Добірка наукової літератури з теми "Geology, Stratigraphic Proterozoic"

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Статті в журналах з теми "Geology, Stratigraphic Proterozoic":

1

Phillips, Bruce J., Alan W. James, and Graeme M. Philip. "THE GEOLOGY AND HYDROCARBON POTENTIAL OF THE NORTH-WESTERN OFFICER BASIN." APPEA Journal 25, no. 1 (1985): 52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/aj84004.

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Recent petroleum exploration in EP 186 and EP 187 in the north-western Officer Basin has greatly increased knowledge of the regional stratigraphy, structure and petroleum prospectivity of the region. This exploration programme has involved the drilling of two deep stratigraphic wells (Dragoon 1 and Hussar 1) and the acquisition of 1438 km of seismic data. Integration of regional gravity and aeromagnetic data with regional seismic and well data reveals that the Gibson Sub-basin primarily contains a Proterozoic evaporitic sequence. In contrast, the Herbert Sub-basin contains a Late Proterozoic to Cambrian clastic and carbonate sequence above the evaporites. This sequence, which was intersected in Hussar 1, is identified as the primary exploration target in the Western Officer Basin. The sequence contains excellent reservoir and seal rocks in association with mature source rocks. Major structuring of the basin has also been caused by compressive movements associated with the Alice Springs Orogeny. The northwestern Officer Basin thus has all of the ingredients for the discovery of commercial hydrocarbons.
2

Martins-Neto, Marcelo A. "Sequence stratigraphic framework of Proterozoic successions in eastern Brazil." Marine and Petroleum Geology 26, no. 2 (February 2009): 163–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2007.10.001.

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3

Alsop, G. I. "The geometry and structural evolution of a crustal-scale Caledonian fold complex: the Ballybofey Nappe, northwest Ireland." Geological Magazine 131, no. 4 (July 1994): 519–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0016756800012139.

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AbstractThe gross geometries exhibited by crustal-scale fold nappes are considered a consequence of both original stratigraphic relationships associated with sub-basin configuration, coupled with the nature of the structural regime and tectonic processes involved in the generation of the nappe pile. The Neo-Proterozoic Dalradian metasediments of northwestern Ireland provide a well-constrained and correlatable stratigraphy which defines a sequence of sub-reclined, tight-isoclinal Caledonian (c. 460 Ma) fold nappes. Within this fold complex, the dominant structure is the crustal-scale Ballybofey Nappe, which may be traced for 40 km along strike and is responsible for a regional (500 km2) stratigraphie inversion. The gentle, NE-plunging attitude of this fold results in a complete spectrum of tectonic levels and deformation gradients being exposed. Relatively low strains in the upper fold limb gradually increase down through the nappe, resulting in the generation of composite foliations and lineations and the development of a 10 km thick shear zone which culminates in a high strain basal detachment with underlying pre-Caledonian basement. The Ballybofey Nappe nucleated and propagated along a major zone of lateral sedimentary facies variation, coincident with the margin of a major Dalradian sub-basin. The large amplitude of the nappe is strongly influenced by the lateral heterogeneity within the metasedimentary sequence, and is associated with a minimum of 25–30 km ESE-directed translation concentrated within the overturned limb. Additional significant displacement is also focused along the basal décollement. Generation of the nappe complex resulted in significant crustal thickening and amphibolite facies metamorphism consistent with 15–18 km of burial, induced by a sequence of nappes propagating in the direction of overshear. The ESE-directed translation of the major fold nappes is away from the Caledonian foreland and a gravity-driven mechanism of nappe emplacement is suggested. Rigorous structural analysis within the cohesive stratigraphie framework enables relationships between the tectonic evolution and stratigraphic patterns to be distinguished, thus allowing models of fold nappe generation and mid-crustal deformation to be evaluated.
4

GEHLING, JAMES G., SÖREN JENSEN, MARY L. DROSER, PAUL M. MYROW, and GUY M. NARBONNE. "Burrowing below the basal Cambrian GSSP, Fortune Head, Newfoundland." Geological Magazine 138, no. 2 (March 2001): 213–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s001675680100509x.

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The range of Treptichnus pedum, the index trace fossil for the Treptichnus pedum Zone, extends some 4 m below the Global Standard Stratotype-section and Point for the base of the Cambrian Period at Fortune Head on the Burin Peninsula in southeastern Newfoundland. The identification of zigzag traces of Treptichnus isp., even further below the GSSP than T. pedum in the Fortune Head section, and in other terminal Proterozoic successions around the globe, supports the concept of a gradational onset of three-dimensional burrowing across the Proterozoic–Cambrian boundary. Although T. pedum remains a reasonable indicator for the base of the Cambrian Period, greater precision in the stratotype section can be achieved by a detailed re-evaluation of the stratigraphic ranges and the morphological variation of ichnotaxa included in the T. pedum Zone.
5

GEYER, G. "The Fish River Subgroup in Namibia: stratigraphy, depositional environments and the Proterozoic–Cambrian boundary problem revisited." Geological Magazine 142, no. 5 (September 2005): 465–98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0016756805000956.

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The Fish River Subgroup of the Nama Group, southern Namibia, is restudied in terms of lithostratigraphy and depositional environment. The study is based on partly fine-scaled sections, particularly of the Nababis and Gross Aub Formation. The results are generally in accordance with earlier studies. However, braided river deposits appear to be less widely distributed in the studied area, and a considerable part of the formations of the middle and upper subgroup apparently were deposited under shallowest marine conditions including upper shore-face. Evidence comes partly from sedimentary features and facies distribution, and partly from trace fossils, particularly Skolithos and the characteristic Trichophycus pedum. Environmental conditions represented by layers with T. pedum suggest that the producer favoured shallow marine habitats and transgressive regimes. The successions represent two deepening-upward sequences, both starting as fluvial (braided river) systems and ending as shallow marine tidally dominated environments. The first sequence includes the traditional Stockdale, Breckhorn and lower Nababis formations (Zamnarib Member). The second sequence includes the upper Nababis (Haribes Member) and Gross Aub formations. As a result, the Nababis and Gross Aub formations require emendation: a new formation including the Haribes and Rosenhof and possibly also the Deurstamp members. In addition, four distinct sequence stratigraphic units are deter-minable for the Fish River Subgroup in the southern part of the basin. The Proterozoic–Cambrian transition in southern Namibia is most probably located as low as the middle Schwarzrand Subgroup. The environmentally controlled occurrence of Trichophycus pedum undermines the local stratigraphic significance of this trace fossil which is eponymous with the lowest Cambrian and Phanerozoic trace fossil assemblage on a global scale. However, occurrences of such trace fossils have to be regarded as positive evidence for Phanerozoic age regardless of co-occurring body fossils. Other suggestions strongly dispute the concept of the formal Proterozoic–Cambrian and Precambrian–Phanerozoic boundary. Carbon isotope excursions and radiometric datings for the Nama Group do not help to calibrate precisely the temporal extent of the Fish River Subgroup. Fossil content, sequence stratigraphy and inferred depositional developments suggest that this subgroup represents only a short period of late orogenic molasse sedimentation during the early sub-trilobitic Early Cambrian.
6

Jackson, J., I. P. Sweet, and T. G. Powell. "STUDIES ON PETROLEUM GEOLOGY AND GEOCHEMISTRY, MIDDLE PROTEROZOIC, McARTHUR BASIN NORTHERN AUSTRALIA I: PETROLEUM POTENTIAL." APPEA Journal 28, no. 1 (1988): 283. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/aj87022.

