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1

Berkovich, Yu A., S. O. Smolianina, V. G. Smolianin, Ya V. Morozov, and I. G. Tarakanov. "TECHNOLOGY OF MINERAL NUTRITION AND ILLUMINATION OF CROPS IN A SPACE VEGETABLE GREENHOUSE." Aerospace and Environmental Medicine 55, no. 6 (2021): 68–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.21687/0233-528x-2021-55-6-68-74.

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Dependence of Chinese cabbage productivity and nitrate content in eatable biomass on the ammonium and nitrate nitrogen ratio and red light fraction was studied in the context of space greenhouse Vitacycle-T design. Crops were illuminated by a lighting unit assembled of red and white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) producing the photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) of 400–430 µmol/(m2•с) with the ratio of red and white LEDs inputs between 0 and 1.5. The ammonium-nitrate nitrogen ratio in nutrient solutions with stabilized total nitrogen varied from 0 to 1. Under all tested light spectra the favorable range of ammonium nitrogen makes up 15 to 45 mg/L with the maximum of 25 ± 2 mg/L and total nitrogen at 120 mg/L. Ammonium nitrogen increase above 53–55 mg/L leads to crop inhibition. Concentration of nitrates in eatable biomass did not exceed the permissible levels established for leave vegetables irrespectively of the ammonium-nitrate nitrogen ratio and decreased monotonously as ammonium nitrogen was rising above 10 mg/L. According to calculation, the Vitacycle-T root-feeding design (cartages of granular mineral-rich ionite BIONA-312 and slow-release fertilizer Osmocote 14-14-14) is capable to control total nitrogen and ammonium-nitrate nitrogen ratio within the favorable range.
2

Makarov, Petr, Tatyana Makarova, Zoya Samoylenko, Natalya Gulakova, and Inessa Kravchenko. "PRODUCTIVITY AND QUALITY EVALUATION OF TARRAGON AND THYME GROWN UNDER ARTIFICIAL LIGHT." Vestnik of Kazan State Agrarian University 16, no. 4 (January 2022): 24–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.12737/2073-0462-2022-24-29.

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The research aimed at evaluation of productivity and quality of tarragon and thyme medicinal material was carried out on hydroponic installations during 2019-2020. The objects under study were Monarkh and Gudvin tarragon varieties as well as Medok and Zmeyka thyme varieties. The plants were grown in mineral cotton substratum. Fertikea Hydro complex fertiliser with microelements and calcium nitrate were used. The growing conditions: ambient temperature +22…+25℃, solution temperature +20℃, ambient humidity 55…65%. Experiment regimens: growing under white LEDs (luminous flux 8000 lm, color temperature 4000 K, PPF 165 mkmol/s/m2) and color LEDs (combination of red, blue and white LEDs (32:16:32), luminous flux 6573 lm, PPF 143 mkmol/s/m2), for 16-hour light regimen. We found that thyme grown on a vertical hydroponic system increase its biomass 2.0…3.5 times compared to the conventional growing. The highest productivity of Zmeyka thyme variety is reached under white light, while for both the tarragon varieties and Medok thyme variety it is reached under coloured LEDs. Chlorophyll-a content in green biomass is a little higher under coloured LEDs for Zmeyka thyme variety and Gudvin tarragon variety, while the reverse trend is observed for Monarkh tarragon variety. All the varieties show higher chlorophyll-b content under coloured LEDs. Combined chlorophyll-a and chlorophyll-b content increases under coloured LEDs for the thyme varieties and Gudvin tarragon variety. Monarkh tarragon variety shows the highest combined chlorophyll content under white LEDs. Carotenoid concentration in Medok thyme variety and Monarkh tarragon variety is higher under white LEDs and it is higher under color LEDs for the rest of the varieties. Flavonoids in the studied varieties accumulate statistically better (1.5…3.0 times) under white LEDs
3

Bian, Zhong-Hua, Rui-Feng Cheng, Qi-Chang Yang, Jun Wang, and Chungui Lu. "Continuous Light from Red, Blue, and Green Light-emitting Diodes Reduces Nitrate Content and Enhances Phytochemical Concentrations and Antioxidant Capacity in Lettuce." Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 141, no. 2 (March 2016): 186–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.21273/jashs.141.2.186.

