Добірка наукової літератури з теми "Environmental engineering"
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Пов'язані теми наукових робіт:
Статті в журналах з теми "Environmental engineering":
Safferman, Steven I., Vivek P. Utgikar, and Sarwan S. Sandhu. "Environmental Engineering Forum: Undergraduate Environmental Engineering Education." Journal of Environmental Engineering 122, no. 9 (September 1996): 779–84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(asce)0733-9372(1996)122:9(779).
Chang, Daniel P. Y., and Jerold A. Last. "Environmental Engineering Forum." Journal of Environmental Engineering 124, no. 10 (October 1998): 910–12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(asce)0733-9372(1998)124:10(910).
Robertson, Peter K. J. "Applications of engineering for environmental sustainability." Electronic Thesis or Dissertation, University of Ulster, 2013. http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.625479.
The approach to addressing many environmental problems requires a strong foundation in chemical science and engineering. A prime example is the developing subject of environmental engineering, where a multidisciplinary field is led by chemists and chemical engineers. This thesis presents a collection of research publications, which are of both an applied and multidisciplinary nature, primarily directed towards developing technology for energy and environmental sustainability. This has included the development of sensors for in-situ environmental monitoring and the application of nanocrystalline semiconductor photocatalysts for treatment of air, waste and potable waters. The development of laser processing methods for catalyst production and modification and the design and assessment of advanced photocatalytic reactors is also presented. Research on the reduction of carbon dioxide to fuel products is also considered. Real time in-situ sensors for environmental monitoring are an area that has seen a significant growth over the past twenty years. In this thesis, I detail my research into optical and electrochemical sensors for detection of organic chemicals and heavy metals in both the marine environment and in contaminated land. The other key research theme is the topic of water remediation using semiconductor photocatalysis. This has included treatment of industrial effluent, drinking water and water used in aquaculture. In particular, I have led research on the photocatalytic removal of cyanotoxins in water, a technique pioneered at RGU. These highly toxic chemical metabolites of cyanobacteria have been responsible for the deaths of animals and humans through ingestion of contaminated water.
Charnock, Thomas W. "GIS linked environmental process models." Electronic Thesis or Dissertation, Aston University, 1997. http://publications.aston.ac.uk/13272/.
In recent years there has been a great effort to combine the technologies and techniques of GIS and process models. This project examines the issues of linking a standard current generation 2½d GIS with several existing model codes. The focus for the project has been the Shropshire Groundwater Scheme, which is being developed to augment flow in the River Severn during drought periods by pumping water from the Shropshire Aquifer. Previous authors have demonstrated that under certain circumstances pumping could reduce the soil moisture available for crops. This project follows earlier work at Aston in which the effects of drawdown were delineated and quantified through the development of a software package that implemented a technique which brought together the significant spatially varying parameters. This technique is repeated here, but using a standard GIS called GRASS. The GIS proved adequate for the task and the added functionality provided by the general purpose GIS - the data capture, manipulation and visualisation facilities - were of great benefit. The bulk of the project is concerned with examining the issues of the linkage of GIS and environmental process models. To this end a groundwater model (Modflow) and a soil moisture model (SWMS2D) were linked to the GIS and a crop model was implemented within the GIS. A loose-linked approach was adopted and secondary and surrogate data were used wherever possible. The implications of which relate to; justification of a loose-linked versus a closely integrated approach; how, technically, to achieve the linkage; how to reconcile the different data models used by the GIS and the process models; control of the movement of data between models of environmental subsystems, to model the total system; the advantages and disadvantages of using a current generation GIS as a medium for linking environmental process models; generation of input data, including the use of geostatistic, stochastic simulation, remote sensing, regression equations and mapped data; issues of accuracy, uncertainty and simply providing adequate data for the complex models; how such a modelling system fits into an organisational framework.
Carlson, Randi A. (Randi Aileen) 1971. "Triblock polyampholyte solutions for environmental applications." Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1998. http://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/47597.
Thesis (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Chemical Engineering; and, (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 1998. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 55-60). by Randi A. Carlson. S.M.
Luo, Jing. "Molecular modeling of sorption phenomena in environmental engineering." Dissertation-Reproduction (electronic), The University of Arizona, 2003. http://hdl.handle.net/10150/280483.