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Mature, rich, potential source beds and adjacent potential reservoir beds exist in the Middle Proterozoic sequence (1400-1800 Ma) of the McArthur Basin. The McArthur and Nathan Groups consist mainly of evaporitic and stromatolitic cherty dolostones interbedded with dolomitic siltstone and shale. They were deposited in interfingering marginal marine, lacustrine and fluvial environments. Lacustrine dolomitic siltstones form potential source beds, while potential reservoirs include vuggy brecciated carbonates associated with penecontemporaneous faulting and rare coarse-grained clastics. In contrast, the younger Roper Group consists of quartz arenite, siltstone and shale that occur in more uniform facies deposited in a stable marine setting. Both source and reservoir units are laterally extensive (over 200 km).Five potential source rocks at various stages of maturity have been discovered. Two of these source rocks, the lacustrine Barney Creek Formation in the McArthur Group and the marine Velkerri Formation in the Roper Group, compare favourably in thickness and potential with rich demonstrated source rocks in major oil-producing provinces. There is abundant evidence of migration of hydrocarbons at many stratigraphic levels. The geology and reservoir characteristics of the sediments in combination with the distribution of potential source beds, timing of hydrocarbon generation, evidence for migration and chances of preservation have been used to rank the prospectivity of the various stratigraphic units in different parts of the basin.
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Kulikov, V. S., V. V. Kulikova, and A. K. Polin. "NEW CHRONOSTRATIC SCHEME OF SOUTH-EASTERN FENNOSCANDIA AND ITS USE IN THE PREPARATION OF SMALL-SCALE GEOLOGICAL MAPS OF THE PRECAMBRIAN REGIONS." Proceedings of higher educational establishments. Geology and Exploration, no. 5 (October 2017): 5–12. http://dx.doi.org/10.32454/0016-7762-2017-5-5-12.

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A new chronostratic scheme of South-East (SE) Fennoscandia has been developed, based on the International Stratigraphie Scale, taking into account some elements of the Common Stratigraphic Scale of Russia and the regional stratigraphic scheme of the North-West (NW) of Russian Federation. A rank of Archean and Proterozoic stratons has been determined (including supersystems for Riphean and Archean geonotems), compatable in dutation to the Phanerozoic systems (Mesozoic and Paleozoic ones). An original coloring for the geological maps of the newly allocated systems and their analogues in the Precambrian, as well as the digital indexing of all stratons of the rank of systems instead of the traditional alphabetic one, have been proposed. Based on the extensive geological materials of the Institute of Geology of Karelian Research Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences, in view of the new approaches and reliable geochronological data, an areal geological map of SE Fennoscandia in scale 1: 750 000 has been created, which includes the territory of Karelia and adjacent areas of the Russian Federation and eastern Finland. The proposed chronostratic scheme can serve as a basis for developing legends of small-scale state geological maps of the new generation, especially in the regions of the Precambrian development.
8

HARLAND, W. BRIAN. "Origins and assessment of snowball Earth hypotheses." Geological Magazine 144, no. 4 (June 2007): 633–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0016756807003391.

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Brian Harland was for many years an editor of this journal. He was also a seminal figure in the origins of the current ‘snowball Earth’ debate, having recognized in 1964 the significance of coupling emerging palaeomagnetic data on palaeolatitude with his interpretations of diamictites. Harland worked extensively in the Arctic and knew well many of the workers involved in the arguments surrounding the origin of diamictites. He thus had a unique perspective on the evidence and the disputes surrounding it. This was his last paper but he was not able to complete it before he died. However, with the help of Professor Ian Fairchild to whom we are indebted, the editors have lightly revised this work which is presented as the personal view of one of the key figures with a very broad stratigraphic appreciation of the problems of ‘snowball Earth’.Records of Precambrian glaciation onwards from the late nineteenth century led to the concept of one or more major ice ages. This concept was becoming well advanced by the mid 1930s, particularly through the compilation of Kulling in 1934. Even so tillite stratigraphy shows that glaciation was exceptional rather than typical of Earth history. Some Proterozoic tillites, sandwiched between warm marine facies, indicate low, even equatorial palaeolatitudes as determined magnetically, and more recently led to ideas of a snow- and ice-covered ‘snowball Earth’. However, interbedded non-glacial facies as well as thick tillite successions requiring abundant snowfall both militate against the hypothesis of extreme prolonged freezing temperatures referred to here as an ‘iceball Earth’ in which all oceans and seas were sealed in continuous ice cover. On the other hand tropical environments were interrupted by glaciation several times in the Proterozoic, something that did not recur in the Phanerozoic. The term ‘snowball Earth’ is consistent with the established view of extremely widespread Proterozoic glaciation, but the ‘iceball Earth’ version of this is not compatible with the geological record.
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Green, J. W., A. H. Knoll, and K. Swett. "Microfossils from silicified stromatolitic carbonates of the Upper Proterozoic Limestone-Dolomite 'Series', central East Greenland." Geological Magazine 126, no. 5 (September 1989): 567–85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0016756800022858.

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AbstractSilicified flake conglomerates andin situstratiform stromatolites of the Upper Proterozoic (c.700–800 Ma) Limestone-Dolomite ‘Series’, central East Greenland, contain well preserved microfossils. Five stratigraphic horizons within the 1200 m succession contain microbial mat assemblages, providing a broad palaeontological representation of late Proterozoic peritidal mat communities. Comparison of assemblages demonstrates that the taxonomy and diversity of mat builder, dweller, and allochthonous populations all vary considerably within and among horizons. The primary mat builder in most assemblages isSiphonophycus inornatum, a sheath-forming prokaryote of probable but not unequivocally established cyanobacterial affinities. An unusual low diversity unit in Bed 17 is dominated by a different builder,Tenuofilum septatum, while a thin cryptalgal horizon in Bed 18 is built almost exclusively bySiphonophycus kestron.Although variable taphonomic histories contribute to observed assemblage variation, most differences within and among horizons appear to reflect the differential success or failure of individual microbial populations in colonizing different tidal flat microenvironments. Twenty-two taxa are recognized, of which two are described as new:Myxococcoides stragulescensn.sp. andScissilisphaera gradatan. sp.
10

Myrow, P. M., N. C. Hughes, and N. R. McKenzie. "Reconstructing the Himalayan margin prior to collision with Asia: Proterozoic and lower Paleozoic geology and its implications for Cenozoic tectonics." Geological Society, London, Special Publications 483, no. 1 (November 2018): 39–64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1144/sp483.10.