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Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have shown great potential for plant growth and development, with higher luminous efficiency and more flexible and feasible spectral control compared with other artificial lighting. The combined effects of red and blue (RB) LED with or without green (G) LED light and white LED light on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) growth and physiology, including nitrate content, chlorophyll fluorescence, and phytochemical concentration before harvest, were investigated. Continuous light exposure at preharvest can effectively reduce nitrate accumulation and increase phytochemical concentrations in lettuce plants. Nitrate accumulation is dependent on the spectral composition and duration of treatment: lettuce exposed to continuous RB (with or without G) LED light with a photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) of 200 µmol·m−2·s−1 exhibited a remarkable decrease in nitrate content at 24 hour compared with white LED light treatment at the same PPF. In addition, RB LED light (R:B = 4:1) was more effective than white LED light at the same PPF in facilitating lettuce growth. Moreover, continuous LED light for 24 hours significantly enhanced free-radical scavenging activity and increased phenolic compound concentrations. We suggest that 24 hours continuous RB LED with G light exposure can be used to decrease nitrate content and enhance lettuce quality.
4

Ahmed, Asmaa Sayed, Arshad Abdulkhalq Yaseen, and Triska Dlshad Bakr. "Effect of Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) on Some Physical and Bioactive Compounds of ‘Iceberg’ Lettuce (Lactuca Sativa L.)." Acta Biologica Marisiensis 4, no. 1 (June 2021): 21–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/abmj-2021-0003.

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Abstract The use of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is a recent concerned application in the indoor crop system of the modern plant production. In our research, we evaluated the influence of four monochromic LED lights including 100% White (W), Yellow (Y), Red (R) and Blue (B) in comparison to solar lightening condition (GR) as a control. In this regard, some morphological characteristics and biochemical content of the common outdoor ‘Iceberg’ lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) was measured. The results show that leaf length, leaf area and total head weight were significantly greater in the plants grown under B LED, while all the other physical parameters were significantly higher in the plants grown under GR environmental conditions. On the other hand, chlorophyll (Chl), carotenoids (Car), and nitrate content were also influenced by different light treatments. Plants grown under LED light treatment resulted in significantly higher chlorophyll content compared to the control. However, significantly greater carotenoid content was in the plants grown under GR condition. The highest total chlorophyll content was recorded under B and R LED, whereas the lowest was in the GR condition. The lowest nitrate content in the blade and petiole was recorded in the plants grown under Y LED, while the highest nitrate content was recorded in the GR. Based on our result, it is possible to grow and improve some quality parameters of common outdoor ‘iceberg’ lettuce under LED where the solar light is limited or unavailable. Thus, plants performed better under GR light conditions than monochromic LEDs; however, some LED lights could improve some quality parameters and biochemical contents in the ‘iceberg’ lettuce variety.
5

Kozel, N. V., M. S. Radyuk, T. V. Samovich, I. A. Dremuk, and L. S. Gabrielyan. "Protein accumulation and expression of the nitrate reductase gene in Spirulina platensiscells depending on the spectral composition of led radiation." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Biological Series 64, no. 2 (May 2019): 180–89. http://dx.doi.org/10.29235/1029-8940-2019-64-2-180-189.

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The effect of LED lighting of different spectral composition on the productivity of Spirulina platensis, an accumulation of protein in alga cells and an expression of the nitrate reductase gene has been studied. It was shown that LED lighting with a predominance of the red component in the emission spectrum allows achieving 9–29 % higher alga productivity compared to using fluorescent lamp illumination. Illumination with single blue light resulted in significant (83 %) decrease in the productivity of Spirulina platensiswhich apparently was due to the absence of the yellow and red components in the illuminator spectral composition, which are most effectively absorbed by phycocyanin. A positive correlation between an increase in the productivity of alga and the accumulation of protein in its cells was found. So, by using an illuminator with red LEDs, the protein content increased by 21 % calculated per gram of dry weight and 47 % calculated per liter of suspension relative to the control. Analysis of the expression of the Nar gene encoding nitrate reductase in Spirulina platensiscells did not reveal a direct dependence between an increasing protein accumulation and an expression level of the Nar gene in the most promising in terms of biomass and protein yield sample of alga, growing under red LEDs. This indicates the crucial role of the photosynthetic activity of Spirulina platensiscells in increasing productivity and protein synthesis.
6

Khan, Khurshid Ahmed, Zhengnan Yan, and Dongxian He. "Impact of Light Intensity and Nitrogen of Nutrient Solution on Nitrate Content in Three Lettuce Cultivars Prior to Harvest." Journal of Agricultural Science 10, no. 6 (May 2018): 99. http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/jas.v10n6p99.