This research investigated the adsorption mechanisms of hydrophobic chlorinated contaminants in mineral micropores and on iron metal surfaces. Activated adsorption and desorption of trichloroethylene (TCE) in mineral micropores was studied using experimental and molecular modeling techniques. Adsorption of TCE on a silica gel adsorbent was measured using a frontal analysis chromatography technique at atmospheric and elevated fluid pressures. The results showed that the increase in pressure was able to rapidly induce the formation of a desorption resistant fraction. Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) modeling was used to elucidate the nature of water and TCE behavior within silica micropores. TCE adsorption was energetically most favorable in pores that were minimally large enough to accommodate one TCE molecule. A molecular level study of the interactions between hydrophobic chlorinated contaminants and sediments was performed. GCMC simulations were preformed to investigate water and TCE adsorption in slit micropores confined by charged and uncharged silica surfaces. Gas-phase single-sorbate simulations with water or TCE were performed as well as mixture simulations of bulk water containing TCE at 1% of its saturation concentration. Aqueous-phase TCE at a concentration equal to 1% of its saturation concentration was able to completely displace adsorbed water in uncharged pores. In highly hydrophilic pores, TCE at this concentration was able to displace up to 50% of the adsorbed water. Metallic iron filings are becoming increasingly utilized as reactive agents for reductive dechlorination of solvents in contaminated groundwaters. This research also used molecular modeling to study chemical adsorption of TCE and PCE to iron surfaces. Quantum mechanical calculations were performed to determine the thermodynamic favorability and resulting structures for chemical adsorption of TCE and PCE to iron surfaces. Molecular mechanics modeling was used to study the effects of atomic hydrogen on the thermodynamic favorability for chemically adsorbed TCE and PCE. Because TCE and PCE react with iron surfaces, their adsorption to iron cannot be investigated experimentally. This makes molecular modeling approaches a useful complement to experimental investigations of chemical reaction phenomena.
Andrade, Eunice Maia de 1956. "Regionalization of average annual runoff models for ungaged watersheds in arid and semiarid regions." Dissertation-Reproduction (electronic), The University of Arizona, 1997. http://hdl.handle.net/10150/282559.
A prevailing problem in applied hydrology is the estimation of runoff from ungaged small watersheds and drainge basins. In this study, arid and semiarid regions were Grouped according to their climatic, geomorphologic, and soil characteristics, disregarding their geographic position. Eighty watersheds were used in this study from three countries: U.S., Brazil, and Australia. Twenty-two climatic, geomorphologic and soil variables were used for the delineation of homogeneous Groups in the cluster analysis, and two major Groups were defined. The results suggest that homogeneous Groups can be delimited independently of their geographic position. Cluster analysis and Andrews' plot were used for regionalization of the watersheds. The variables used for development of the models for each Group were selected by stepwise multiple regression analysis. The Andrews' plot further examination reinforce the statement that hydrologically similar watersheds are independent of their geographic position. In a preliminary study 60 watersheds were used to determine the most important variables. For Group I, the stepwise multiple regression analysis reduced the available 21 independent variables to three variables: rainfall, soil permeability index, and temperature. For Group II, only two variables were statistically significant (rainfall and watershed form factor). Once the most significant variables were selected, 20 additional watersheds with data were also included in the final study. Upon evaluation of the regression statistics, Group II responded better than Group I. The equations were: UNFORMATTED EQUATION FOLLOWS: Group I "Dry" Q = -68.476 + 0.0784 P + 4.131Temp -3.950Slpr n = 29 R² = 70% SE = 11.16 mm/yr Group II "Wet" Q = 1.29*10⁻¹¹* P⁴·⁴¹* Rf⁻⁰·⁰⁹³ n = 37 R² = 79% SE = 30.52 mm/yr UNFORMATTED EQUATION ENDS Computed annual runoff values for Group II showed a good agreement with observed values, suggesting that the developed equation is good for prediction of the annual runoff water yield. In contrast, predicted values for the Group I showed poor agreement with the observed values, suggesting that the model should be treated with caution.
