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Статті в журналах з теми "Industrial management Environmental aspects South Australia":

1

Bramble, Tom. "Political Economy and Management Strategy in the Metal and Engineering Industry." Journal of Industrial Relations 31, no. 1 (March 1989): 22–45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002218568903100102.

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The study of industrial relations management has been a long-neglected aspect of the Australian scene. Recent changes in the balance of power on the shop floor in the aftermath of prolonged recession in the metal and engineering industry, however, make such neglect an expensive luxury. This article looks at four aspects of management t strategy: the labour relations management function, relations with the unions at the workplace, attitudes to employee involvement, and attitudes to the employment relationship. The suggestion, in the light of secondary evidence and a series of fourteen case studies in the Victorian and New South Wales metal industry, is that three variables are important in helping to explain the direction that labour relations management has taken in recent years. These are the 'labour threat: the reorganization of production methods, and changes to the legal and institutional framework. It was found that management in those plants in which exposure to these three environmental pressures was similar responded with fairly similar labour relations management practices, suggesting that there may indeed be a link between the key variables.
2

Stewart, Andrew. "The New Unfair Dismissal Jurisdiction in South Australia." Journal of Industrial Relations 28, no. 3 (September 1986): 367–409. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002218568602800304.

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The transition in the South Australian jurisdiction over unfair dismissals has generated issues that challenge the future and directions of employment protection in Australia. The new provision, with its key remedial power of compensation in liett of reinstatement or re-employment, has in its practical operation approached far closer to the British model of statutory employment rights than any of its counterparts in the other states, and has further proved sufficiently flexible to generate entitlements to redundancy payments in a novel way. Many of the legal points raised in the decided cases to date reflect important aspects of definition, interaction with otherjurisdictions and employ ment policy generally; these include the definition of dismissal, the effect of alternative remedies on an unfair dismissal claim, the taxation of compensation awards and the significance of this type of legislation as a source of procedural (if not always substantive) fairness.
3

Forsyth, Anthony. "Industrial legislation in Australia in 2016." Journal of Industrial Relations 59, no. 3 (May 2017): 323–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022185617693876.

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After three years of trying, the Coalition Government finally succeeded in obtaining passage of several key workplace reform statutes in 2016. This followed the outcome of the federal election held on 2 July, delivering the Government a differently composed Senate and a new opportunity to secure support for its legislative program. This review article explains key aspects of the industrial legislation passed by federal Parliament in 2016, including statutes abolishing the specialist road transport industry tribunal, re-establishing the Howard-era regulator for the construction industry, and setting up a new agency to enforce enhanced governance and accountability standards for registered unions and employer organisations. Legislative amendments aimed at resolving the long-running bargaining dispute in Victoria’s Country Fire Authority are also considered, along with the Government’s muted response to the 2015 Productivity Commission review of the workplace relations framework. The article then examines developments at state level, including a major rewrite of Queensland’s industrial legislation, structural changes in New South Wales, and proposed changes to long service leave and the labour hire sector in Victoria. It concludes by noting the irony that just as the federal Government has tasted some success after a long legislative ‘dry spell’, its labour law reform agenda appears limited and piecemeal.
4

Lattimore, MAE. "Pastures in temperate rice rotations of south-eastern Australia." Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 34, no. 7 (1994): 959. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/ea9940959.

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Legume-based pastures have long been an integral part of rice growing in the southern New South Wales irrigation areas and still offer potential to improve the productivity, profitability, and sustainability of the temperate rice-cropping system.This paper reviews both historical and current aspects of pastures in temperate rice rotations in southern New South Wales and highlights the importance of pastures in sustaining this cropping system as environmental pressures increase. Topics discussed include pasture species and rotations, their role in improving soil fertility and sustainability, the value of pastures in weed control, and their management for maximum profitability.
5

Schrale, G., R. Boardman, and M. J. Blaskett. "Investigating Land Based Disposal of Bolivar Reclaimed Water, South Australia." Water Science and Technology 27, no. 1 (January 1993): 87–96. http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.1993.0022.

