehdi Mirzababaei, Cherdsak Suksiripattanapong, and Suksun Horpibulsuk. "Interface shear strength properties of geogrid-reinforced steel slags using a large-scale direct shear testing apparatus." Geotextiles and Geomembranes 48, no. 5 (October 2020): 625–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geotexmem.2020.04.001.

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39

Chen, Fan Xiu, Hui Xin Zhang, Liang Kong, and Jie Li. "Meso-Mechanical Behavior of Sand under Shear Loading Test Research." Applied Mechanics and Materials 405-408 (September 2013): 89–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/amm.405-408.89.

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A continuous deformation measurement system of two dimensional granular materials displacement based on digital image correlation method (DIC) has been build up. Direct shear tests have been performed on standard sand in a special laboratory apparatus with different vertical pressure. Using DIC a pairs of consecutive photographs taken during the tests has enabled fields of displacement velocity and strain to be determined. Assumed the proportional of stress and strain, the direct observation of displacements and principle strains has been possible for a series of force of grains under shear at various stages in the direct shear test.
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Madhlom, Shahad Q., Hussein A. Aziz, and Ammar A. Ali. "Direct Shear Strength of RPC Member." Engineering and Technology Journal 39, 1A (January 2021): 22–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.30684/etj.v39i1a.1638.

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In this research paper, results are obtained from Reactive Powder Concrete (RPC) push-off specimens - double L shape subjected to direct shear loading. Different parameters considered are compressive strength, percentages of steel fiber, presence of aggregate and shear reinforcement. The results show that increasing in steel fiber content starting from 0.0% and ending with 1.5% leads to increases in the shear strength by (261%) and attempt to decrease its brittleness. The presence of steel fiber content enhances and improves the tensile strength and the shear strength. Using RPC in constructing the specimens enhances the shear strength by 29.6% compared with NSC specimen. Shear strength increased by 25% when the compressive strength increased from 75 to 90MPa. The presence of transverse steel rebar in the direction of shear line increased the shear strength by (108.3%) as compare with the specimen without shear rebar. The presence of small aggregate in RPC mix creates an increase in the shear strength by (9.1%).
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Xia, Hong Chun, Guo Qing Zhou, and Ze Chao Du. "Experimental Study on Shear Mechanical Characteristics of Cohesionless Granular Material." Applied Mechanics and Materials 90-93 (September 2011): 230–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/amm.90-93.230.

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The direct shear mechanical characteristics of gravel, sand and steel particle were studied systematically using DRS-1 high normal stress direct and residual shear apparatus. The results show that the shear mechanical characteristics of gravel, sand and steel particle is different under different normal stress condition. For steel particle, the curves of shear stress-shear displacement present strain softening regardless of the magnitude of normal stress, and the shear displacement corresponding to the peak shear stress increases with the normal stress. Under low normal stress condition, the volume of fine gravel and steel particle expand, but the fine sand contracts at the beginning of direct shear and then contracts. Under high normal stress condition, the volume of steel particle contracts at the beginning of the direct shear and then contracts, but the fine sand and fine gravel contract throughout the direct shear. The particle breakage has significant effect on the shear strength of fine sand and fine gravel. Under the same high normal stress condition, the volume of fine gravel is greater than that of fine sand, which indicates that the fine gravel is easier to be crushed than the fine sand.
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Nishimura, Tomoyoshi, Yasunari Hirabayashi, Delwyn G. Fredlund, and Julian K.-M. Gan. "Influence of stress history on the strength parameters of an unsaturated statically compacted soil." Canadian Geotechnical Journal 36, no. 2 (September 1999): 251–61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/t98-098.

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Unsaturated soils are generally near the ground surface and are commonly overconsolidated due to environmental effects. The stress state variables for an unsaturated, in situ profile consist of the net total stress, (σ - ua), and matric suction, (ua - uw), where σ is the total stress (in three directions), ua is the pore-air pressure, and uw is the pore-water pressure. These stress state variables control the behavior of the unsaturated soil. A total stress ratio, TSR, was used in this study as a measure of the stress history. The total stress ratio is defined as the ratio of the compaction pressure to the current confining pressure. Shear tests were conducted using a modified direct shear apparatus on a statically compacted unsaturated soil subjected to various total stress ratios with controlled matric suction. The shear strength parameters (i.e., ϕ', ϕb, and c') for an unsaturated soil were measured using the modified direct shear apparatus. The total stress ratio influences the shear strength parameter ϕb of a compacted soil. The shear strength parameter ϕb decreases with matric suction regardless of the loading history. For a compacted soil with a total stress ratio of 1.0, ϕb was higher than that for the soil tested at a total stress ratio greater than 1.0, regardless of increase in matric suction, and was shown to be influenced by loading history.Key words: unsaturated soil, shear strength, stress history, compacted soil, direct shear test, matric suction.
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Ying-Hui, Cui, Liu Jian-Kun, and Lv Peng. "Development of a dynamic load direct shear apparatus for the study of permafrost." Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions 5, no. 4 (2013): 399. http://dx.doi.org/10.3724/sp.j.1226.2013.00399.

