Добірка наукової літератури з теми "Germ cells"

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Статті в журналах з теми "Germ cells":

1

Kerr, Candace, John Gearhart, Aaron Elliott, and Peter Donovan. "Embryonic Germ Cells: When Germ Cells Become Stem Cells." Seminars in Reproductive Medicine 24, no. 5 (November 2006): 304–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2006-952152.

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2

Wylie, Chris. "Germ Cells." Cell 96, no. 2 (January 1999): 165–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0092-8674(00)80557-7.

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3

Wylie, Chris. "Germ cells." Current Opinion in Genetics & Development 10, no. 4 (August 2000): 410–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0959-437x(00)00105-2.

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4

Rossant, Janet. "Immortal germ cells?" Current Biology 3, no. 1 (January 1993): 47–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0960-9822(93)90148-h.

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5

Xu, HongYan, MingYou Li, JianFang Gui, and YunHan Hong. "Fish germ cells." Science China Life Sciences 53, no. 4 (April 2010): 435–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11427-010-0058-8.

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6

Wylie, Chris. "Introduction: Germ cells." Seminars in Developmental Biology 4, no. 3 (June 1993): 147–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/sedb.1993.1017.

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7

Eppig, John, and Mary Ann Handel. "Germ Cells from Stem Cells." Biology of Reproduction 79, no. 1 (July 2008): 172–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod.108.070789.

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8

M, Yang. "In Vitro Germ Line Differentiation from Pluripotent Stem Cells." Journal of Embryology & Stem Cell Research 3, no. 2 (2019): 1–3. http://dx.doi.org/10.23880/jes-16000126.

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9

Stewart, Colin L., Inder Gadi, and Harshida Bhatt. "Stem Cells from Primordial Germ Cells Can Reenter the Germ Line." Developmental Biology 161, no. 2 (February 1994): 626–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/dbio.1994.1058.

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10

Zhangab, Rong, Wancun Chang, and Jian-Yong Han. "Culture of Rabbit Embryonic Germ Cells Derived from Primordial Germ Cells." Journal of Applied Animal Research 26, no. 2 (December 2004): 61–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09712119.2004.9706509.

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Дисертації з теми "Germ cells":

1

Hajkova, Petra. "Epigenetic reprogramming in mouse germ cells." [S.l. : s.n.], 2002. http://deposit.ddb.de/cgi-bin/dokserv?idn=970526938.

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2

Hajkova, Petra. "Epigenetic reprogramming in mouse germ cells." DoctoralThesis, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät I, 2004. http://dx.doi.org/10.18452/15020.

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Bei Säugerkeimzellen, Zygoten und Embryos in frühen Stadien kommt der epigenetischen Neuprogammierung eine außergewöhnlich wichtige Rolle in der Regulation der Genomfunktionen in entscheidenden Entwicklungsstadien zu. Die epigenetische Neuprogrammierung in Keimzellen löscht zuerst die Imprinting-Markierungen und Epi-Mutationen und stellt dann geschlechtsspezifische Markierungen (genomische Prägung) wieder her. Die vorliegende Arbeit bezieht sich auf das Löschen epigenetischer Modifikationen in primordialen Mauskeimzellen (primordial germ cells (PGCs)) zwischen dem 10.5 bis 13.5 Tag nach der Befruchtung. Entgegen früheren Annahmen zeigen unsere Ergebnisse, daß primordiale Mauskeimzellen (PGCs) beim Eintritt in die embryonalen Keimdrüsen noch immer DNS Methylierungsmarker besitzen, die ähnlich dem Marker in somatischen Zellen sind. Kurz nach dem Eintritt in die Keimdrüsen werden die DNS Methylierungsmarker, die in Verbindung mit geprägten und nicht geprägten Genen stehen, gelöscht. Für die Mehrzahl der Gene beginnt die Löschung der Marker in männlichen und weiblichen Embryos gleichzeitig und ist innerhalb eines Entwicklungstages abgeschlossen. Diese Kinetik deutet auf einen aktiven Demethylierungsprozess hin, initiiert durch ein somatisches Signal, ausgehend von der embryonalen Keimdrüse. Der Zeitpunkt der Neuprogrammierung in den primordialen Keimzellen ist entscheidend, da er sicherstellt, daß Keimzellen beiden Geschlechts einen epigenetisch äquivalenten Status erhalten, bevor sie geschlechtsspezifisch ausdifferenzieren und anschließend neu elterlich geprägt werden. Vollständiges Verständnis des Prozesses der Neuprogrammierung der Keimzellen ist nicht nur im Hinblick auf genomisches Imprinting wichtig, sondern auch für die Erforschung von Mechanismen für die Wiederherstellung von omnipotenten Zellen bei Klonierung und Stammzellenerhaltung.
Epigenetic reprogramming in mammalian germ cells, zygote and early embryos, plays a crucial role in regulating genome functions at critical stages of development. Germ line epigenetic reprogramming assures erasure of all the imprinting marks and epi-mutations and establishment of new sex-specific gametic imprints. The presented work focuses on the erasure of epigenetic modifications that occur in mouse primordial germ cells (PGCs) between day 10.5 to 13.5 post coitum (dpc). Contrary to previous assumptions, our results show that as they enter the genital ridge the PGCs still possess DNA methylation marks comparable to those found in somatic cells. Shortly after the entry of PGCs into the gonadal anlagen the DNA methylation marks associated with imprinted and non-imprinted genes are erased. For most genes the erasure commences simultaneously in PGCs of both male and female embryos and is completed within only one day of development. The kinetics of this process indicates that is an active demethylation process initiated by a somatic signal emanating from the stroma of the genital ridge. The timing of reprogramming in PGCs is crucial since it ensures that germ cells of both sexes acquire an equivalent epigenetic state prior to the differentiation of the definitive male and female germ cells in which, new parental imprints are established subsequently. Complete understanding of the germline reprogramming processes is important not only in the light of genomic imprinting but also for resolving other mechanisms connected with restoring cellular totipotency, such as cloning and stem cell derivation.
3