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Nitrate smoothly accumulates in leafy vegetables and poses serious health hazards if connected excessively in the human diet. The objective of this study was to improve the cultivation method of low nitrate lettuce grown in plant factory. A substantial decrease of nitrate content (NO3-) in three lettuce cultivars were subjected by short-term pre-harvest treatment combined with lowing nitrogen supply of nutrient solution to half concentration and high photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) by LED lighting. The lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Frill ice, Lvzhu, Ziwei) were hydroponically grown in full strength of nutrient solution based on Yamasaki formula up to harvest time within a controlled environment under two light sources using fluorescent lamps and LEDs. The results demonstrated that a subsequent 3-days treatment of additional PPFD from 250 µmol m-2 s-1 to 350 µmol m-2 s-1 from 18 days after transplanting and half concentrations of nitrogen (NO3--N) in nutrient solution which is composition to standard resulted in the decrease of nitrate content as compared to plants grown under initial PPFD and full concentration of NO3--Ncomposition. The gradual decrease in nitrate content was accompanied by an increased concentration of nutritionally carbohydrates. Another important indicator of nutritional quality such as vitamin C content exhibited some variation, fresh weight of cultivars in cv. Frill ice and Ziwei observed higher with fluorescent lamps and for cv. Lvzhu with LED treatment section followed by lowest nitrate content of fresh leaves, respectively. Further, presented results disclosed that to avoid high accumulation of nitrate in leafy vegetables, the strategy of lowering nitrogen supply and increasing light intensity prior to harvest benefiting growers and consumers by improving quality of the product also making it consumer friendly.
7

Yan, Zhengnan, Dongxian He, Genhua Niu, Qing Zhou, and Yinghua Qu. "Growth, Nutritional Quality, and Energy Use Efficiency of Hydroponic Lettuce as Influenced by Daily Light Integrals Exposed to White versus White Plus Red Light-emitting Diodes." HortScience 54, no. 10 (October 2019): 1737–44. http://dx.doi.org/10.21273/hortsci14236-19.

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Few researchers examined different red light amounts added in white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with varied daily light integrals (DLIs) for hydroponic lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). In this study, effects of DLI and LED light quality (LQ) on growth, nutritional quality, and energy use efficiency of hydroponic lettuce were investigated in a plant factory with artificial lighting (PFAL). Hydroponic lettuce plants (cv. Ziwei) were grown for 20 days under 20 combinations of five levels of DLIs at 5.04, 7.56, 10.08, 12.60, and 15.12 mol·m−2·d−1 and four LQs: two kinds of white LEDs with red to blue ratio (R:B ratio) of 0.9 and 1.8, and two white LEDs plus red chips with R:B ratio of 2.7 and 3.6, respectively. Results showed that leaf and root weights and power consumption based on fresh and dry weights increased linearly with increasing DLI, and light and electrical energy use efficiency (LUE and EUE) decreased linearly as DLI increased. However, no statistically significant differences were found in leaf fresh and dry weights and nitrate and vitamin C contents between DLI at 12.60 and 15.12 mol·m−2·d−1. Also, no effects of LQ on leaf dry weight of hydroponic lettuce were observed at a DLI of 5.04 mol·m−2·d−1. White plus red LEDs with an R:B ratio of 2.7 resulted in higher leaf fresh weight than the two white LEDs. LUE increased by more than 20% when red light fraction increased from 24.2% to 48.6%. In summary, white plus red LEDs with an R:B ratio of 2.7 at DLI at 12.60 mol·m−2·d−1 were recommended for commercial hydroponic lettuce (cv. Ziwei) production in PFALs.
8

Heymich, Marie-Louise, Showmika Srirangan, and Monika Pischetsrieder. "Stability and Activity of the Antimicrobial Peptide Leg1 in Solution and on Meat and Its Optimized Generation from Chickpea Storage Protein." Foods 10, no. 6 (May 2021): 1192. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10061192.