Popovicova, Jarmila 1968. "Transport of gas-phase contaminants in the unsaturated zone." Dissertation-Reproduction (electronic), The University of Arizona, 1996. http://hdl.handle.net/10150/282136.
The goal of this dissertation was to examine transport of gas-phase contaminants and the processes causing nonideal transport. With one exception, all experimental work was performed with synthetic porous media (glass beads). I performed experiments with methane, trichloroethene, benzene, and toluene. Transport experiments for gas-phase contaminants in dry homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media were performed to study dispersion of gases during transport. Axial diffusion was found to be a primary contributor to dispersion at gas velocities < 20 cm min⁻¹. Conversely, mechanical mixing was the main contributor to total dispersion at gas velocities > 50 cm min⁻¹. Dispersion of gas-phase contaminants during transport through dry heterogeneous (macroporous) medium was caused by three processes: axial diffusion, which was predominant at gas velocity < 20 cm min⁻¹ and negligible at gas velocity > 100 cm min⁻¹; mechanical mixing, predominant at gas velocities ranging from 30 to 120 cm min⁻¹; and diffusion between macropore and micropore domains, the main contribution to total dispersion at gas velocities above 160 cm min⁻¹. The latter process was responsible for rate-limited transport of gas-phase contaminants (methane, trichloroethene, benzene) through heterogeneous porous medium causing increased dispersion, early breakthrough, and tailing of breakthrough curves. Transport of gas-phase contaminants through the unsaturated heterogeneous porous medium showed a similar trends. The presence of heterogeneity and immobile water caused nonequilibrium transport of methane and trichloroethene. Predictions of breakthrough curves, which fit the experimental data well, were estimated independently and demonstrated that diffusion between macropore and micropore domains have a more pronounced effect on transport nonequilibrium than diffusion in immobile water. Retention of gas-phase contaminants in the unsaturated porous media was also examined. Solid-phase sorption of gas-phase contaminants was minimal and thus not responsible for delay during the transport. The major contribution to total retention was due to accumulation at the gas-water interface. For example, 62-73% and 30-50% total trichloroethene mass was retained at the interface during transport through the glass beads and aquifer material, respectively. Accumulation of benzene at the interface contributed to total benzene retention by 53-61% of total mass.
Tellez, Rodriguez Carlos Mario 1967. "Studies of metal affinity interactions in metal recovery and bioremediation." Dissertation-Reproduction (electronic), The University of Arizona, 1997. http://hdl.handle.net/10150/288710.
The primary goal of this dissertation project has been the study of metal affinity interactions in metal recovery and bioremediation. During the first part of this research a mathematical model that describes the affinity partitioning of metal ions in aqueous two-phase systems was derived. The model has been used to calculate complex formation constants between metal ions in solution and affinity ligands, satisfactorily describing their partition behavior. Simulation using this model shows the great effect that pH has on the partitioning of metal ions suggesting better conditions for the separation. Work on metal affinity interactions has led to the pursuit of characterization studies of metal uptake by microorganisms of relevance in bioremediation. The methanotrophic bacterium M. trichosporium 0B3b a mutant culture (PP358) that expresses soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) independent of the external copper concentration have been the subject of this research. Knowledge of substances and/or mechanisms that are involved in the copper uptake by M. trichosporium 0B3b will greatly facilitate application of this or like species to the bioremediation of hazardous waste. Specifically, the role of an extracellular copper-binding biochelator (CBL) in copper uptake by Methylosinus trichosporium 0B3b has been investigated. Experiments included the identification and physical characterization of the biochelator and elucidation of the environmental factors that affect its production. The biochelator is apparently an aromatic, low-molecular weight, hydrophobic molecule with high affinity and selectivity for copper. Results indicate that the mutation in PP358 is unrelated to possible defects in biochelator functionality and strongly suggest that the CBL is directly involved in the copper acquisition mechanism of this methanotroph. Finally, an existing colorimetric method currently used in the qualitative determination of sMMO has been modified and improved to provide additional quantitative information. Until now, the instability of one of the products of the reaction on which the current method is based has precluded the effective use of the assay as a quantitative tool. Stabilization of the compound of interest has been achieved, allowing the successful quantification of sMMO activity from M. trichosporium 0B3b and propane monooxygenase activity from the propane oxidizer M. vaccae JOB5.