Ono, Tetsuo. "Novel preservation method of germ cells and somatic cells." DAM, Kyoto University, 2010. http://hdl.handle.net/2433/120542.

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4

Camacho, Moll Maria Elena. "Germ cell neoplasia in situ (GCNIS) and the pathogenesis of testicular germ cell cancer." Electronic Thesis or Diss., University of Edinburgh, 2017. http://hdl.handle.net/1842/28807.

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Testicular germ cell cancer (TGCC) has been increasing in incidence over recent decades, and is currently the most common malignancy amongst young men resulting in significant morbidity. These tumours are believed to arise from premalignant germ cell neoplasia in situ (GCNIS) cells, which originate from the aberrant germ cell differentiation from gonocyte to spermatogonia during fetal/early postnatal life. GCNIS cells remain dormant in the testis until puberty when they are activated to become tumours. Therefore, GCNIS cells remain in a pre-invasive stage during early childhood and early adulthood prior to the development of a seminoma or non-seminoma TGCC. GCNIS cells are phenotypically similar to gonocytes with expression of stem cell/early germ cell markers including OCT4, PLAP and LIN28. Furthermore, proteins which are expressed in more mature germ cells (spermatogonia) such as MAGE-A4 have also been shown to be expressed in GCNIS cells and these studies have indicated that GCNIS cells are a heterogeneous population in terms of protein expression profile. The relationship between the protein expression profile of individual GCNIS cells populations and their oncogenic potential has not been fully explored. GCNIS cells are located in the seminiferous tubules supported by somatic Sertoli cells. These cells have been previously reported to exhibit an immature protein expression profile in GCNIS tubules from patients with testis cancer, suggesting that the germ stem cell niche in GCNIS tubules resembles that of a fetal one. Associations between Sertoli cell maturation and GCNIS progression into tumour formation has not been fully investigated. Oncogenes are key players in the regulation of oncogenic potential of cancer cells. Gankyrin is an oncogene that has been shown to down-regulate OCT4, and interact with MAGE-A4 in hepatocellular carcinoma and colorectal cancer, where Gankyrin interaction with MAGE-A4 reduces the oncogenic potential of tumour cells. In this study I aimed to investigate the heterogeneity of GCNIS in relation to disease stage and Sertoli cell development. We also aimed to determine the role of Gankyrin in TGCC cell survival and invasion. The co-expression of early germ cells proteins such as OCT4, LIN28 and PLAP was characterized in GCNIS cells during childhood and adulthood pre-invasive TGCC and in invasive disease characterized by the presence of a testicular tumour. These results show that LIN28 was expressed in 95% of OCT4 GCNIS cells, whereas PLAP expression in GCNIS cells increased as the disease progressed from childhood pre-invasive disease to invasive seminoma (32.3% v 76%; p < 0.05). In contrast there was a reduction in the proportion of MAGE-A4 expressing GCNIS cells with disease progression. The MAGE-A4 expressing population was also less proliferative than the MAGE-A4 negative GCNIS population. The methylation status of GCNIS cells was then investigated. EZH2 a methyltransferase previously reported to be important for TGCC development, was expressed in GCNIS cells at all stages of