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The Bolivar Sewage Treatment Works (STW) processes the urban and industrial sewage from the northern and eastern suburbs of Adelaide. The treatment capacity is equivalent to the sewage production of 1.1 million people. The disposal of more than 40 000 ML of reclaimed water into the sea has caused a progressive degradation of about 950 ha of seagrass beds which threatens the sustainability of the fisheries and marine ecosystems of Gulf St. Vincent. The current practice will no longer be viable to achieve compliance with the SA Marine Environment Protection Act, 1990. A Inter-Departmental Working Party recommmended that the Bolivar reclaimed water be disposed by irrigation of suitable land on the coastal plains north of Adelaide. They proposed the construction of two pipelines: a 12 km long pipeline to extend the distribution of reclaimed water in the most intense portion of the 3 500 hectares of irrigated horticulture on the Northern Adelaide Plains, and a second, 18 km long pipeline to deliver the remainder to a more northerly site for irrigation of an estimated 4 000 hectares of hardwood plantations. The paper summarizes the findings as they relate to public health, environmental, technical and financial aspects of land based disposal. Land based disposal would completely eliminate the marine degradation and also arrest the over-use of the NAP underground water resources for horticulture. The total net costs over thirty years for land based disposal are about $ 21.8 million. The ‘horticultural' pipeline of the land based disposal scheme is expected to be commercially viable. A shortfall in revenue from the afforestation component is expected and may need to be considered as an environmental cost of ceasing marine disposal.
6

Williams, M. L., A. J. Boulton, M. Hyde, A. J. Kinnear, and C. D. Cockshell. "ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF SEISMIC OPERATIONS IN THE OTWAY BASIN, SOUTH AUSTRALIA." APPEA Journal 34, no. 1 (1994): 741. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/aj93054.

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The Department of Mines and Energy, South Australia (DME) contracted Michael Williams and Associates Pty Ltd to audit the environmental management of seismic exploration operations in the South Australian Otway Basin. The audit was carried out in early 1992 and covered petroleum exploration operators and DME environmental management systems. An innovative field sampling technique was developed to compare the environmental impact of two different seismic line clearing techniques. Recovery of native vegetation as measured by vegetation structure was also quantified.The audit found DME to have a dynamic and integrated environmental management system while company systems varied in standard. Wide consultation assisted the audit process.As a result of clearing for agriculture, native vegetation covers only six per cent of the Otway Basin. With the strict limitations to broad-scale vegetation clearance since the mid-1980s and the cessation since 1991, the greatest environmental impact of seismic exploration is the clearance of native vegetation for access by seismic vehicles. Native vegetation structure and associated abiotic variables on seismic lines and adjacent control sites, were subject to a classification and ordination analysis which compared the impact of seismic lines constructed by bulldozer or Hydro-ax (industrial slasher). Post-seismic recovery rates of three different vegetation associations were also determined. This analytical technique permits the effects of seismic line clearance to be compared with the natural variability of specific vegetation associations within a region. In interpreting the results however, there is a confounding effect of line type and year as most of the more recent seismic lines were constructed using a Hydro-ax. Results indicate that Hydro-ax clearing affects vegetation structure less than bulldozing. Most Hydro-ax sites recovered within a few years whereas some sites, bulldozed as early as 1971, particularly tussock grasslands, have not yet recovered.This study provides a significant break-through in the debate about the persistence of seismic impacts on native vegetation. As a rapid preliminary assessment, sampling vegetation structure rather than floristics, provides a cost-effective audit and monitoring technique which can be used by non-specialists in a range of petroleum exploration environments. Any significant structural differences may require more detailed analysis to determine if floristic composition also differed.
7

Thomsen, D. A., and J. Davies. "Social and cultural dimensions of commercial kangaroo harvest in South Australia." Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 45, no. 10 (2005): 1239. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/ea03248.