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The antimicrobial peptide Leg1 (RIKTVTSFDLPALRFLKL) from chickpea legumin is active against spoilage bacteria, yeast, and mold. The present study tested its effectiveness under food storage conditions and examined options to obtain a food-grade agent. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Leg1 against E. coli (62.5 µM) proved stable over seven days at 20 °C or 4 °C. It was not influenced by reduced pH (5.0 vs. 6.8), which is relevant in food such as meat. An incubation temperature of 20 °C vs. 37 °C reduced the MIC to 15.6/7.8 µM against E. coli/B. subtilis. With a minimum bactericidal concentration in meat of 125/15.6 µM against E. coli/B. subtilis, Leg1 is equivalently effective as nisin and 5000–82,000 times more active than sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, or sodium nitrite. Replacing the counter-ion trifluoroacetate derived from peptide synthesis by the more natural alternatives acetate or chloride did not impair the activity of Leg1. As an alternative to chemical synthesis, an optimized protocol for chymotryptic hydrolysis was developed, increasing the yield from chickpea legumin by a factor of 30 compared to the standard procedure. The present results indicate that food-grade Leg1 could possibly be applicable for food preservation.
9

Hayat, S., and A. Ahmad. "Nitrate reductase activity and yield of Lens culinaris sprayed with 28-homobrassinolide." Acta Agronomica Hungarica 51, no. 4 (December 2003): 381–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/aagr.51.2003.4.2.

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Thirty-day-old plants of Lens culinaris (L.) Medic. cv. Pusa-6 were sprayed with 10-10, 10-8 or 10-6 M aqueous solutions of 28-homobrassinolide (HBR). Root length and nodule number per plant decreased, whereas the leaf nitrate reductase activity (E.C. 1.6.6.1) at 60, 90 and 120 days after sowing and the seed yield at harvest increased significantly in plants sprayed with either concentration of HBR. The values increased at first with an increase in the concentration of HBR but decreased with a further increase above 10-8M, which proved best for improving seed production.
10

Ródenas-Torralba, Eva, Fábio R. P. Rocha, Boaventura F. Reis, Ángel Morales-Rubio, and Miguel de la Guardia. "Evaluation of a Multicommuted Flow System for Photometric Environmental Measurements." Journal of Automated Methods and Management in Chemistry 2006 (2006): 1–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/jammc/2006/20384.

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A portable flow analysis instrument is described for in situ photometric measurements. This system is based on light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and a photodiode detector, coupled to a multipumping flow system. The whole equipment presents dimensions of25 cm×22 cm×10 cm, weighs circa 3 kg, and costs 650 €. System performance was evaluated for different chemistries without changing hardware configuration for determinations of (i)Fe3+withSCN-, (ii) iodometric nitrite determination, (iii) phenol with sodium nitroprusside, and (iv) 1-naphthol-N-methylcarbamate (carbaryl) withp-aminophenol. The detection limits were estimated as 22, 60, 25, and 60 ngmL-1for iron, nitrite, phenol, and carbaryl at the 99.7% confidence level with RSD of 2.3, 1.0, 1.8, and 0.8%, respectively. Reagent and waste volumes were lower than those obtained by flow systems with continuous reagent addition. Sampling rates of 100, 110, 65, and 72 determinations per hour were achieved for iron, nitrite, phenol, and carbaryl determinations
11

Ying, Qinglu, Chase Jones-Baumgardt, Youbin Zheng, and Gale Bozzo. "The Proportion of Blue Light from Light-emitting Diodes Alters Microgreen Phytochemical Profiles in a Species-specific Manner." HortScience 56, no. 1 (January 2021): 13–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.21273/hortsci15371-20.