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AbstractReconstructing the stratigraphic architecture of deposits prior to Cenozoic Himalayan uplift is critical for unravelling the structural, metamorphic, depositional and erosional history of the orogen. The nature and distribution of Proterozoic and lower Paleozoic strata have helped elucidate the relationship between lithotectonic zones, as well as the geometries of major bounding faults. Stratigraphic and geochronological work has revealed a uniform and widespread pattern of Paleoproterozoic strata >1.6 Ga that are unconformably overlain by <1.1 Ga rocks. The overlying Neoproterozoic strata record marine sedimentation, including a Cryogenian diamictite, a well-developed carbonate platform succession and condensed fossiliferous Precambrian–Cambrian boundary strata. Palaeontological study of Cambrian units permits correlation from the Indian craton through three Himalayan lithotectonic zones to a precision of within a few million years. Detailed sedimentological and stratigraphic analysis shows the differentiation of a proximal realm of relatively condensed, nearshore, evaporite-rich units to the south and a distal realm of thick, deltaic deposits to the north. Thus, Neoproterozoic and Cambrian strata blanketed the northern Indian craton with an extensive, northward-deepening, succession. Today, these rocks are absent from parts of the inner Lesser Himalaya, and the uplift and erosion of these proximal facies explains a marked change in global seawater isotopic chemistry at 16 Ma.

Дисертації з теми "Geology, Stratigraphic Proterozoic":

1

Strauss, Toby Anthony Lavery. "The geology of the Proterozoic Haveri Au-Cu deposit, Southern Finland." Thesis, Rhodes University, 2004. http://hdl.handle.net/10962/d1015978.

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The Haveri Au-Cu deposit is located in southern Finland about 175 km north of Helsinki. It occurs on the northern edge of the continental island arc-type, volcano-sedimentary Tampere Schist Belt (TSB) within the Palaeoproterozoic Svecofennian Domain (2.0 – 1.75 Ga) of the Fennoscandian Shield. The 1.99 Ga Haveri Formation forms the base of the supracrustal stratigraphy consisting of metavolcanic pillow lavas and breccias passing upwards into intercalated metatuffs and metatuffites. There is a continuous gradation upwards from the predominantly volcaniclastic Haveri Formation into the overlying epiclastic meta-greywackes of the Osara Formation. The Haveri deposit is hosted in this contact zone. This supracrustal sequence has been intruded concordantly by quartz-feldspar porphyries. Approximately 1.89 Ga ago, high crustal heat flow led to the generation and emplacement of voluminous synkinematic, I-type, magnetite-series granitoids of the Central Finland Granitoid Complex (CFGC), resulting in coeval high-T/low-P metamorphism (hornfelsic textures), and D₁ deformation. During the crystallisation and cooling of the granitoids, a magmatic-dominated hydrothermal system caused extensive hydrothermal alteration and Cu-Au mineralisation through the late-D₁ to early-D₂ deformation. Initially, a pre-ore Na-Ca alteration phase caused albitisation of the host rock. This was closely followed by strong Ca-Fe alteration, responsible for widespread amphibolitisation and quartz veining and associated with abundant pyrrhotite, magnetite, chalcopyrite and gold mineralisation. More localised calcic-skarn alteration is also present as zoned garnetpyroxene- epidote skarn assemblages with associated pyrrhotite and minor sphalerite, centred on quartzcalcite± scapolite veinlets. Post-ore alteration includes an evolution to more K-rich alteration (biotitisation). Late D₂-retrograde chlorite began to replace the earlier high-T assemblage. Late emanations (post-D₂ and pre-D₃) from the cooling granitoids, under lower temperatures and oxidising conditions, are represented by carbonate-barite veins and epidote veinlets. Later, narrow dolerite dykes were emplaced followed by a weak D₃ deformation, resulting in shearing and structural reactivation along the carbonate-barite bands. This phase was accompanied by pyrite deposition. Both sulphides and oxides are common at Haveri, with ore types varying from massive sulphide and/or magnetite, to networks of veinlets and disseminations of oxides and/or sulphides. Cataclastites, consisting of deformed, brecciated bands of sulphide, with rounded and angular clasts of quartz vein material and altered host-rock are an economically important ore type. Ore minerals are principally pyrrhotite, magnetite and chalcopyrite with lesser amounts of pyrite, molybdenite and sphalerite. There is a general progression from early magnetite, through pyrrhotite to pyrite indicating increasing sulphidation with time. Gold is typically found as free gold within quartz veins and within intense zones of amphibolitisation. Considerable gold is also found in the cataclastite ore type either as invisible gold within the sulphides and/or as free gold within the breccia fragments. The unaltered amphibolites of the Haveri Formation can be classified as medium-K basalts of the tholeiitic trend. Trace and REE support an interpretation of formation in a back-arc basin setting. The unaltered porphyritic rocks are calc-alkaline dacites, and are interpreted, along with the granitoids as having an arc-type origin. This is consistent with the evolution from an initial back-arc basin, through a period of passive margin and/or fore-arc deposition represented by the Osara Formation greywackes and the basal stratigraphy of the TSB, prior to the onset of arc-related volcanic activity characteristic of the TSB and the Svecofennian proper. Using a combination of petrogenetic grids, mineral compositions (garnet-biotite and hornblendeplagioclase thermometers) and oxygen isotope thermometry, peak metamorphism can be constrained to a maximum of approximately 600 °C and 1.5 kbars pressure. Furthermore, the petrogenetic grids indicate that the REDOX conditions can be constrained at 600°C to log f(O₂) values of approximately - 21.0 to -26.0 and -14.5 to -17.5 for the metasedimentary rocks and mafic metavolcanic rocks respectively, thus indicating the presence of a significant REDOX boundary. Amphibole compositions from the Ca-Fe alteration phase (amphibolitisation) indicate iron enrichment with increasing alteration corresponding to higher temperatures of formation. Oxygen isotope studies combined with limited fluid inclusion studies indicate that the Ca-Fe alteration and associated quartz veins formed at high temperatures (530 – 610°C) from low CO₂, low- to moderately saline (<10 eq. wt% NaCl), magmatic-dominated fluids. Fluid inclusion decrepitation textures in the quartz veins suggest isobaric decompression. This is compatible with formation in high-T/low-P environments such as contact aureoles and island arcs. The calcic-skarn assemblage, combined with phase equilibria and sphalerite geothermometry, are indicative of formation at high temperatures (500 – 600 °C) from fluids with higher CO₂ contents and more saline compositions than those responsible for the Fe-Ca alteration. Limited fluid inclusion studies have identified hypersaline inclusions in secondary inclusion trails within quartz. The presence of calcite and scapolite also support formation from CO₂-rich saline fluids. It is suggested that the calcic-skarn alteration and the amphibolitisation evolved from the same fluids, and that P-T changes led to fluid unmixing resulting in two fluid types responsible for the observed alteration variations. Chlorite geothermometry on retrograde chlorite indicates temperatures of 309 – 368 °C. As chlorite represents the latest hydrothermal event, this can be taken as a lower temperature limit for hydrothermal alteration and mineralisation at Haveri.The gold mineralisation at Haveri is related primarily to the Ca-Fe alteration. Under such P-T-X conditions gold was transported as chloride complexes. Ore was localised by a combination of structural controls (shears and folds) and REDOX reactions along the boundary between the oxidised metavolcanics and the reduced metasediments. In addition, fluid unmixing caused an increase in pH, and thus further augmented the precipitation of Cu and Au. During the late D₂-event, temperatures fell below 400 °C, and fluids may have remobilised Au and Cu as bisulphide complexes into the shearcontrolled cataclastites and massive sulphides. The Haveri deposit has many similarities with ore deposit models that include orogenic lode-gold deposits, certain Au-skarn deposits and Fe-oxide Cu-Au deposits. However, many characteristics of the Haveri deposit, including tectonic setting, host lithologies, alteration types, proximity to I-type granitoids and P-T-X conditions of formation, compare favourably with other Early Proterozoic deposits within the TSB and Fennoscandia, as well as many of the deposits in the Cloncurry district of Australia. Consequently, the Haveri deposit can be seen to represent a high-T, Ca-rich member of the recently recognised Fe-oxide Cu-Au group of deposits.
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Baldim, Maurício Rigoni 1983. "O domo gnáissico Alto Alegre, transição embasamento-greenstone belt do Rio Itapicuru : evolução e significado tectônico." PublishedVersion, [s.n.], 2014. http://repositorio.unicamp.br/jspui/handle/REPOSIP/286596.