disease, however the histone 3 modification H3K27me3 (mediated by EZH2) was expressed in a significantly higher percentage of the proliferative OCT4+/MAGE-A4- GCNIS cells compared with the OCT4+/MAGEA4+ population (11.7% v 1.1%; p < 0.01) which could indicate a repressive role for H3K27me3 over MAGE-A4 expression. Next, it was determined whether an association between Sertoli cell maturation status and progression of TGCC could be observed. The maturation status of Sertoli cells was studied using proteins indicative of immature (desmin, cytokeratin, fibronectin and AMH) and mature (vimentin and androgen receptor) Sertoli cells. These studies demonstrated heterogeneity of Sertoli cells maturation in GCNIS-containing tubules. Desmin, fibronectin, AMH and vimentin expression did not show any association with TGCC progression. Cytokeratin was expressed in Sertoli cells of human fetal testis up to second trimester of fetal life, absent in tubules with active spermatogenesis but heterogeneously present in GCNIS, demonstrating that cytokeratin expression is indicative of the presence of GCNIS. Androgen receptor was weakly present in Sertoli cells from human fetal testis and pre-pubertal pre-invasive TGCC testis whereas in GCNIS of adult pre-invasive testis and invasive samples, androgen receptor was abundantly expressed in Sertoli cells of GCNIS-containing tubules. These combined results for cytokeratin and androgen receptor suggest that Sertoli cells from GCNIS-containing tubules, in pre-invasive and invasive TGCC patients are partially differentiated. Gankyrin expression was characterised in fetal germ cells, GCNIS cells and TGCC tissue. In fetal testis nuclear Gankyrin was absent in OCT4+/MAGE-A4- (gonocyte) population whereas it was present in a subpopulation of OCT4-/MAGE-A4+ (spermatogonia) germ cells. In GCNIS cells from TGCC patients nuclear Gankyrin was expressed in 87%, 63.3%, 91.5% and 79% in childhood pre-invasive, adult pre-invasive, seminoma and non-seminoma GCNIS cells respectively. Finally, in seminoma cells, Gankyrin was expressed in the cytoplasm indicating a change in localisation as the GCNIS cells become invasive. We used siRNA to knockdown Gankyrin in NT2 (a TGCC cell line) cells in-vitro and demonstrated a decrease in cell number, suggesting that Gankyrin might play a role in TGCC progression and invasiveness. Gankyrin down-regulation also resulted in an increase in p53 and p21 mRNA level. Given the role of P53 and p21 in cisplatin cytotoxic effect in TGCC we went on to investigate the role of Gankyrin in cisplatin resistance using NT2 cells. We demonstrate that Gankyrin mediated cisplatin resistance through the p53/p21 pathway, upregulating apoptosis rates through BAX and FAS, whilst there was no effect on cell proliferation, cell cycle or cell migration. In conclusion, we have shown that GCNIS cells are heterogeneous and their phenotype can determine their oncogenic potential. We also show that Sertoli cells from GCNIS-containing tubules undergo partial differentiation displaying markers of immature and mature Sertoli cells, with a heterogeneous association of cytokeratin with GCNIS presence. We also demonstrate that the oncogene Gankyrin has a role in NT2 cells survival and cisplatin resistance indicating that manipulation of Gankyrin may have a role in the treatment of TGCC.
5

Cowan, Gillian. "Fetal germ cell differentiation and the impact of the somatic cells." Electronic Thesis or Diss., University of Edinburgh, 2009. http://hdl.handle.net/1842/4164.