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Microgreens are specialty vegetables that contain human health-promoting phytochemicals. Typically, microgreens are cultivated in controlled environments under red and blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs). However, the impact of varying the proportions of these light qualities on the composition of diverse phytochemicals in indoor-grown microgreens is unclear. To address this problem, the levels of chlorophylls, carotenoids, ascorbates, phenolics, anthocyanins, and nitrate were examined in arugula (Eruca sativa L.), ‘Red Russian’ kale [Brassica napus L. subsp. napus var. pabularia (DC.) Alef.], ‘Mizuna’ mustard (Brassica juncea L.), and red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata f. rubra) microgreens following cultivation under LEDs supplying varying proportions of blue light (5% to 30%) and red light (70% to 95%). Varying the proportion of blue light did not affect the extractable levels of total chlorophyll, total carotenoids, or nitrate in all four microgreen species. Generally, the levels of reduced and total ascorbate were greatest in arugula, kale, and mustard microgreens at 20% blue light, and a minor decrease was apparent at 30% blue light. These metabolite profiles were not impacted by the blue light percentage in red cabbage. Kale and mustard accumulated more total phenolics at 30% blue light than all other blue light regimens; however, this phytochemical attribute was unaffected in arugula and red cabbage. The total anthocyanin concentration increased proportionally with the percentage of supplied blue light up to 30% in all microgreens, with the exception of mustard. Our research showed that 20% blue light supplied from LED arrays is ideal for achieving optimal levels of both reduced and total ascorbate in all microgreens except red cabbage, and that 30% blue light promotes the greatest accumulation of total anthocyanin in indoor-grown Brassicaceae microgreens, with the exception of mustard.
12

Zhang, Zhengming, and George R. Long. "Thermal Lens Study of the Absorbance of Silver Colloid Solutions Produced by Photoreduction." Applied Spectroscopy 47, no. 12 (December 1993): 2126–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1366/0003702934066550.

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The absorption of light by photolytically generated silver colloid solutions is studied by thermal lens spectrophotometry. It is found that absorbance by silver nitrate solutions at 488 nm is a result of colloid formation. The absorbance is related to the particle size distribution and varies substantially from measurement to measurement even within the same colloidal solution. The shot-to-shot variance of the thermal lens signal is minimized by producing the colloid in a flowing AgNO3 solution, but still varies significantly from solution to solution at equal concentrations.
13

Lewis-Younger, Cynthia R. "Lens Opacifications Detected by Slitlamp Biomicroscopy Are Associated With Exposure to Organic Nitrate Explosives." Archives of Ophthalmology 118, no. 12 (December 2000): 1653. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archopht.118.12.1653.

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14

Chang, Chung-Liang, Kuang-Pi Chang, and Wei-Lun Fu. "Testing of Various Monochromatic LED Lights Used in Supplemental Irradiation of Lettuce in Modern Urban Rooftop Polytunnels." Applied Engineering in Agriculture 35, no. 3 (2019): 439–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.13031/aea.13192.

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Abstract. Urban farming could provide both vegetable growers and urban dwellers with more direct access to various fresh vegetables. Nevertheless, certain challenging problems associated with urban farming, including a lack of cultivation space and the effects of urban heat islands, must still be solved. Relatedly, a grower must, in some cases, also know how to utilize various forms of technology, such as lighting systems, as well as factors such as water availability. In this study, an original rooftop polytunnel design for lettuce ( cv. Lollo Rosso) cultivation equipped with a hydroponic system and light emitting diodes (LEDs) is proposed. Various monochromatic lights were also tested for their effects on different quality parameters of lettuce. Specifically, supplemental red (655 nm), blue (445 nm), green (520 nm), and ultraviolet (380 nm) LED lights were used at night to apply photon fluxes of 150, 150, 150, and 20 µmol.m-2.s-1, respectively. The resulting effects of these different colored LEDs on the pigment concentration and growth response of the lettuce grown inside the roof polytunnel were then investigated. The experiment was then repeated several times with different environmental parameters in order to compare the effects of the different light wavelengths under higher temperatures and higher natural irradiation conditions.The results indicated that supplemental red or blue light at night could be strategically employed to maintain low nitrate levels and enhance the nutritional value and growth of lettuce grown in roof polytunnels. Keywords: Light emitting-diodes, LEDs, Hydroponic, Red lettuce, Rooftop polytunnel, Urban agriculture.
15

Philibert, R., H. Waldron, and D. Clark. "A geographical and seasonal comparison of nitrogen uptake by phytoplankton in the Southern Ocean." Ocean Science 11, no. 2 (March 2015): 251–67. http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/os-11-251-2015.