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Orientador: Elson Paiva de Oliveira
Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Instituto de Geociências
Made available in DSpace on 2018-08-26T10:50:20Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 Baldim_MauricioRigoni_M.pdf: 19163752 bytes, checksum: da3d83e0ed883c0984d79ed906f0528c (MD5) Previous issue date: 2014
Resumo: Domos gnáissicos são estruturas que podem estar associadas tanto aos orógenos extensionais quanto aos colisionais. Em orógenos colisionais, normalmente balizam os distintos terrenos dispondo-se em corredores estruturais. Na região nordeste do Cráton São Francisco, Bloco Serrinha, localiza-se o Greenstone Belt Paleoproterozoico do Rio Itapicuru, interpretado como arco continental acrecionado a um Complexo de alto grau mesoarqueano. Mapeamento geológico realizado no segmento norte da transiçao, embasamento-greenstone, revelou a ocorrência de um domo gnáissico-migmatítico que limita dois terrenos, um arqueano e outro paleoproterozoico, que destoa litoestruturalmente de outros domos reconhecidos a sul do greenstone (e.g. domos do Ambrósio, Salgadália e Pedra Alta). Além disso, dados estruturais mostram que a evolução tectônica da área ocorreu a partir de tectônica compressiva em D1 com direção E-W, seguido de transcorrência N-S em D2, possivelmente associados a transpressão. O domo, denominado Alto Alegre, possui núcleo granito-diatexítico, sendo delineado por faixas anfibolíticas concêntricas e preserva paragênese de alto grau metamórfico. Análises de elementos maiores e traços revelam que as faixas de anfibolitos do referido domo possuem características geoquímicas semelhantes aos diques máficos que cortam o embasamento, e destoam dos basaltos toleíticos do greenstone belt. Dados geocronológicos e de campo revelam idades de ca. 3080 Ma para o embasamento arqueano e para gnaisses do domo Alto Alegre, e idades de ca. 2080 Ma para o granito que intrude a porção central do domo. Os dados mostram que o domo Alto Alegre representa o embasamento arqueano retrabalhado tectonicamente e influenciado por atividade granítica, durante colisão continente-continente em ca. 2080 Ma
Abstract: Gneiss domes are structures that may be associated with both extensional and collisional orogens. In collisional orogens typically delimit distinct land forming structural corridors. In northeastern of São Francisco craton, Serrinha Block, is located the Paleoproterozoic Rio Itapicuru Greenstone Belt which is interpreted as a continental arc acrecionado to a Mesoarqueano high degree Complex. Geological mapping carried out in the northern segment of the greenstone-basement transition, revealed the occurrence of a gneissic-migmatitic dome that limits two lands, one Archean and another Paleoproterozoic. This dome is different both on litology as structuraly when comparing with other domes recognized in a south of the greenstone (e.g., domes of Ambrose, Salgadália and Pedra Alta). Furthermore, structural data show that the tectonic evolution of the area occurred from compressive tectonics E-W in D1, followed by transcurrent N-S in D2, possibly associated with transpression. The dome, called Alto Alegre, has granite-diatexítico core being outlined by concentric amphibolitic bands that preserves high metamorphic grade paragenesis. Results of major and trace elements analyzes reveal that the amphibolites bands of dome has geochemical characteristics similar to mafic dikes that cut the basement, and differ from Rio Itapicuru greenstone belt basalts. Geochronological and field data reveal ages ca. 3080 Ma for the Archean basement and the dome Alto Alegre gneisses, and ages of ca 2080 Ma for the granite that intrude the central portion of the dome. The data show that the dome Alto Alegre represents the tectonically reworked Archean basement and influenced by granite activity during continent-continent collision at ca 2080 Ma
Mestrado
Geologia e Recursos Naturais
Mestre em Geociências
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Li, Longming, and 李龙明. "The crustal evolutionary history of the Cathaysia Block from the paleoproterozoic to mesozoic." PG_Thesis, The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong), 2010. http://hub.hku.hk/bib/B45693596.

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Baghiyan-Yazd, Mohammad Hassan. "Palaeoichnology of the terminal Proterozoic-Early Cambrian transition in central Australia : interregional correlation and palaeoecology." Title page, table of contents and abstract only, 1998. http://web4.library.adelaide.edu.au/theses/09PH/09phb1445.pdf.