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Kangaroo management is important to the sustainability of Australia’s rangeland landscapes. The commercial harvest of kangaroos assists in reduction of total grazing pressure in the rangelands and provides the potential for supplementary income to pastoralists. Indeed, the commercial kangaroo industry is considered by natural resource scientists as one of the few rural industry development options with potential to provide economic return with minimal environmental impact. While the biology and population ecology of harvested kangaroo species in Australia is the subject of past and present research, the social, institutional and economic issues pertinent to the commercial kangaroo industry are not well understood. Our research is addressing the lack of understanding of social issues around kangaroo management, which are emerging as constraints on industry development. The non-indigenous stakeholders in kangaroo harvest are landholders, regional management authorities, government conservation and primary production agencies, meat processors, marketers and field processors (shooters) and these industry players generally have little understanding of what issues the commercial harvest of kangaroos presents to Aboriginal people. Consequently, the perspectives and aspirations of Aboriginal people regarding the commercial harvest of kangaroos are not well considered in management, industry development and planning. For Aboriginal people, kangaroos have subsistence, economic and cultural values and while these values and perspectives vary between language groups and individuals, there is potential to address indigenous issues by including Aboriginal people in various aspects of kangaroo management. This research also examines the Aboriginal interface with commercial kangaroo harvest, and by working with Aboriginal people and groups is exploring several options for greater industry involvement. The promotion of better understandings between indigenous and non-indigenous people with interests in kangaroo management could promote industry development through the marketing of kangaroo as not only clean and green, but also as a socially just product.
8

Rameezdeen, Raufdeen, Jian Zuo, and Jack Stevens. "Practices, drivers and barriers of implementing green leases: lessons from South Australia." Journal of Corporate Real Estate 19, no. 1 (April 2017): 36–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/jcre-04-2016-0018.

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Purpose This paper aims to investigate the practices, drivers and barriers which influence the implementation of green leases in South Australia. Despite some efforts on legal aspects of green leases, only a few studies have examined these aspects from an operational perspective. In addition, very little empirical evidence was presented in previous studies to show how green leases work in real-life settings. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected using semi-structured interviews with landlord and tenant representatives who have considerable experience in green leases. These interviewees were selected via a purposive sampling technique that identified buildings which use green leases in South Australia. The concept of interface management (IM) was used to operationalize this research. Findings The green leases were found to be mainly initiated by tenants while government involvement, economic and environmental benefits are the main drivers in South Australia. Drivers such as staff retention, well-being and corporate social responsibility are found to be more relevant to tenants. Lack of awareness and transaction costs are the main barriers to the implementation of green leases. Research limitations/implications This study focuses on the South Australian context and mainly covers dark green leases. There are implications for the government’s continued involvement and the promotion of lighter shades of green leases to overcome operational issues and barriers identified in this study. Originality/value This study contributes to the body of knowledge on the subject of green lease implementation from an operational perspective. In addition, the study introduces a conceptual framework via IM that could be used in future research endeavours.
9

Davison, L., T. Headley, and K. Pratt. "Aspects of design, structure, performance and operation of reed beds – eight years' experience in northeastern New South Wales, Australia." Water Science and Technology 51, no. 10 (May 2005): 129–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2005.0359.

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Reed beds (horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands) have been employed as secondary treatment devices in on-site and decentralised wastewater management systems in the northeast of the Australian state of New South Wales (NSW) for over a decade. This paper summarises some of the practical and research findings that have come to light in that time. Experience with various aspects of reed bed structure is discussed. A study of the evaporative performance of four small beds planted with Phragmites australis yielded an annual crop factor of 2.6. A total of 28 studies on reed beds treating a variety of commonly encountered wastewater streams yielded the following mean pollutant removal efficiencies: total suspended solids (TSS) 83%, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) 81%, total nitrogen (TN) 57%, total phosphorus (TP) 35% and faecal coliforms (FC) 1.9 logs. The reed bed is becoming the preferred on-site technology for removing TN and BOD and polishing TSS from primary settled domestic wastewater. Sizing beds for a residence time of approximately five days has become standard practice. A study of six reed beds found six different species of earthworm present, mainly Perionyx excavatus (Indian Blue). A mesocosm experiment subsequently showed that the worms were translocating clogging material from the substrate interstices to the surface of the bed thereby indicating a possible method for prolonging reed bed life.
10

Hopkins, Ben, and John R. Argue. "The New Brompton Estate Stormwater Management Trial: First Results." Water Science and Technology 29, no. 1-2 (January 1994): 311–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.1994.0678.