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44

David Suits, L., TC Sheahan, D.-Y. Kim, B.-S. Chun, and J.-S. Yang. "Development of a Direct Shear Apparatus with Rock Joints and Its Verification Tests." Geotechnical Testing Journal 29, no. 5 (2006): 12553. http://dx.doi.org/10.1520/gtj12553.

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Liu, Jiankun, Yinghui Cui, Pengcheng Wang, and Peng Lv. "Design and validation of a new dynamic direct shear apparatus for frozen soil." Cold Regions Science and Technology 106-107 (October 2014): 207–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coldregions.2014.07.010.

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46

Miller, Heather J., Pedro de Alba, and Kenneth C. Baldwin. "Cyclic Simple Shear Apparatus for Low-Strain Soil Tests." Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board 1548, no. 1 (January 1996): 9–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0361198196154800102.

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A testing system has been developed to study the behavior of saturated sand under low-level cyclic shearing strains. The system has been used to determine threshold shear strain levels for fabric destruction in sand aged for different time periods. The system includes a special soil chamber and a direct simple shear (DSS) machine. To impose very small shearing strains, the DSS machine was designed to apply and measure horizontal deformations as small as 0.0005 mm (2 × 10−5 inches). Data obtained to date support the results of previous investigators who performed triaxial tests on freshly deposited samples, indicating a threshold cyclic shear strain level of approximately 0.01 percent. At strains in excess of those levels, destruction of the sand fabric occurred, as evidenced by a reduction in shear modulus at low strain levels. Subsequent modest increases in shear modulus were observed after the specimens were allowed to recover for 24 hours and then tested again. During the recovery period, drainage valves were left open to allow for dissipation of excess pore pressures and for potential consolidation during the short aging period. The DSS system was found to work well for low strain measurements. Furthermore, since shear strains are measured directly under DSS conditions (as opposed to triaxial conditions), the DSS system shows much promise as a device for studying parameters that may influence threshold shear strain levels and fabric evolution and destruction in sands.
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MAYUMI, Takayuki, Tatsuya SHIBASAKI, and Takanari YAMASAKI. "Evaluation of the shear strength on undisturbed slip surface by newly developed Slip Surface Direct Shear (SSDS) apparatus." Journal of the Japan Landslide Society 40, no. 4 (2003): 273–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.3313/jls.40.4_273.

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48

Zhai, Minglei, Haibo Bai, and Luyuan Wu. "Shear Slip Instability Behavior of Rock Fractures under Prepeak Tiered Cyclic Shear Loading." Advances in Civil Engineering 2020 (October 2020): 1–12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/8851890.

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In this paper, shear displacement properties of rock fractures were studied, and the energy evolution process was analyzed before sliding instability under complex shear loading paths. The artificial prefabrication method was used to simulate the natural rock fractures, which are difficult to obtain in the natural environment. The prepeak tiered cyclic loading tests under constant normal loading were performed on six rock specimens with fractures by rock direct shear apparatus (RDS-200). To obtain the stress difference of adjacent cycles, the direct shear test was conducted on the other six rock specimens with fractures before the prepeak tiered cyclic shear loading test. The variation trend of residual shear displacement (RSD) and the similarity of loading and unloading curves before slip instability were obtained by analyses of prepeak tiered cyclic shear loading test data. Energy evolution laws of rock fractures were analyzed with the consideration of the hysteresis characteristics, according to the hysteresis effect of shear displacement behind shear stress. This paper provides guidance for the study on shear instability of rock fractures under complex loading paths.
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Ignat, M., and G. Ricou. "Instruments and Methods: A Shear-creep System for Studying Grain-boundary Behaviour in Ice." Journal of Glaciology 35, no. 119 (1989): 140–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.3189/002214389793701509.

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AbstractWe present here a shear-creep apparatus. This has been designed to study grain-boundary behaviour in ice bi-crystals. The design and dimensions of this apparatus were determined by taking into account the results of earlier tests, performed on the same types of sample. Improvement with the new device is obtained; it allows a displacement with two degrees of freedom in the grain-boundary plane, and direct observations of micro-structural changes during the test.
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Xia, Hong Chun, Guo Qing Zhou, and Ze Chao Du. "Experimental Study on Shear Mechanical Characteristics of Soil-Structure Interface under Different Normal Stress." Advanced Materials Research 243-249 (May 2011): 2332–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/amr.243-249.2332.

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The direct shear mechanical characteristics of soil-structure interface under different experimental condition were studied systematically using the DRS-1 high normal stress direct and residual shear apparatus. The results show that the normal stress is an important factor which determines the mechanical characteristics of soil-structure interface. The curve of shear stress-shear displacement presents strain softening when the normal stress<3MPa, linear hardening when =3~5MPa and strain hardening when12MPa, separately. At the same time, the volume of the soil expands when <3MPa and contracts when >3MPa. But the volume of the soil expands and contracts simultaneously during the process of direct shear when =3MPa.The roughness of the interface influences not only the shape of the shear stress-shear displacement curve but also the shear strength of the interface. Under same normal stress condition,the shear strength of interface increases with the roughness but the influence degree of interface roughness reduces gradually with the increase of normal stress. The grain breakage degree is different under different normal stress. It increases evidently with the increase of normal stress.

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