An, Siwen. "X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry for Environmental Applications." Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary, Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för elektronikkonstruktion, 2020. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-39979.
Heavy metal contamination in environmental applications is particularly important because of its potential impact on associated ecosystems and human health. At present, monitoring of heavy metals is usually done by taking and preparing samples for off-line laboratory measurements. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis is a powerful and widely used tool for determining the elemental composition and concentration of chemical species in materials. This project is a feasibility study for the possibility of on-line XRF systems for continuousand direct analysis of industrial processes and environmental emissions. The feasibility of such measurements depends on the accuracy with which the concentration can be measured within a given response time. Therefore, this project is focused on investigating possible background suppression of the XRF spectrum. First, an XRF setup has been built, and its capability has been compared to a commercial scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The qualitative analysis and semi-quantitative analysis of heavy metal contamination in fly ash was performed and compared. Due to minimal sample preparation, the developed XRF system is suitable for in-situ measurements. A series of experiments was performed to optimize the signal-to-noise ratio of the spectra achieved from chromium contaminated liquid samples. The most significant factor turned out to be the primary X-ray source filter. Numerical simulation models have been developed in the Monte Carlo N-particle radiation transport code (MCNP), to calculate the X-ray fluorescence intensities and the detection limit for chromium in liquid samples. The experimental results agree with the results predicted by the simulation model, hence the model is used for optimization of the XRF system. Further, XRF mapping of chemical element distributions on a microscopic level has been obtained by using both X-ray scanning microscopy and full-field projection microscopy. The resultingdata from these microscopy measurements can guide further comprehensive environmental and industrial monitoring missions by providing additional spatial distribution information. In conclusion, the first research contribution presented in this thesis is the demonstration of the possibility to perform in-situ XRF measurements of chromium contamination in leachate with a limit of detection below the legal environmental limits. The second is the demonstration of XRF mapping on amicroscopy level, where a polycapillary X-ray optics setup achieves a similar intensity as a geometrically corresponding pinhole optics setup.
Vid tidpunkten för framläggningen av avhandlingen var följande delarbeten opublicerade: delarbete 2 (inskickat), delarbete 3 (accepterat), delarbete 4 (accepterat).
At the time of the defence the following papers were unpublished: paper 2 (submitted), paper 3 (accepted), paper 4 (accepted).
Butler, Keith J. "The design of environmental test rigs." Electronic Thesis or Dissertation, Aston University, 1986. http://publications.aston.ac.uk/11929/.
Product reliability and its environmental performance have become critical elements within a product's specification and design. To obtain a high level of confidence in the reliability of the design it is customary to test the design under realistic conditions in a laboratory. The objective of the work is to examine the feasibility of designing mechanical test rigs which exhibit prescribed dynamical characteristics. The design is then attached to the rig and excitation is applied to the rig, which then transmits representative vibration levels into the product. The philosophical considerations made at the outset of the project are discussed as they form the basis for the resulting design methodologies. It is attempted to directly identify the parameters of a test rig from the spatial model derived during the system identification process. It is shown to be impossible to identify a feasible test rig design using this technique. A finite dimensional optimal design methodology is developed which identifies the parameters of a discrete spring/mass system which is dynamically similar to a point coordinate on a continuous structure. This design methodology is incorporated within another procedure which derives a structure comprising a continuous element and a discrete system. This methodology is used to obtain point coordinate similarity for two planes of motion, which is validated by experimental tests. A limitation of this approach is that it is impossible to achieve multi-coordinate similarity due to an interaction of the discrete system and the continuous element at points away from the coordinate of interest. During the work the importance of the continuous element is highlighted and a design methodology is developed for continuous structures. The design methodology is based upon distributed parameter optimal design techniques and allows an initial poor design estimate to be moved in a feasible direction towards an acceptable design solution. Cumulative damage theory is used to provide a quantitative method of assessing the quality of dynamic similarity. It is shown that the combination of modal analysis techniques and cumulative damage theory provides a feasible design synthesis methodology for representative test rigs.
Nemerow, Nelson L., Franklin J. Agardy, Patrick Sullivan, and Joseph A. Salvato, eds. Environmental Engineering. Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2009. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470432815.