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Runoff from the roofs of 15 houses in a medium-density residential development in suburban Adelaide, capital city of South Australia, is being collected and temporarily stored in a gravel-filled stormwater retention trench installed in a centrally located reserve. The site is underlain by an upper level Quaternary aquifer, ambient salinity 2000 mg/l, which receives stormwater supplied from the trench via a bore during large winter storm events. Water pumped from the aquifer in summer shows a quality suitable for open space irrigation. Observations made during the second half of 1992 have highlighted aspects of the design which require modification in order to improve the performance of the retention/recharge/retrieval system. Data collected between August and October have indicated that the volume of stormwater stored in the aquifer on an annual basis will be sufficient to meet the irrigation needs of the reserve.

Дисертації з теми "Industrial management Environmental aspects South Australia":

1

Larwood, Andrew John. "Cleaner production : promoting and achieving it in the South Australian foundry industry." Title page, table of contents and abstract only, 2000. http://web4.library.adelaide.edu.au/theses/09ENV/09envl336.pdf.

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Bibliography: leaves 123-130. The literature search and the findings from the investigation have been used to provide recommendations for a sector specific cooperative approach using regulation, self-regulation, voluntary agreements, economic incentatives and educational/information strategies to promote and acheive cleaner production in the South Australian foundry industry.
2

Jordan, Matthew. "Procuring industrial pollution control : the South Australian case, 1836-1975." Title page, contents and abstract only, 2001. http://web4.library.adelaide.edu.au/theses/09PH/09phj816.pdf.

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3

Burroughs, Gary Leslie. "The response to environmental economic drivers by civil engineering contractors in South Australia." Title page, contents and abstract only, 2000. http://web4.library.adelaide.edu.au/theses/09ENV/09envb972.pdf.

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Bibliography: leaves 91-93. Examines the response of two civil engineering construction contractors in South Australia to environmental economic conditions and market requirements using primarily an action research methodology whilst the researcher was engaged as the environmental manager at both corporations.
4

Walsh, Lauren Arlene. "Investigating the effectiveness of environmental sustainability initiatives at General Motors South Africa." Thesis, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, 2013. http://hdl.handle.net/10948/d1020996.

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There is a consensus globally that climate change is one of the biggest challenges facing operations. Immediate actions are required to reduce the carbon footprint in order for the environment to endure future logistics processes and activities (The National Treasury department of South Africa, 2010). Greenhouse gases (GHGs) are emissions generated from manufacturing processes, distribution networks and treatments processes (Verfaillie and Bidwell, 2000). Companies globally are expected to monitor pollution and focus on reducing the discharge of pollutants. Logistics Managers are therefore pressured to reduce the carbon footprint as it affects the environment and our health. Companies are becoming more concerned with the impact of various activities and processes on the environment. Traditional logistics models, primarily focuses on minimising cost with little focus on the environmental impact and sustaining operations for the future (Sbihi and Eglese, 2009) General Motors (GM) is a multi-national vehicle manufacturer with operations in various countries. GM filed for bankruptcy in 2009 resulting in the formation of the new GM; one of the focus areas was to ensure sustainability which resulted in the introduction of the ‘Sustainability in motion’ program in 2009 (New York Times, 2009). General Motors South Africa (GMSAf) is a vehicle assembler with manufacturing facilities and head offices located in Port Elizabeth. The company is a wholly owned subsidiary of the multinational General Motors Company. The aim of the research is to determine whether a culture that promotes environmentally conscious behaviour exists within employees and their relationships within a team, with management, stakeholders and suppliers. The study will assist in highlighting areas which need improvement to enable the creation of environmentally sustainable initiatives and implementation thereof. The empirical study revealed that the following management commitment, education and training, performance management and participation and involvement were important factors in the effective implementation of an environmental sustainability program.
5

Tynan, R. W. "Stocking limits for South Australian pastoral leases : historical background and relationship with modern ecological and management theory." Title page, contents and abstract only, 2000. http://web4.library.adelaide.edu.au/theses/09AS/09ast987.pdf.