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Specification of a germ cell lineage and appropriate maturation are essential for the transfer of genetic information from one generation to the next. Germ cells form from pluripotent precursor cells that migrate into the gonadal ridge and undergo commitment to either the female or male lineage. In the fetal ovary, germ cells enter meiotic prophase I, then arrest at the diplotene stage; in the testis germ cells do not begin meiosis until puberty. Abnormal differentiation of germ cells can result in malignant transformation. Somatic cells play a key role in modulating the developmental fate of the germ cells. Research into germ cell development during fetal life has almost exclusively focused on studies in rodents, but we, and others, have reported several fundamental differences in the expression of germ cell specific markers in the human compared with the mouse. The studies described in this thesis have investigated germ cell-specific gene expression and the possible impact of the somatic cells during development. This was achieved by studying human fetal gonads obtained during the 1st and 2nd trimesters of pregnancy and through the use of both wild-type and mutant mouse ES cell lines. Studies on germ cells in the human fetal testis have extended the findings of others, and confirmed that germ cell populations at different stages of maturation co-exist in the human fetal testis, a situation that is in contrast to that in rodents. For example expression of M2A and AP2γ was restricted to the OCT4-positive gonocyte population, while VASA and NANOS1 were localised exclusively to the to the OCT4-negative prespermatogonia. DAZL was expressed in both populations. Analysis also revealed that both the gonocyte and prespermatogonial populations proliferate throughout the 2nd trimester. Recent studies have implicated retinoic acid (RA) in the control of meiotic entry in germ cells of the fetal mouse ovary. In this study we demonstrated for the first time that two genes implicated in the action of RA in mouse gonad, STRA8 and NANOS2, are also expressed in a similar sexspecific- manner in the human fetal gonads, and that the RA receptors are present in both somatic and germ cells suggesting that RA may regulate germ cell function in the human as well as the mouse. However, whilst the mesonephros appears to be the primary site of RA synthesis in the mouse our initial studies indicate that in the human the gonad itself may be a more likely site of RA biosynthesis. In the fetal mouse testis, RA is degraded by the enzyme Cyp26b1 present in the somatic cells and germ cells do not enter meiosis, our novel findings suggest that CYP26B1 is more abundant in the human fetal ovary than the testis, suggesting that meiotic entry may be controlled by an alternative signalling pathway in the human. One of the methods that can aid our understanding of somatic cell gene expression in the gonad is in vitro culture. To date, there have been no published reports of the successful in vitro culture of somatic cells from the human fetal testis. In the current study, populations of human somatic cells were dissociated and maintained in vitro and characterised. Analysis demonstrated that cells expressing mRNAs characteristic of Sertoli cells, Leydig cells and peritubular myoid (PTM) cells were present initially, but long-term culture resulted in downregulation in expression of mRNAs specific for Sertoli cells and Leydig cells, suggesting that these cells either failed to survive or underwent alterations to their phenotype. In contrast PTM/fibroblast cells proliferated in vitro and initially maintained androgen receptor expression. These cultures therefore hold promise for studies into the signalling or cell-cell interactions in testicular somatic cells especially those relevant to the PTM population. Several studies have claimed differentiation of putative germ cells from ES cells. In the current study, analysis of mouse ES cell lines has expanded on results showing that ES cells and early germ cells express a number of genes in common. Kit signalling was shown to be important for ES cell survival as they differentiate although expression of Kit was heterogeneous. We also demonstrated that ES cells that did not express Kit displayed a decreased expression of the early germ cell genes Blimp1, Fragilis and Stella, implicating Kit signalling in the control of germ cell-associated gene expression in ES cells. This may be important to future studies optimising germ cell derivation from ES cells. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated important differences in protein expression patterns in germ cells of the human fetal testis compared to the mouse, and has raised questions about whether the proposed mechanism controlling meiotic entry of germ cells in the mouse can be applied to the human. The establishment of a system for culturing human fetal gonadal somatic cells may lead to further understanding of gene expression and development in the human fetal testis, and data suggest that the Kit/Kitl signalling system may influence germ cell gene expression in mouse ES cells.
6

Al-Thani, Rawda. "Primordial germ cells of the chick embryo." Electronic Thesis or Diss., University of Reading, 1992. http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.315524.

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7

Li, Ying. "Transgenic birds from transformed primordial germ cells." Electronic Thesis or Diss., University of Reading, 1994. http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.385118.

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8

Yoon, Christina Migyung 1970. "Idenficiation of the zebrafish primordial germ cells." Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1997. http://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/43551.

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9

Somers, Christopher Michael Quinn James S. "Germline mutations at expanded simple tandem repeat DNA loci in sentinel mice /." *McMaster only, 2004.

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10

Leitch, Harry Gordon. "Pluripotency and the germline." Electronic Thesis or Diss., University of Cambridge, 2012. http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.610336.

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Книги з теми "Germ cells":

1

Sassone-Corsi, Paolo, Margaret T. Fuller, and Robert Braun. Germ cells. Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 2011.

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2

Jacobsen, G. Krag. Atlas of germ cells tumours. Copenhagen: Munksgaard, 1989.

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3

Raghavan, Derek. Germ cell tumors. Hamilton [Ont.]: BC Decker, 2003.

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4

Dadoune, Jean-Pierre. Histoire ordinaire et extraordinaire des cellules sexuelles. Paris: Hermann, 2011.

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5

Orwig, Kyle E. Male germline stem cells: Developmental regenerative potential. New York: Humana Press, 2011.

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6

Germ, Cell Tumour Conference (4th 1997 Leeds England). Germ cell tumours IV: The proceedings of the fourth Germ Cell Tumour Conference, Leeds, November 1997. London: John Libbey, 1998.

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7

Symposium, on the Molecular and Cellular Biology of Fertilization (1984 University of California Davis). The molecular and cellular biology of fertilization. New York: Plenum Press, 1986.

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8

Goldstein, L. S. Radiation-induced germ cell mutations-- their detection and modification. Washington, DC: Defense Nuclear Agency, 1987.