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5

Johnson, Shannon D. "Structural geology of the Usakos Dome in the Damara Belt, Namibia." Thesis, Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2005. http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/50457.

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Thesis (MSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2005.
ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The northeast-trending south Central Zone (sCZ) of the Pan-African Damara belt in central Namibia is structurally characterized by kilometer-scale, northeast-trending dome structures developed in Neoproterozoic rocks of the Damara Sequence. A number of different structural models have been proposed for the formation of these domes in the literature. This study describes the structural geology of the Usakos dome. The study discusses the structural evolution of the dome within the regional framework of the cSZ that represents the high-grade metamorphic axis of the Damara Belt, characterized by voluminous Pan-African granitoids. The northeastern part of the Usakos dome is developed as an upright- to northwestverging anticlinorium containing a steep southeasterly-dipping axial planar foliation. The northeast fold trend persists into the southwestern parts of the Usakos dome. However, this southwestern core of the dome is inundated by synkinematic granitic sheets. Distinct marker horizons of the Damara Sequence outcrop as screens within the granite, preserving a ghost stratigraphy. These screens illustrate the position and orientation of second-order folds. Significantly, most of the stratigraphy of the Damara Sequence is overturned in these folds. For example, some second-order anticlines developed in the northeastern parts of the Usakos dome can be followed along their axial traces into the southwestern hinge of the dome, where they appear as synformal anticlines, i.e. synformal structures cored by older strata, plunging towards the northeast. The inverted stratigraphy and northeasterly fold plunges suggest the northeast-trending folds are refolded by second-generation, northwest-trending folds, thus, forming kilometer-scale Type-2 interference folds. The resulting fold geometries are strongly non-cylindrical, approaching southwest-closing sheath folds indicating a top-to-the-southwest material transport. Lower-order folds in this overturned domain show radial fold plunges, plunging away from the centre of the dome core, as well as a shallowly-dipping schistosity. The close spatial and temporal relationship between granite intrusion and the formation of the southwest-vergent, sheath-type folds, radial distribution of fold plunges and the subhorizontal foliation confined to the southwestern hinge of the Usakos dome are interpreted to signify the rheological weakening and ensuing collapse of the developing first-order Usakos dome immediately above the synkinematic granite intrusions. Orogenparallel, southwest-vergent sheath folds and top-to-the southwest extrusion of the southwestern parts of the Usakos dome and northwest-vergent folding and thrusting characterizing the northeastern extent of the Usakos dome are both responses to the northwest-southeast- directed contractional tectonics recorded during the main collisional phase in the Damara belt. On a regional scale, the Usakos dome represents the link between the foreland-vergent northeastern part of the sCZ and the southwest-vergent, high-grade southwestern parts of the sCZ. The results of this study illustrate how dramatic variations in structural styles may be caused by the localized and transient rheological weakening of the crust during plutonic activity.
AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die noordoos-strekkende, suidelike Sentrale Sone (sSS) van die Pan-Afrikaanse Damara gordel in sentraal Namibië word karakteriseer deur kilometer-skaal, noordoosstrekkende koepel strukture, ontwikkel in die Neoproterozoïkum gesteentes van die Damara Opeenvolging. 'n Aantal verskillende struktuur modelle is voorgestel in die literatuur vir die vorming van hierdie koepels. Hierdie ondersoek beskryf die struktuur geologie van die Usakos koepel. Die ondersoek bespreek die strukturele ontwikkeling van die koepel in die regionale konteks van die sSS, wat die hoë graadse metamorfe magmatiese as van die Damara Gordel verteenwoordig, en karakteriseer word deur omvangryke Pan-Afrikaanse granitoïede. Die noordoostelike gedeelte van die Usakos koepel is ontwikkel as 'n antiklinorium met 'n vertikale- tot noordwestelike kantelrigting. wat 'n steil hellende, suidoostelike asvlak planêre foliasie bevat. Die noordoos-strekkende plooiing kom voor tot in die suidwestelike kern van die Usakos wat ingedring is deur sinkinematiese granitiese plate. Die posisie en oriëntasie van tweede-orde plooie is afgebeeld in die graniete deur 'n skimstratigrafie wat preserveer is deur duidelike merker horisonne van die Damara Opeenvolging. Die stratigrafie van die Damara Opeenvolging is opmerklik meestal omgekeer in hierdie plooie. Byvoorbeeld, tweede-orde antikliene ontwikkel in die noordoostelike gedeelte van die Usakos koepel kan gevolg word langs hul asvlakspore tot in die suidwestelike skarnier van die koepel, waar dit voorkom as sinforme antikliene, d.w.s. sinforme strukture met ouer strata in die kern wat na die noordooste duik. Die omgekeerde stratigrafie en noordoostelike plooi duiking impliseer dat die noordoosstrekkende plooie weer geplooi is deur tweede-generasie, noordwes-strekkende plooie, wat dus aanleiding gegee het tot die vorming van kilometer-skaal, tipe-2 interferensie plooie. Die gevolglike plooi geometrieë is uitdruklik nie-silindries, en toon 'n oorgang na skede plooie met 'n sluiting na die suidweste, wat dui op 'n bokant-na-die-suidweste materiaal vervoer. Laer-orde plooie in die omgekeerde domein vertoon radiale duiking van die plooie, weg van die middelpunt van die koepel kern, sowel as 'n vlak hellende skistositeit. Die noue ruimtelike en temporele verwantskap tussen graniet intrusie en die vorming van skede-tipe plooie met 'n kantelrigting na die suidweste, die radiale verspreiding van plooi duiking, en die subhorisontale foliasie wat beperk is tot die suidwestelike skarnier van die Usakos koepel, word interpreteer as 'n aanduiding van die reologiese verswakking en die gevolglike ineenstorting van die ontwikkelende eerste-orde Usakos koepel, onmiddellik aan die bokant van die sinkinematiese graniet intrusies. Die orogeenparalleie skede plooie met kantelrigting na die suidweste en bokant-na-die-suidweste ekstrusie van die suidwestelike gedeelte van die Usakos koepel, en plooiing met kantelrigting na die noordweste en stootverskuiwing wat kenmerkend is van die noordoostelike gedeelte van die Usakos koepel, is beide 'n reaksie op die noordwessuidoos- gerigte vernouings tektoniek opgeteken gedurende die hoof botsings fase in die Damara gordel. Op 'n regionale skaal verteenwoordig die Usakos koepel die verbinding tussen die noordoostelike gedeelte van die sSS met 'n voorland kantelrigting. en die hoë graad suidwestelike gedeelte van die sSS met 'n kantelrigting na die suidweste. Die resultate van hierdie ondersoek toon aan hoe dramatiese variasies in struktuur style veroorsaak kan word deur die gelokaliseerde en kortstondige reologiese verswakking van die kors gedurende plutoniese aktiwiteit.
6

Zhao, Junhong, and 趙軍紅. "Geochemistry of neoproterozoic arc-related plutons in the Western margin of the Yangtze Block, South China." PG_Thesis, The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong), 2008. http://hub.hku.hk/bib/B40203748.