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6

Harris, Mark Anglin. "Some organic amendments for heavy metal toxicity, acidity and soil structure in acid-sulphate mine tailings /." Title page, contents and abstract only, 2000. http://web4.library.adelaide.edu.au/theses/09PH/09phh3148.pdf.

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7

French, Rachel. "Modelling urban runoff : volume and pollutant concentration of the Barker Inlet Wetland Catchment." Title page, abstract and contents only, 1999. http://web4.library.adelaide.edu.au/theses/09ENS/09ensf875.pdf.

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Bibliography :leaves 158-171. A monitoring program, funded by the South Australian government (through the former MFP Development Corporation), was established to monitor the quality and quantity of storm water entering and leaving the wetland. This study formed part of the funded program. Simple regression models were developed; and will assist in the monitoring of performance of the wetland to alleviate the pollutant load into the Barker Inlet.
8

Jacobs, Phillip A. H. "The identification and evaluation of key sustainable development indicators and the development of a conceptual decision-making model for capital investment within Gold Fields Limited (GFL)." Thesis, Rhodes University, 2010. http://hdl.handle.net/10962/d1008304.

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The current trends in sustainable development (SO) were examined in this study, which brought about the realisation that SO has become a business imperative. Mining, which is a highly impacting industry, is faced with the dilemma of implementing the principles of SO despite the realisation that its activities are severely limited by· the finite nature of the resource it is capitalising on. This reality, however, does not detract from the non-negotiable requirement for the industry to meet the increasing pressures to act responsibly towards the environment and the community in which it operates. Gold Fields has stepped up to the plate and has already taken several steps to achieve this end. These include the adoption of SO in its Vision, Values and strategies and the development and implementation of a SO framework to ensure the integration of the principles of SO into the business. Furthermore, Gold Fields has also entered into voluntary activities that further cement the commitment the company has towards so. These other initiatives include, inter alia, its International Council on Mining and Metals membership, UN Global Compact participation, becoming a signatory to the cyanide code, IS014001, and so on. This study focussed on several indicator categories and the identification of a set of supporting sustainable development indicators (SOls) for each, which included environmental, social, economic, technological, and ethics, legal and corporate governance (not in order of priority). These indicators were assessed by a carefully selected group of respondents whose collective wisdom and expertise were used to identify and weight supporting SOls for each of the indicator categories. These supporting SOls were in turn used to develop a model that is able to assist in the business's decision making processes when capital investment is being considered . A water treatment project that is currently being considered by Gold Fields was utilised to demonstrate how the decision making model can be applied to two different scenarios. The result clearly and successfully demonstrated that by proactively taking environmental, economic, social, technological, and ethics, legal and corporate governance considerations into account, a gold mining company is able to increase the level of SO of a capital investment project.
9

McCarthy, Megan Emma. "Environmental impact assessment and organisational change in Transport SA & ETSA Corporation / Megan Emma McCarthy." 2000. http://hdl.handle.net/2440/19898.

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Includes bibliographical references (leaves 379-409)
2 v. : ill. ; 30 cm.
Title page, contents and abstract only. The complete thesis in print form is available from the University Library.
Develops a framework for evaluating environmental impact assessment (EIA) and organisational change, and examines the influence of the EIA system on two government organisations within South Australia, Transport SA and ETSA . Finally analyses patterns of organisational change process in South Australia in comparision with experience in the United States.
Thesis (Ph.D.(Arts))--Adelaide University, Dept. of Geographical and Environmental Studies, 2001
10

Wilkinson, Melanie. "Soil and water criteria and indicators for the sustainable management of industrial plantations." Thesis, 1999. http://hdl.handle.net/10413/5409.

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Книги з теми "Industrial management Environmental aspects South Australia":

1

Supply, Western Australia Steering Committee for Research on LandUse and Water. Stream salinity and its reclamation in south-west Western Australia. Leederville, WA: Water Authority of Western Australia, Water Resources Directorate, 1989.