Nemerow, Nelson L., Franklin J. Agardy, Patrick Sullivan, and Joseph A. Salvato, eds. Environmental Engineering. Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2009. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470432822.
Автореферати дисертацій з теми "Environmental engineering":
Ахмад, Махсин Хайлан. "Потокові моделі та дворівневі методи управління трафіком в IP/MPLS - мережах з підтримкою технології Traffic Engineering". Автореф. дис. канд. техн. наук, Харків. нац. ун-т радіоелектроніки, 2011.
The 10th International Conference “Environmental Engineering”, 27–28 April 2017, Vilnius, LITHUANIA Source: ICEE-2017 – International Conference on Environmental Engineering Book Series: International Conference on Environmental Engineering (ICEE) Selected papers
Antoszkiewicz, Michał, Mateusz Kmieć, Paweł Szewczuk, Marek Szkodo, and Robert Jankowski. "Microseismic Monitoring of Hydraulic Fracturing – Data Interpretation Methodology with an Example from Pomerania." In Environmental Engineering. VGTU Technika, 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.3846/enviro.2017.001.
Microseismic monitoring is a method for localizing fractures induced by hydraulic fracturing in search for shale gas. The aim of this paper is to conduct the data interpretation of the microseismic monitoring based on the results from Pom-erania region of Poland. The data has been collected from an array of geophones deployed on the surface. Ground vibrations have been recorded and analyzed for fracture location, magnitude and breakage mechanism. A velocity model of underlying formations has been used for successful microseismic monitoring. The model has been further tuned with signal from perfora-tion shots of known location. Imaging of events has been done using software MicSeis, which utilizes diffraction stacking of waveforms from multiple stations to image microseismic events with low signal-to-noise ratio. The imaging of microseismic events in MicSeis uses a grid search over all possible origin times and locations in the selected rock volume. The seismic moment tensors are automatically determined from the amplitudes from the grid search procedure and are used to model po-larities of events which then enhance constructive interference. Function characterizing a maximum stack per time sample have been calculated over whole volume and analyzed using the STA/LTA algorithm. Once the event has been detected in time, location has been determined through analysis of the 3D spatial image function. The procedure has been used to detect five events during hydraulic fracturing in Pomerania.
Astrauskas, Tomas, Raimondas Grubliauskas, and Tomas Januševičius. "Investigation and Evaluation of Speed Table Influence on Road Traffic Induced Ground Borne Vibration." In Environmental Engineering. VGTU Technika, 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.3846/enviro.2017.002.
Vertical Speed Control Measures are vertical elevated segments of roadway that require a vehicle to slow. Typical vertical speed control measures include speed humps, speed tables, raised sidewalks and raised intersections. These engineering measures are used to reduce risk to pedestrians of crossing streets where transport flow is big. The object of this research is speed table. Measurements of ground borne vibration was done 1 m near the speed table and in reference point, in the same street where the speed table do not influence the traffic speed. Reference measurement point is in the same distance to the street as to the speed table. Measurements was done in two seasons: cold and warm. Ground borne vibration measurements took place in L. Asanavičiūtės st., Vilnius. In this research was found that highest acceleration value near the speed table was 21,8 mm/s2 when heavy weight vehicles was passing, in reference point highest value was 38,1 mm/s2. Heavy weight vehicles induce highest ground borne vibration peaks.
Singovszka, Eva, and Magdalena Balintova. "FTIR Spectra Analysis of Sediment Influenced by Acid Mine Drainage." In Environmental Engineering. VGTU Technika, 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.3846/enviro.2017.003.
The contamination of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems with heavy metals and other mining chemicals have been major environmental problems in many mining areas of the world. Industrial wastes, geochemical structure and metals mining form a potential source of metal contaminants in the aquatic environment especially in sediment. In Slovak Republic there are some localities with existing acid mine drainage (AMD) generation conditions. The most critical values were observed in the abandoned deposit Smolnik. Waters from the earth surface penetrated the mine and they are enriched with metals and their pH values decreased. Increasing of pH after their mixing with surface water has negative influence on accumulation of pollutants in sediment. The aim of this paper is to investigate the use of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) transmittance spectroscopy for identification of changes of functions group in the sediment composition influenced by acid mine drainage. Chemical parameters of sediment quality were studied also by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF).