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7

Wang, Wei, and 王伟. "Sedimentology, geochronology and geochemistry of the proterozoic sedimentary rocks in the Yangtze Block, South China." PG_Thesis, The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong), 2013. http://hdl.handle.net/10722/196033.

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The South China Craton comprises the Yangtze Block in the northwest and Cathaysia Block in the southeast. Located in the southeastern Yangtze Block, the Jiangnan Orogen formed through the amalgamation between the Yangtze and Cathaysia Blocks. The Yangtze Block has sporadically exposed Archean rocks in the north, Paleoproterozoic to Mesoproterozoic volcano-sedimentary sequences in the southwest and widespread Neoproterozoic sedimentary sequences accompanied by syn-sedimentary igneous rocks on the western and southeastern margins. The late Paleoproterozoic to early Mesoproterozoic Dongchuan, Dahongshan and Hekou groups in the southwestern Yangtze Block formed in a series of fault-controlled, rift-related basins associated with the fragmentation of the supercontinent Columbia. These sedimentary sequences were deposited between 1742 and 1503 Ma, and recorded continuous deposition from alluvial fan and fluvial sedimentation during the initial rifting to deep marine sedimentation in a passive margin setting. Sedimentation during initial rifting received felsic detritus mainly from adjacent continents, whereas sedimentation in a passive margin basin received detritus from felsic to intermediate rocks of the Yangtze Block. Paleoproterozoic to Mesoproterozoic rift basins in the southwestern Yangtze Block are remarkably similar to those of north Australia and northwestern Laurentia in their lower part (1742-1600 Ma), but significantly different after ca. 1600 Ma. The southwestern Yangtze Block was likely connected with the north Australia and northwestern Laurentia in Columbia but drifted away from these continents after ca. 1600 Ma. Traditionally thought Mesoproterozoic sedimentary sequences in the southeastern Yangtze Block are now confirmed to be Neoproterozoic in age and include the 835-830 Ma Sibao, Fanjingshan and Lengjiaxi groups, and 831-815 Ma Shuangqiaoshan and Xikou groups. These sequences are unconformably overlain by the ~810-730 Ma Danzhou, Xiajiang, Banxi, Heshangzheng, Luokedong and Likou groups. The regional unconformity likely marked the amalgamation between the Yangtze and Cathaysia Blocks and thus occurred at ~815-810 Ma. The lower sequences (835-815 Ma) received dominant Neoproterozoic (~980-820) felsic to intermediate materials in an active tectonic setting related to continental arc and orogenic collision, whereas the upper sequences represent sedimentation in an extensional setting with input of dominant Neoproterozoic granitic to dioritic materials (~740-900 Ma). The upper parts of the Shuangqiaoshan and Xikou groups, uncomfortably underlain by lower units, are molasse-type assemblages with additional input of pre-Neoproterozoic detritus, representing accumulation of sediments in a retro-arc foreland basin associated with the formation of the Jiangnan Orogen. Stratigraphic correlation, similarly low-δ18O and tectonic affinity of igneous rocks from different continents suggest that the Yangtze Block should be placed in the periphery of Rodinia probably adjacent to northern India. Paleoproterozoic (~2480 Ma and ~2000 Ma) and Early Neoproterozoic (711-997 Ma) were the most important periods of crustal and magmatic events of the southeastern Yangtze Block, but there is a lack of significant Grenvillian magmatism. Early Neoproterozoic magmatism highlights the contribution from both juvenile materials and pre-existing old crust, whereas ~2480 Ma and ~2000 Ma events are marked by reworking of pre-existing continental crust. Magmatism at 1600-1900 Ma was dominated by reworking of pre-existing crust, whereas the 1400-1600 Ma magmatic event recorded some addition of juvenile materials.
published_or_final_version
Earth Sciences
Doctoral
Doctor of Philosophy
8

Harris, Charles William. "A sedimentological and structural analysis of the Proterozoic Uncompahgre Group, Needle Mountains, Colorado." Diss., Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1987. http://hdl.handle.net/10919/79644.

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Siliciclastic sediments of the Proterozoic Uncompahgre Group can be subdivided into stratigraphic units of quartzite (Q) and pelite (P); these units include a basal, fining- and thinning-upward retrogradational sequence (Q1-P1) that records the transition from an alluvial to a shallow-marine setting. Overlying the basal sequence are three thickening- and coarsening-upward progradational sequences (P2-Q2, P3-Q3 and P4-Q4) that were influenced by tide-, storm- and wave-processes. The progradational units are subdivided into the following facies associations in a vertical sequence. Outer-to inner-shelf mudstones, Bouma sequence beds and storm beds of association A are succeeded by inner-shelf to shoreface cross-stratified sandstones of association B. Conglomerates and cross-bedded sandstones of upper association B represent alluvial braid-delta deposits. Tidal cross-bedded facies of the inner shelf/shoreface (association C) gradationally overlie association B. Interbedded within the tidal facies in upper association C are single pebble layers or <1 m-thick conglomerate beds and trough cross-bedded pebbly sandstones. Single pebble layers could be due to storm winnowing whereas conglomerates and pebbly sandstones may record shoaling to an alluvial/ shoreface setting. A temporally separated storm/alluvial and tidal shelf model best explains the origin and lateral distribution of facies in the progradational sequences. The presence of smaller progradational increments in the mudstone dominated units (P3) and the recurrence of facies associations in the thick quartzite/conglomerate units (Q2, Q3, Q4) suggests that external cyclic factors controlled sedimentation. A composite relative sea level curve integrating glacio-eustatic oscillations and long-term subsidence may account for the evolution of the thick progradational sequences of the Uncompahgre Group. Sedimentary rocks of the Uncompahgre Group have been subjected to polyphase deformation and greenschist facies metamorphism. Phase 1 structures (localized to the West Needle Mountains) include bedding-parallel deformation zones, F₁ folds and an S₁ cleavage. Phase 2 coaxial deformation resulted in the development of upright, macroscopic F₂ folds and an axial-planar crenulation cleavage, S₂. In addition basement-cover contacts were folded. Phase 3 conjugate shearing generated strike-parallel offset in stratigraphic units, a macroscopic F₃ fold, and an S₃ crenulation cleavage. In addition, oblique-slip, reverse faults were activated along basement-cover contacts. The Uncompahgre Group unconformably overlies and is inferred to be parautochthonous upon ca. 1750 Ma gneissic basement that was subjected to polyphase deformation (DB) and amphibolite facies metamorphism. Basement was intruded by ca. 1690 Ma granitoids. Deformation of gneissic and plutonic basement together with cover (DBC) postdates deposition of the Uncompahgre Group. The structural evolution of the Uncompahgre Group records the transition from a ductile, north-directed, fold-thrust belt to the formation of a basement involved “megamullion" structure which was subjected to conjugate strike-slip faulting to accommodate further shortening. DBC deformation may be analogous to the deep foreland suprastructure of an orogenic belt that developed from ca. 1690 to 1600 Ma in the southwestern U.S.A ..
Ph. D.
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Hill, Robert E. (Robert Einar). "Stratigraphy and sedimentology of the Middle Proterozoic Waterton and Altyn Formations, Belt-Purcell Supergroup, southwest Alberta." Electronic Thesis or Diss., McGill University, 1985. http://digitool.Library.McGill.CA:80/R/?func=dbin-jump-full&object_id=63330.