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2

Schofield, N. J. The impact of agricultural development on the salinity of surface water resources of south-west Western Australia. Leederville, WA: Water Authority of Western Australia, 1988.

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3

Strawbridge, M. The extent, condition and management of remnant vegetation in water resource recovery catchments in south Western Australia: Report to the Natural Heritage Trust. East Perth, W.A: Water and Rivers Commission, 1999.

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4

Abrams, John. Companies we keep: Employee ownership and the business of community and place. 2nd ed. White River Junction, Vt: Chelsea Green Pub. Co., 2008.

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5

Abrams, John. The company we keep: Reinventing small business for people, community, and place. White River Junction, Vt: Chelsea Green Publishing Company, 2005.

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6

Schofield, N. J. Water interactions with land use and climate in south western Australia: Presentation to the Hydrology and Forest Practice Workshop, Canberra, 13-17 November 1989. Leederville, WA: Water Authority of Western Australia, 1990.

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7

Council, South Carolina General Assembly Legislative Audit. Report to the General Assembly: A management review of the Charleston Naval Complex Redevelopment Authority. Columbia, S.C: Legislative Audit Council, 2000.

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8

Council, South Carolina General Assembly Legislative Audit. Report to the General Assembly: A management and performance review of the South Carolina Jobs-Economic Development Authority. [Columbia, S.C.] (620 Bankers Trust Tower, Columbia 29201): The Council, 1995.

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9

Council, South Carolina General Assembly Legislative Audit. Report to the General Assembly: Department of Health and Environmental Control's implementation of the Safe Drinking Water Act. Columbia, S.C: The Council, 1994.

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10

Council, South Carolina General Assembly Legislative Audit. Report to the General Assembly: A sunset review of the Department of Health and Environmental Control's health services. [Columbia, S.C.]: The Council, 1996.

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Тези доповідей конференцій з теми "Industrial management Environmental aspects South Australia":

1

Blinderman, Michael S. "The Exergy Underground Coal Gasification Technology as a Source of Superior Fuel for Power Generation." In ASME 2006 Power Conference. ASMEDC, 2006. http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/power2006-88064.

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Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is a gasification process carried on in non-mined coal seams using injection and production wells drilled from the surface, converting coal in situ into a product gas usable for chemical processes and power generation. The UCG process developed, refined and practiced by Ergo Exergy Technologies is called the Exergy UCG Technology or εUCG® Technology. The εUCG technology is being applied in numerous power generation and chemical projects worldwide. These include power projects in South Africa (1,200 MWe), India (750 MWe), Pakistan, and Canada, as well as chemical projects in Australia and Canada. A number of εUCG based industrial projects are now at a feasibility stage in New Zealand, USA, and Europe. An example of εUCG application is the Chinchilla Project in Australia where the technology demonstrated continuous, consistent production of commercial quantities of quality fuel gas for over 30 months. The project is currently targeting a 24,000 barrel per day synthetic diesel plant based on εUCG syngas supply. The εUCG technology has demonstrated exceptional environmental performance. The εUCG methods and techniques of environmental management are an effective tool to ensure environmental protection during an industrial application. A εUCG-IGCC power plant will generate electricity at a much lower cost than existing or proposed fossil fuel power plants. CO2 emissions of the plant can be reduced to a level 55% less than those of a supercritical coal-fired plant and 25% less than the emissions of NG CC.
2

Lonia, B., N. K. Nayar, S. B. Singh, and P. L. Bali. "Techno Economic Aspects of Power Generation From Agriwaste in India." In 17th International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion. ASMEDC, 2003. http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/fbc2003-170.