Balintova, Magdalena, Stefan Demcak, Adriana Estokova, Marian Holub, and Petra Pavlikova. "Study of Thermal Reduction of Barium Sulphate for Barium Sulphide Preparation." In Environmental Engineering. VGTU Technika, 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.3846/enviro.2017.004.
Industrial wastewaters, particularly those associated with mining and mineral processing, can contain high con-centrations of sulphate. There are various methods of sulphate removal e.g. reverse osmosis, ion exchange, precipitation by lime, cements, and salts of barium and the biological removal process. The soluble salts of barium are most commonly used for precipitation of sulphate from aquatic acidic solutions to the insoluble product barium sulphate BaSO4. Benefits of precip-itation are high sulphate removal efficiency but limitations are toxicity of barium compounds and high economical costs. For this reason the recycling of BaSO4 to barium sulphide BaS (the precipitating reagent) is very important. The paper deals with study of BaSO4 reduction by activated carbon to BaS by thermal analysis and infrared spectrometry. DCS analysis indicated that conversion of BaSO4 to BaS in the range of temperature 800–1,000 °C was performed. Thermal analysis and infrared spectra of the products confirmed the change in its composition, but process of reduction by carbon was incomplete and in sample was still present a part of BaSO4. Presence of BaS was confirmed by colorimetric method.
Banaszek, Jarosław, Marzena Leksy, and Oimahmad Rahmonov. "The ecological diversity of vegetation within urban parks in the Dąbrowski Basin (southern Poland)." In Environmental Engineering. VGTU Technika, 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.3846/enviro.2017.005.
The aim of this work is to present the diversity of flora in terms of ecological requirements. The research was conducted in the area of two urban parks in the area of two cities in southern Poland: Bedzin and Czeladz. These parks were established in different historical periods, and were planned (and are managed) differently. The results of the investigation have shown that the occurrence of 192 vascular species has been observed in the Gora Zamkowa (Castle Hill) Park, while in the Grabek park, 334 such species are known to exist. Such disparity is the result of the occurrence of micro-habitats and of the differences between the ways the two parks are managed. It is also due to these parks’ different functions. In the first case, the park area is protected by law. In the latter case, human activity has created a new ecological niche for organisms with a high degree of ecological tolerance. Based on the ecological values, the following groups of plants were distinguished: saxi-frages grasslands, xerothermic grasslands, beech forests, alder forests and artificial planted trees. Analysis has shown that ur-ban parks are potential places for growth various type of vegetation and also for increasing biodiversity, and can constitute particularly important hotspots for biodiversity in the cityscape, even if their primary role is recreational. As the study shows, the environment of a highly urbanized and industrialized region can also have a positive influence on ecological and floristic diversity.
Sztubecka, Małgorzata, Maria Mrówczyńska, Anna Bazan-Krzywoszańska, and Marta Skiba. "Sound influence on spa park perception in feelings of visitors." In Environmental Engineering. VGTU Technika, 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.3846/enviro.2017.006.
Noise can have many harmful effects on the recipients, however people exposed to noise on a long-term and regular basis can get used to it, even if the permissible levels are exceeded. In cities, green areas and park systems are provided to create a climate for rest and relaxation. Spa parks are a special kind of such park systems, which – in addition to the above-mentioned features – support therapies offered by spa facilities located there. On the one hand, patients and visitors appreciate various social and entertainment events held there, but – on the other – a multitude of sounds associated with them may reduce the comfort of their stay. The aim of this paper is to analyse the relationship between the results of noise measurements and the human perception of noise within the impact zone. The examined area is a spa park in the health resort district of Inowrocław, where seasonal measurements (taken in summer and winter) provided a basis for the determination of the connection between the measured values of equivalent sound level and the noise level perceived by surveyed people. A statistical analysis was performed to take into account the correlation between the obtained measurement results and the human perception of noise. It shows some differences in the perception of heard sounds. The results allow an evaluation of the soundscape of the analysed area.