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Sun, Weihua, and 孙卫华. "The neoproterozoic Yanbian group and associated plutons in the westernYangtze block, SW China." PG_Thesis, The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong), 2009. http://hub.hku.hk/bib/B41897158.

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Книги з теми "Geology, Stratigraphic Proterozoic":

1

Wisconsin--Madison), International Proterozoic Symposium (1981 University of. Proterozoic geology: Selected papers from an International Proterozoic Symposium. Boulder, Colo: Geological Society of America, 1986.

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2

Dawes, Peter R. The Proterozoic Thule Supergroup, Greenland and Canada: History, lithostratigraphy, and development. Copenhagen, Denmark: Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Ministry of Environment and Energy, 1997.

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3

Aitken, James D. Uppermost Proterozoic formations in central Mackenzie Mountains, Northwest Territories. Ottawa, Ont., Canada: Energy, Mines and Resources Canada, 1989.

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4

Greene, Robert C. Stratigraphy of the Late Proterozoic Murdama Group, Saudi Arabia. [Menlo Park, CA: U.S. Geological Survey], 1993.

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5

Frarey, M. J. Proterozoic geology of the Lake Panache-Collins Inlet area, Ontario. Ottawa, Canada: Geological Survey of Canada, 1985.

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6

Blacet, Philip M. Proterozoic geology of the Brady Butte area, Yavapai County, Arizona. [Reston, Va.?]: Dept. of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, 1985.

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7

Sims, P. K. Geology and geochemistry of Early Proterozoic rocks in the Dunbar area, northeastern Wisconsin. Washington: U.S. G.P.O., 1992.

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8

Volkert, Richard A. Geochemistry and stratigraphic relations of Middle Proterozoic rocks of the New Jersey Highlands. Reston, Va: U.S. Geological Survey, 1999.

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9

Blacet, Philip M. Proterozoic geology of the Brady Butte area, Yavapai County, Arizona: A study of the stratigraphy and structure of the Proterozoic stratified and associated intrusive rocks. Washington: U.S. G.P.O., 1985.

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10

Bryant, Bruce. Geology, geochronology, geochemistry, and Pb-isotopic compositions of Proterozoic rocks, Poachie region, west-central Arizona: A study of the east boundary of the Proterozoic Mojave crustal province. [Reston, VA]: U.S. Dept. of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, 2001.

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Частини книг з теми "Geology, Stratigraphic Proterozoic":

1

Young, Grant M. "Earth's Earliest Extensive Glaciations: Tectonic Setting and Stratigraphic Context of Paleoproterozoic Glaciogenic Deposits." In The Extreme Proterozoic: Geology, Geochemistry, and Climate, 161–81. Washington, D. C.: American Geophysical Union, 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/146gm13.

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2

Mitra, Sumit Kumar. "The Lithological, Stratigraphical, Structural Control of Quartzites Hosting Sulphide Mineralisation in the Proterozoic Shillong Group, Meghalaya, India." In The Structural Geology Contribution to the Africa-Eurasia Geology: Basement and Reservoir Structure, Ore Mineralisation and Tectonic Modelling, 49–53. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2018. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-01455-1_11.

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3

LUND, KAREN I., and RUSSELL G. TYSDAL. "Stratigraphic and Structural Setting of Sediment-Hosted Blackbird Gold–Cobalt–Copper Deposits, East-Central Idaho, U.S.A." In Proterozoic Geology of Western North America and Siberia, 129–47. SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology), 2007. http://dx.doi.org/10.2110/pec.07.86.0129.

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4

Datsenko, Liudmyla, and Serhii Kolomiiets. "GROUNDWATERS OF NIKOLSKOHO REGION (DONBASS): GEOLOGY, STRATIGRAPHY, HYDROGEOLOGY, TOPOGRAPHIC AND GEODESIC WORKS." In State, trends and prospects of land sciences, environment, physics, mathematics and statistics’ development (1st. ed). Primedia eLaunch LLC, 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.36074/stplsepmad.ed-1.03.

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Arid regions of the south of Ukraine (Donetsk, Zaporizhia, Kherson regions) are facing an acute shortage of drinking and technical water, which consumption increases from year to year. A clear understanding of the shortage not only drinking water but also water for fish breeding, cultural and recreational needs is worrying the world scientific community. Understanding of hydrogeological, hydrogeochemical processes is important for groundwater protection, especially in arid regions of the world. The study area is located within the central part of the Priazovsk highland. Administratively, it belongs to Nikolsk Region (formerly Volodarsky Region) in Donetsk Region. There are four research periods in geological mapping and study of the Eastern and North-Western Priazovia region. The most important researches of the late last century include medium-size deep geological mapping of the North-Western and Eastern Priazovia, generalization of all geological materials of the previous researchers, obtaining data from stratigraphy, magmatism, tectonics and metallogeny, hydrogeology, which allowed to significantly clarify the geological structure of the region. The only possible centralized water supply source on the most part of the territory may be an aquifer of Proterozoic crystalline rocks. In the south-eastern part of the territory can be used Sarmatian sands, sandstones and limestone horizon, for the aquifer of crystalline rocks, the most water-rich is the tectonic disturbance zone with open fracturing.
5

WINSTON, DON. "Revised Stratigraphy and Depositional History of the Helena and Wallace Formations, Mid-Proterozoic Piegan Group, Belt Supergroup, Montana and Idaho, U.S.A." In Proterozoic Geology of Western North America and Siberia, 65–100. SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology), 2007. http://dx.doi.org/10.2110/pec.07.86.0065.

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6

Smith, Alan L., M. John Roobol, Glen S. Mattioli, George E. Daly, and Joan E. Fryxell. "Providencia Island: A Miocene Stratovolcano on the Lower Nicaraguan Rise, Western Caribbean—A Geological Enigma Resolved." In Providencia Island: A Miocene Stratovolcano on the Lower Nicaraguan Rise, Western Caribbean—A Geological Enigma Resolved, 1–101. Geological Society of America, 2021. http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/2021.1219(01).