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9

Goldstein, L. S. Radiation-induced germ cell mutations-- their detection and modification. Washington, DC: Defense Nuclear Agency, 1987.

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10

Goldstein, L. S. Radiation-induced germ cell mutations-- their detection and modification. Washington, DC: Defense Nuclear Agency, 1987.

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Частини книг з теми "Germ cells":

1

Wu, Ji, Zhuxia Zheng, Hu Wang, Xingxing Mei, Xingbao Ding, and Xiaoyong Li. "Primordial Germ Cells and Germ Line Stem Cells." In Translational Medicine Research, 3–28. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-7273-0_1.

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2

Timson, David J., Richard J. Reece, James B. Thoden, Hazel M. Holden, Andrea L. Utz, Beverly M. K. Biller, Eugen-Matthias Strehle, et al. "Germ Cells Aplasia." In Encyclopedia of Molecular Mechanisms of Disease, 696. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2009. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-29676-8_6809.

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3

Nagano, Makoto C. "Germ Line Stem Cells." In Stem Cells in Endocrinology, 23–47. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, 2005. http://dx.doi.org/10.1385/1-59259-900-1:023.

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4

Labosky, Patricia A., and Brigid L. M. Hogan. "Mouse Primordial Germ Cells." In METHODS IN MOLECULAR BIOLOGY™, 187–99. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, 2008. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-60327-483-8_12.

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5

Tagami, Takahiro, Daichi Miyahara, and Yoshiaki Nakamura. "Avian Primordial Germ Cells." In Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 1–18. Singapore: Springer Singapore, 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-3975-1_1.

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6

McLaren, Anne. "Primordial Germ Cells in Mammals." In Organization of the Early Vertebrate Embryo, 1–9. Boston, MA: Springer US, 1995. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4899-1618-1_1.

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7

Chang, M. C. "Fertilizability of Rabbit Germ Cells." In Ciba Foundation Symposium - Mammalian Germ Cells, 226–42. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., 2008. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470718841.ch20.

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8

Popescu, P., Y. Rumpler, O. Gabriel-Robez, F. J. Ectors, and L. Koulischer. "Methods of Germ Cells Study." In Techniques in Animal Cytogenetics, 85–102. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2000. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-59711-4_4.

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9

Gupta, Mukesh Kumar, and Hoon Taek Lee. "Differences Between Germ-Line Stem Cells and Multipotent Adult Germ-Line Stem Cells for MicroRNAs." In Stem Cells and Cancer Stem Cells, Volume 6, 113–29. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-2993-3_11.

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10

Lee, Tin-Lap, Albert Hoi-Hung Cheung, Owen M. Rennert, and Wai-Yee Chan. "RNA Expression in Male Germ Cells During Spermatogenesis (Male Germ Cell Transcriptome)." In Sperm Chromatin, 107–21. New York, NY: Springer New York, 2011. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-6857-9_8.

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Тези доповідей конференцій з теми "Germ cells":

1

"Germ Line Chimera Production: Inspection Donor Primordial Germ Cells Transferred to Recipient Embryos." In Technology Innovations and Collaborations in Livestock Production for Sustainable Food Systems. IAARD Press, 2021. http://dx.doi.org/10.14334/proc.intsem.lpvt-2021-p.20.

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2

Ogneva, Irina V., and Yuliya S. Zhdankina. "Mathematical model of the germ cells’ mechanoreception." In XLIV ACADEMIC SPACE CONFERENCE: dedicated to the memory of academician S.P. Korolev and other outstanding Russian scientists – Pioneers of space exploration. AIP Publishing, 2021. http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0035746.

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3

Hua, Jinlian, and Zhongying Dou. "Insulin-secreting cells differentiation derived from human embryonic germ cells." In 2010 3rd International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Informatics (BMEI). IEEE, 2010. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/bmei.2010.5640541.

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4

Varghese, Shyni, Paranduangji Theprungsirikul, Angela Ferran, Nathaniel Hwang, Adam Canver, and Jennifer Elisseeff. "Chondrogenic differentiation of human embryonic germ cell derived cells in hydrogels." In Conference Proceedings. Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE, 2006. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/iembs.2006.4397989.

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5

Varghese, Shyni, Paranduangji Theprungsirikul, Angela Ferran, Nathaniel Hwang, Adam Canver, and Jennifer Elisseeff. "Chondrogenic differentiation of human embryonic germ cell derived cells in hydrogels." In Conference Proceedings. Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE, 2006. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/iembs.2006.259710.

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6

Schmidtová, S., K. Gerčáková, K. Kaláavská, M. Mego, and L. Kučerová. "PO-478 Chemosensitization of cisplatin-resistant testicular germ cell tumours cells." In Abstracts of the 25th Biennial Congress of the European Association for Cancer Research, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 30 June – 3 July 2018. BMJ Publishing Group Ltd, 2018. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/esmoopen-2018-eacr25.497.