Seniūnaitė, Jurgita, Rasa Vaiškūnaitė, and Kristina Bazienė. "Mathematical Modelling for Copper and Lead Adsorption on Coffee Grounds." In Environmental Engineering. VGTU Technika, 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.3846/enviro.2017.007.
Research studies on the adsorption kinetics are conducted in order to determine the absorption time of heavy metals on coffee grounds from liquid. The models of adsorption kinetics and adsorption diffusion are based on mathe-matical models (Cho et al. 2005). The adsorption kinetics can provide information on the mechanisms occurring be-tween adsorbates and adsorbents and give an understanding of the adsorption process. In the mathematical modelling of processes, Lagergren’s pseudo-first- and pseudo-second-order kinetics and the intra-particle diffusion models are usually applied. The mathematical modelling has shown that the kinetics of the adsorption process of heavy metals (copper (Cu) and lead (Pb)) is more appropriately described by the Lagergren’s pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The kinetic constants (k2Cu = 0.117; k2Pb = 0,037 min−1) and the sorption process speed (k2qeCu = 0.0058–0.4975; k2qePb = 0.021–0.1661 mg/g per min) were calculated. After completing the mathematical modelling it was calculated that the Langmuir isotherm better reflects the sorption processes of copper (Cu) (R2 = 0.950), whilst the Freundlich isotherm – the sorption processes of lead (Pb) (R2 = 0.925). The difference between the mathematically modelled and experimen-tally obtained sorption capacities for removal of heavy metals on coffee grounds from aqueous solutions is 0.059–0.164 mg/l for copper and 0.004–0.285 mg/l for lead. Residual concentrations of metals in a solution showed difference of 1.01 and 0.96 mg/l, respectively.
Bazilo, Constantine, Alvydas Zagorskis, Oleg Petrishchev, Yulia Bondarenko, Vasyl Zaika, and Yulia Petrushko. "Modelling of Piezoelectric Transducers for Environmental Monitoring." In Environmental Engineering. VGTU Technika, 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.3846/enviro.2017.008.
World Health Organization (WHO) defined health as being “a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity”. Physical factors (noise, vibration, electromagnetic fields, ionized radiation, etc.) may have a negative influence on both the environment and the health of population. Piezoelectric sensors have been employed in different fields such as medical analysis, environmental monitoring, etc. The object of the research is piezoelectric sensors for environmental monitoring and their simulation. Currently, there are no reliable and valid methods of constructing of mathematical models of piezoelectric transducers, which could be used as a theoretical basis for calculating characteristics and parameters of this class of functional elements of modern piezoelectronics. In most papers the described methods of transformers simulation are mostly based on the use of equivalent electrical circuits and it does not allow analysing stress-strain state of solids with piezoelectric effects. The final goal of mathematical modelling of vibrating piezoelectric elements is a qualitative and quantitative description of characteristics and parameters of existing electrical and elastic fields. Physical processes in piezoelectric transducers which occur using axially symmetric radial oscillations of piezoceramic disk are considered.
Yakovlev, Grigory, Jadvyga Keriene, Anastasiia Gordina, Irina Polyanskikh, and Milan Bekmansurov. "Efficient Eco-friendly Composite Fluorine Anhydrite-Based Materials." In Environmental Engineering. VGTU Technika, 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.3846/enviro.2017.009.
The paper presents possible ways of utilizing technogenic waste – fluorine anhydrite – by its use in production of dry mortars and piece goods from lightweight concrete with expanded polystyrene, as a organic filler, for low-rise construc-tion. The developed dry mortars are based on fluorine anhydrite binder and complex modifier comprising curing activator (sulfate or alkaline) and finely dispersed additive. The fluorine anhydrite-based compositions have improved physical and performance characteristics, including the improved strength and average density and reduced water absorption compared to the control composition. The developed lightweight anhydrite polystyrene concrete has the density grade of 700 kg/m3 and good vapor and gas permeability. The concrete is stabile while using and fire safe, because each granule of expanded poly-styrene is coated with anhydrite matrix, and has the strength sufficient for structural and heat insulating slabs and blocks. All mentioned compositions are eco-friendly and are in great demand for low-rise construction. Therefore the manufacturing of these compositions will consume a large amount of technogenic waste and will reduce the environmental load on the region where the waste is located.
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