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ABSTRACT The Providencia island group comprises an extinct Miocene stratovolcano located on a shallow submarine bank astride the Lower Nicaraguan Rise in the western Caribbean. We report here on the geology, geochemistry, petrology, and isotopic ages of the rocks within the Providencia island group, using newly collected as well as previously published results to unravel the complex history of Providencia. The volcano is made up of eight stratigraphic units, including three major units: (1) the Mafic unit, (2) the Breccia unit, (3) the Felsic unit, and five minor units: (4) the Trachyandesite unit, (5) the Conglomerate unit, (6) the Pumice unit, (7) the Intrusive unit, and (8) the Limestone unit. The Mafic unit is the oldest and forms the foundation of the island, consisting of both subaerial and subaqueous lava flows and pyroclastic deposits of alkali basalt and trachybasalt. Overlying the Mafic unit, there is a thin, minor unit of trachyandesite lava flows (Trachyandesite unit). The Breccia unit unconformably overlies the older rocks and consists of crudely stratified breccias (block flows/block-and-ash flows) of vitrophyric dacite, which represent subaerial near-vent facies formed by gravitational and/or explosive dome collapse. The breccias commonly contain clasts of alkali basalt, indicating the nature of the underlying substrate. The Felsic unit comprises the central part of the island, composed of rhyolite lava flows and domes, separated from the rocks of the Breccia unit by a flat-lying unconformity. Following a quiescent period, limited felsic pyroclastic activity produced minor valley-fill ignimbrites (Pumice unit). The rocks of Providencia can be geochemically and stratigraphically subdivided into an older alkaline suite of alkali basalts, trachybasalts, and trachyandesites, and a younger subalkaline suite composed dominantly of dacites and rhyolites. Isotopically, the alkali basalts together with the proposed tholeiitic parent magmas for the dacites and rhyolites indicate an origin by varying degrees of partial melting of a metasomatized ocean-island basalt–type mantle that had been modified by interaction with the Galapagos plume. The dacites are the only phenocryst-rich rocks on the island and have a very small compositional range. We infer that they formed by the mixing of basalt and rhyolite magmas in a lower oceanic crustal “hot zone.” The rhyolites of the Felsic unit, as well as the rhyolitic magmas contributing to dacite formation, are interpreted as being the products of partial melting of the thickened lower oceanic crust beneath Providencia. U-Pb dating of zircons in the Providencia volcanic rocks has yielded Oligocene and Miocene ages, corresponding to the ages of the volcanism. In addition, some zircon crystals in the same rocks have yielded both Proterozoic and Paleozoic ages ranging between 1661 and 454 Ma. The lack of any evidence of continental crust beneath Providencia suggests that these old zircons are xenocrysts from the upper mantle beneath the Lower Nicaraguan Rise. A comparison of the volcanic rocks from Providencia with similar rocks that comprise the Western Caribbean alkaline province indicates that while the Providencia alkaline suite is similar to other alkaline suites previously defined within this province, the Providencia subalkaline suite is unique, having no equivalent rocks within the Western Caribbean alkaline province.
7

Şengör, A. M. C. "Eduard Suess on graptolites: His very first scientific paper and illustrations." In The Evolution of Paleontological Art. Geological Society of America, 2021. http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/2021.1218(09).

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ABSTRACT The very first scientific paper by Eduard Suess (1831–1914) treats the graptolites of Bohemia in the present-day Czech Republic (in the Upper Proterozoic to Middle Devonian “Barrandian” extending between Prague and Plzeň). This paper is accompanied by superb drawings of his observations in which Suess took great care not to insert himself between Nature as he perceived it in the framework of the knowledge of his day and his readers. His only limitation was the one imposed by the size of his study objects. His technological means did not allow him to see what we today consider the “right” picture. Nevertheless, we can see what he saw and interpret it through a modern lens of understanding. In his drawings, Suess exercised what the great German geologist Hans Cloos later called “the art of leaving out.” This meant that in the drawings, the parts not relevant to the discussion are left only in outline, whereas parts he wished to highlight are brought to the fore by careful shading. Even the parts left only in outline are not schematic, however; instead they are careful reconstructions true to Nature as much as the material and his technological aids allowed. This characteristic of Suess’ illustrations is seen also in his later field sketches concerning stratigraphy and structural geology and in his depiction of the large tectonic features of our globe representing a window into his manner of thinking.
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Boniface, Nelson, and Tatsuki Tsujimori. "New tectonic model and division of the Ubendian-Usagaran Belt, Tanzania: A review and in-situ dating of eclogites." In Plate Tectonics, Ophiolites, and Societal Significance of Geology: A Celebration of the Career of Eldridge Moores. Geological Society of America, 2021. http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/2021.2552(08).

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ABSTRACT Records of high-pressure/low-temperature (HP-LT) metamorphic interfaces are not common in Precambrian orogens. It should be noted that the association of HP-LT metamorphic interfaces and strongly deformed ocean plate stratigraphy that form accretionary prisms between trenches and magmatic arcs are recognized as hallmark signatures of modern plate tectonics. In East Africa (Tanzania), the Paleoproterozoic Ubendian-Usagaran Belt records a HP-LT metamorphic interface that we consider as a centerpiece in reviewing the description of tectonic units of the Ubendian-Usagaran Belt and defining a new tectonic model. Our new U-Pb zircon age and the interpretations from existing data reveal an age between 1920 and 1890 Ma from the kyanite bearing eclogites. This establishment adds to the information of already known HP-LT metamorphic events at 2000 Ma, 1890–1860 Ma, and 590–520 Ma from the Ubendian-Usagaran Belt. Arc–back-arc signatures from eclogites imply that their mafic protoliths were probably eroded from arc basalt above a subduction zone and were channeled into a subduction zone as mélanges and got metamorphosed. The Ubendian-Usagaran events also record rifting, arc and back-arc magmatism, collisional, and hydrothermal events that preceded or followed HP-LT tectonic events. Our new tectonic subdivision of the Ubendian Belt is described as: (1) the western Ubendian Corridor, mainly composed of two Proterozoic suture zones (subduction at 2000, 1920–1890, Ma and 590–500 Ma) in the Ufipa and Nyika Terranes; (2) the central Ubendian Corridor, predominated by metamorphosed mafic-ultramafic rocks in the Ubende, Mbozi, and Upangwa Terranes that include the 1890–1860 Ma eclogites with mid-ocean ridge basalt affinity in the Ubende Terrane; and (3) the eastern Ubendian Corridor (the Katuma and Lupa Terranes), characterized by reworked Archean crust.

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