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7

Looijenga, Leendert H. J., Hendrik Wermann, Ad Gillis, Friedemann Honecker, Ole Ammerpohl, Julie Richter, Wolter Oosterhuis, and Carsten Bokemeyer. "Abstract LB-67: Global DNA methylation in fetal human germ cells and germ cell tumors: correlation with differentiation and cisplatin resistance." In Proceedings: AACR 101st Annual Meeting 2010‐‐ Apr 17‐21, 2010; Washington, DC. American Association for Cancer Research, 2010. http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1538-7445.am10-lb-67.

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8

Morita, Ritsuko, Kazuhisa Nakao, Miho Ogawa, Yasumitsu Saji, Kentaro Ishida, and Takashi Tsuji. "Pluripotent stem cells developed into regenerated tooth by organ germ method in combination with tooth germ-derived epithelium." In 2007 International Symposium on Micro-NanoMechatronics and Human Science. IEEE, 2007. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/mhs.2007.4420853.

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9

Papa, J. P., M. E. M. Gutierrez, R. Y. M. Nakamura, L. P. Papa, I. B. F. Vicentini, and C. A. Vicentini. "Automatic classification of fish germ cells through optimum-path forest." In 2011 33rd Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE, 2011. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/iembs.2011.6091259.

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10

Veena, P. "Single centre experience of ovarian germ cell tumours over 8 years." In 16th Annual International Conference RGCON. Thieme Medical and Scientific Publishers Private Ltd., 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-1685316.

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Introduction: Germ cell tumours comprise approximately 15-20% of all ovarian tumours. Two third of ovarian tumours in first two decades of life are germ cell tumours. Majority of ovarian germ cell tumours are benign teratomas. The malignant germ cell tumours are usually solid and arise from totipotent germ cells. Over the past 3 decades the clinical outcome of women with ovarian germ cell tumours (OGCT) have significantly improved mainly due to development of more effective chemotherapy regimens. Objective: To study the clinic pathological features, treatment and survival of women with ovarian germ cell tumours. Methods: This is a retrospective descriptive study taken from the case files of patients with histo-pathologically proven ovarian germ cell tumours who were treated in JIPMER over 8 years from 2007 to 2014. Results: There were totally 63 patients with ovarian germ cell tumours over 8 years who were treated in JIPMER. The age at presentation varies from 12 years to 65 years with a median age of 26.5 years. Three were pre pubertal and 1 was post-menopausal. Twenty two women (34%) were unmarried and 5 were pregnant at the time of presentation. Forty eight (76%) of them did not have any menstrual abnormalities. Pain abdomen (55%) was the most common presentation. Ten of them presented with acute abdomen of which 8 were torsion, 1 was ruptured dermoid and 1 was infected dermoid. Another 6 patients had torsion which was diagnosed only during surgery. Majority (68%) were benign tumours (dermoid) and among malignant tumours, there were 6 dysgerminomas, 5 immature teratomas, 5 mixed germ cell tumours and 4 yolk sac tumours. Almost half (22 out of 43) of women with benign tumours were <25 years whereas 3/4th (14 out of 20) of women with malignant germ cell tumours were <25 years. The most common tumour marker which was elevated was alpha feto protein (8) followed by LDH (5). Fertility sparing surgery (salpingo-ovariotomy) was commonly performed which was 95% (41/43) in benign tumours and 60% (8/20) in malignant tumours. Contra lateral ovary was biopsied in only 5 patients with suspected involvement (negative on final HPR). Out of 20 women with malignant ovarian tumours 7 were in advanced stage (Stage III). Majority of them recovered well from surgery, only 12% had post-operative febrile morbidity and one patient had subclavian vein thrombosis on post op D9 which required anticoagulants. 7 of 20 women received chemotherapy (BEP) for 4 cycles. No serious side effects of chemotherapy were noted in these women. 3 out of 20 women with malignant germ cell tumour were lost to follow up. No recurrences have been found in rest of the women and there are no deaths till last follow up. Conclusion: Advances in the field of medicine like effective chemotherapy regimens, improved imaging, precise surgical staging and fertility sparing surgical procedures enable women not only to preserve the reproductive function but also to improve their quality of life.

Звіти організацій з теми "Germ cells":

1

Petitte, James, Hefzibah Eyal-Giladi, and Malka Ginsburg. The Study of Primordial Germ Cell Development as a Tool for Gene Transfer in Chickens. United States Department of Agriculture, October 1991. http://dx.doi.org/10.32747/1991.7561071.bard.