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The agricultural operations in India are suffering from a serious problem of shortage of electrical power on one side and economic and effective disposal of agriwaste stuff on the other. India being agriculture based country, 70% of its main income (share in GDP) comes from agriculture sector. Any enhancement of income from this sector is based upon adequate supply of basic inputs in this sector. Regular and adequate power supply is one such input. But, the position of power supply in our country defies both these characteristics. With a major portion of power produced being sent to the industrial and urban consumers, there is a perennial shortage of power in the agriculture sector. Consequently, there is an emergent need to produce more power in order to fulfil the needs of this sector effectively. One way of accomplishing this is setting up captive, preferably rural based, small power generation plants. In these power plants, instead of water-head, diesel oil or coal, we can use agri-residue to produce electricity. One such power plant (1–2 MW capacity) can satisfy the power need of 25 to 40 nearby villages. The agriwaste like rice straw, sugarcane-trash, coir-pith, peanut shells, wheat stalks & straw, cottonseed, stalks and husk, soyabean stalks, maize stalks & cobs, sorghum. Bagasse, wallnut shells, sunflower seeds, shells, hulls and kernels and coconut husk, wastewood and saw dust can be fruitfully utilized in power generation. This stuff is otherwise a waste and liability and consumes a lot of effort on its disposal; in addition to being a fire and health hazard. Agriwaste stuff which at present is available in abundance and prospects of its utilization in producing energy are enormous. This material can be procured at reasonably low rates from the farmers who will thus be benefited economically, apart from being relieved of the responsibility of its disposal. Agri-residue has traditionally been a major source of heat energy in rural areas in India. It is a valuable fuel even in the sub-urban areas. Inspite of rapid increase in the supply of, access lo and use of fossil fuels, agri-residue is likely to continue to play an important role, in the foreseeable future. Therefore, developing and promoting techno-economically-viable technologies to utilize agri-residue efficiently should be a persuit of high priority. Though there is no authentic data available with regard to the exact quantity of agricultural and agro-industrial residues, its rough estimate has been put at about 350 mt per annum. It is also estimated that the total cattle refuse generated is nearly 250 mt per year. Further, nearly 20% of the total land is under forest cover, which produces approximately 50 mt of fuel wood and with associated forest waste of about 5 mt.(1). Taking into account the utilization of even a portion (say 30%) of this agri-residue & agro-industrial waste as well as energy plantation on one million hectare (mha) of wastelands for power generation through bioenergy technologies, a potential of some 18000 MW of power has been estimated. From the foregoing, it is clear that there is an enormous untapped potential for energy generation from agri-residue. What is required is an immediate and urgent intensification of dedicated efforts in this field, with a view to bringing down the unit energy cost and improving efficiency and reliability of agri-waste production, conversion and utilisation, leading to subsequent saving of fossil fuels for other pressing applications. The new initiatives in national energy policy are most urgently needed to accelerate the social and economic development of the rural areas. It demands a substantial increase in production and consumption of energy for productive purposes. Such initiatives are vital for promoting the goals of sustainability. cleaner production and reduction of long-term risks of environmental pollution and consequent adverse climatic changes in future. A much needed significant social, economic and industrial development has yet to take place in large parts of rural India; be it North, West, East or South. It can be well appreciated that a conscious management of agri-residue, which is otherwise a serious liability of the farmer, through its economic conversion into electric power can offer a reasonably viable solution to our developmental needs. This vision will have to be converted into a reality within a decade or so through dedicated and planned R&D work in this area. There is a shimmering promise that the whole process of harvesting, collection, transport and economic processing and utilisation of agri-waste can be made technically and economically more viable in future. Thus, the foregoing paras amply highlight the value of agri-residue as a prospective source of electric power, particularly for supplementing the main grid during the lean supply periods or peak load hours and also for serving the remote areas in the form of stand-alone units giving a boost to decentralised power supply. This approach and option seems to be positive in view of its potential contribution to our economic and social development. No doubt, this initiative needs to be backed and perused rigorously for removing regional imbalances as well as strengthening National economy. This paper reviews the current situation with regards to generation of agriwaste and its prospects of economic conversion into electrical power, technologies presently available for this purpose, and the problems faced in such efforts. It emphasizes the need for an integrated approach to devise ways and means for generating electrical power from agriwaste; keeping in mind the requirements of cleaner production and environmental protection so that the initiative leads to a total solution.

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