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The ability to introduce novel genetic material into the genome of commercial poultry has been impeded by a lack of kowledge regarding the origin in the early embryo of the target cell of interest, namely, the germ cell. Hence, this project investigated the emergence of primordial germ cells (PGCs) during the early development of the avian embryo to aid in efforts to produce transgenic poultry on a routine basis. The strategy was to introduce foreign DNA into the area of the unincubated embryo that is destined to give rise to the germ line. The objectives of this project were: 1) to identify and localize a subpopulation of cells in the early embryo which will give rise to PGCs, 2) to determine the best location and stage of development to transfer donor cells for efficient germline chimerism, and 3) to transfect donor cells to produce transgenic/germline chimeric embryos. We show that by using the monoclonal antibody SSEA-1 and by various cell culture techniques that germ cells appear to segregate from the somatic lineages at St. X., a process that is gradual and continues through St. XIV. Using microsurgical transplantation between quail and chick embryos, we demonstrated that the inner 1/3 of the area pellucida between states X-XII gives rise to about 2/3 of the germ cell population at the time of their residence in the germinal crescent. Because of the non-localized emergence of PGCs, attempts to introduce foreign DNA into clonal precursors of germ cells through liposome-mediated transfection yielded unacceptable levels of efficiency. However, through our investigation of germ cell origins, an in vitro model of germ cell differentiation was developed that could offer a means of determining the factors required for the long term culture of avian PGCs thereby providing a convenient means of manipulating the avian genome.
2

Braydich-Stolle, Laura K., Saber Hussain, John J. Schlager, and Marie-Claude Hofmann. Effect of Silver Nanoparticles on SRC Activity in Male Germ-line Stem Cells. Fort Belvoir, VA: Defense Technical Information Center, March 2006. http://dx.doi.org/10.21236/ada444778.

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3

Shani, Moshe, and C. P. Emerson. Genetic Manipulation of the Adipose Tissue via Transgenesis. United States Department of Agriculture, April 1995. http://dx.doi.org/10.32747/1995.7604929.bard.

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The long term goal of this study was to reduce caloric and fat content of beef and other red meats by means of genetic modification of the animal such that fat would not be accumulated. This was attempted by introducing into the germ line myogenic regulatory genes that would convert fat tissue to skeletal muscle. We first determined the consequences of ectopic expression of the myogenic regulatory gene MyoD1. It was found that deregulation of MyoD1 did not result in ectopic skeletal muscle formation but rather led to embryonic lethalities, probably due to its role in the control of the cell cycle. This indicated that MyoD1 should be placed under stringent control to allow survival. Embryonic lethalities were also observed when the regulatory elements of the adipose-specific gene adipsin directed the expression of MyoD1 or myogenin cDNAs, suggesting that these sequences are probably not strong enough to confer tissue specificity. To determine the specificity of the control elements of another fat specific gene (adipocyte protein 2-aP2), we fused them to the bacterial b-galactosidase reporter gene and established stable transgenic strains. The expression of the reporter gene in none of the strains was adipose specific. Each strain displayed a unique pattern of expression in various cell lineages. Most exciting results were obtained in a transgenic strain in which cells migrating from the ventro-lateral edge of the dermomyotome of developing somites to populate the limb buds with myoblasts were specifically stained for lacZ. Since the control sequences of the adipsin or aP2 genes did not confer fat specificity in transgenic mice we have taken both molecular and genetic approaches as an initial effort to identify genes important in the conversion of a multipotential cell such as C3H10T1/2 cell to adipoblast. Several novel adipocyte cell lines have been established that differ in the expression of transcription factors of the C/EBP family known to be markers for adipocyte differentiation. These studies revealed that one of the genetic programming changes which occur during 10T1/2 conversion from multipotential cell to a committed adipoblast is the ability to linduce C/EBPa gene expression. It is expected that further analysis of this gene would identify elements which regulate this lineage-specific expression. Such elements might be good candidates in future attempts to convert adipoblasts to skeletal muscle cells in vivo.
4

Elroy-Stein, Orna, and Dmitry Belostotsky. Mechanism of Internal Initiation of Translation in Plants. United States Department of Agriculture, December 2010. http://dx.doi.org/10.32747/2010.7696518.bard.

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Original objectives Elucidation of PABP's role in crTMV148 IRES function in-vitro using wheat germ extract and krebs-2 cells extract. Fully achieved. Elucidation of PABP's role in crTMV148 IRES function in-vivo in Arabidopsis. Characterization of the physical interactions of PABP and other potential ITAFs with crTMV148 IRES. Partly achieved. To conduct search for additional ITAFs using different approaches and evaluate the candidates. Partly achieved. Background of the topic The power of internal translation via the activity of internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) elements allow coordinated synthesis of multiple gene products from a single transcription unit, and thereby enables to bypass the need for sequential transformation with multiple independent transgenes. The key goal of this project was to identify and analyze the IRES-trans-acting factors (ITAFs) that mediate the activity of a crucifer-infecting tobamovirus (crTMV148) IRES. The remarkable conservation of the IRES activity across the phylogenetic spectrum (yeast, plants and animals) strongly suggests that key ITAFs that mediate its activity are themselves highly conserved. Thus, crTMV148 IRES offers opportunity for elucidation of the fundamental mechanisms underlying internal translation in higher plants in order to enable its rational manipulation for the purpose of agricultural biotechnology. Major conclusions and achievements. - CrTMV IRES requires PABP for maximal activity. This conclusion was achieved by PABP depletion and reconstitution of wheat germ- and Krebs2-derived in-vitro translation assays using Arabidopsis-derived PABP2, 3, 5, 8 and yeast Pab1p. - Mutations in the internal polypurine tract of the IRES decrease the high-affinity binding of all phylogenetically divergent PABPs derived from Arabidopsis and yeast in electro mobility gel shift assays. - Mutations in the internal polypurine tract decrease IRES activity in-vivo. - The 3'-poly(A) tail enhances crTMV148 IRES activity more efficiently in the absence of 5'-methylated cap. - In-vivo assembled RNPs containing proteins specifically associated with the IRES were purified from HEK293 cells using the RNA Affinity in Tandem (RAT) approach followed by their identification by mass spectroscopy. - This study yielded a list of potential protein candidates that may serve as ITAFs of crTMV148 IRES activity, among them are a/b tubulin, a/g actin, GAPDH, enolase 1, ribonuclease/angiogenin inhibitor 1, 26S proteasome subunit p45, rpSA, eEF1Bδ, and proteasome b5 subunit. Implications, both scientific and agriculture. The fact that the 3'-poly(A) tail enhances crTMV148 IRES activity more efficiently in the absence of 5'-methylated cap suggests a potential joint interaction between PABP, the IRES sequence and the 3'-poly(A). This has an important scientific implication related to IRES function in general.
5

Kwan, Amy, and Danish Mazhar. The management of advanced germ cell tumours. BJUI Knowledge, January 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.18591/bjuik.0659.

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6

Chalutz, Edo, Michael Wisniewski, Samir Droby, Yael Eilam, and Ilan Chet. Mode of Action of Yeast Biocontrol Agents of Postharvest Diseases of Fruits. United States Department of Agriculture, June 1996. http://dx.doi.org/10.32747/1996.7613025.bard.

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In a previous BARD-supported study, three of the investigators of this research were involved in a study on biological control of postharvest diseases of citrus and deciduous fruits. Several naturally occurring, non-antibiotic producing yeast antagonists were identified. Application of some of these antagonists resulted in very high levels of biocontrol under laboratory conditions but lower efficacy in semi-commercial tests. It was felt that the lack of knowledge on the mode of action of the biocontrol agents was limiting their efficient use. The current study was aimed at narrowing this gap in our knowledge. Two specific objectives were outlined: to study the mechanism by which calcium salts enhance biocontrol activity and to determine the role, if any, of the yeast extracellular materials and/or enzymes which degrade fungal cell walls during the interaction between the antagonists, the pathogen and the host. CaCl2 but not MgCl2, inhibited spore germination, and germ-tube elongation of Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum and P. digitatum in culture. It also inhibited the pectinolytic activity of the pathogens. Biocontrol of apple decay by isolate 182 of Candida oleophila, an effective biocontrol agent, was enhanced by the addition of CaCl2 whereas there was no effect on the biocontrol activity of isolate 247 of this yeast. Similarly, CaCl2 enhanced efficacy of the US-7 isolate of Pichia guilliermondii in reducing infection of P. digitatum in citrus fruit. CaCl2 by itself also reduced the infection of peel wounds and stimulated ethylene production by grapefruit peel. This antagonist exhibited a very high ability to maintain cytosolic Ca2+ homeostasis when exposed to high CaCl2 concentrations. It is postulated, therefore, that enhanced biocontrol activity by calcium is the result of direct inhibition of the pathogen by calcium ions on spore germination and metabolism and indirectly due to the ability of the biocontrol agent to maintain normal metabolism in the presence of high levels of calcium. The extracellular materials produced by P. guilliermondii in culture and on the fruit inhibited, at low concentrations, the pathogen in culture and reduced percent infection of the fruit. The direct inhibition of the pathogen by these materials may thus be involved in the mode of action of the antagonist. This study contributed to our knowledge on the action of calcium salts and the yeast antagonist extracellular materials on biocontrol activity and will contribute to a more efficient use of this technology in the control of postharvest diseases of fruits.

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