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Abstract. The impact of light and nutrients (such as silicate and iron) availability on nitrogen uptake and primary production vary seasonally and regionally in the Southern Ocean. The seasonal cycle of nitrogen uptake by phytoplankton in the Southern Ocean is not fully resolved over an annual scale due to the lack of winter in situ measurements. In this study, nitrate and ammonium uptake rates were measured using 15N tracers during a winter cruise in July 2012 and a summer cruise in February–March 2013. The winter cruise consisted of two legs: leg 1 extended from Cape Town to the ice margin along the GoodHope line and leg 2 stretched from the ice margin to Marion Island. The summer cruise was mostly focused on the subantarctic zone of the Atlantic sector. In winter, nitrogen uptake rates were measured at 55 and 1% of the surface photosynthetically active radiation (sPAR). The summer uptake rates were measured at four light depths corresponding to 55, 30, 10 and 3% sPAR. The integrated nitrate uptake rates during the winter cruise ranged from 0.17 to 5.20 mmol N m−2 d−1 (average 1.14 mmol N m−2 d−1) while the ammonium uptake rates ranged from 0.60 to 32.86 mmol N m−2 d−1 (average 6.73 mmol N m−2 d−1). During the summer cruise, the mean-integrated nitrate uptake rate was 0.20 mmol N m−2 d−1 with a range between 0.10 and 0.38 mmol N m−2 d−1. The integrated ammonium uptake rate averaged 4.39 mmol N m−2 d−1 and ranged from 1.12 to 9.05 mmol N m−2 d−1. The factors controlling nitrogen uptake in winter and summer were investigated. During the winter cruise, it was found that the different nitrogen uptake regimes were not separated by the fronts of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). Light (in terms of day length) and ammonium concentration had the most influence on the nitrogen uptake. In the summer, increases in the mixed layer depth (MLD) resulted in increased nitrogen uptake rates. This suggests that the increases in the MLD could be alleviating nutrient limitations experienced by the phytoplankton at the end of summer.
16

PAIK, DAVID C., and JAMES DILLON. "The Nitrite/Alpha Crystallin Reaction: A Possible Mechanism in Lens Matrix Damage." Experimental Eye Research 70, no. 1 (January 2000): 73–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/exer.1999.0761.

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17

Wang, Cong, Zhen Li, Zhongli Pan, and Daoliang Li. "A High-Performance Optoelectronic Sensor Device for Nitrate Nitrogen in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems." Sensors 18, no. 10 (October 2018): 3382. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s18103382.

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The determination of nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) in recirculating aquaculture systems is of great significance for the health assessment of the living environment of aquatic animals. Unfortunately, the commonly used spectrophotometric methods often yield unstable results, especially when the ambient temperature varies greatly in the field measurement. Here, we have developed a novel handheld absorbance measurement sensor based on the thymol-NO3-N chromogenic rearrangement reaction. In terms of hardware, the sensor adopts a dual channel/dual wavelength colorimeter structure that features a modulated light source transmitter and a synchronous detector receiver. The circuit measures the ratio of light absorbed by the sample and reference containers at two LEDs with peak wavelengths at 420 nm and 450 nm. Using the modulated source and synchronous detector rather than a constant (DC) source eliminates measurement errors due to ambient light and low frequency noise and provides higher accuracy. In terms of software, we design a new quantitative analysis algorithm for absorbance by studying colloid absorbing behavior. The application of a buffer operator embedded in the algorithm makes the sensor get the environmental correction function. The results have shown that the sensitivity, repeatability, precision and environmental stability are higher than that by ordinary spectrophotometry. Lastly, we have a brief overview of future work.
18

Hasnaa, Zaouri. "Ashy dermatosis : A case of cinderella." International Journal of Medicine and Surgery 2, no. 2 (December 2015): 49. http://dx.doi.org/10.15342/ijms.v2i2.64.

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We report the case of a 20-years old female, who presented anasymptomatic grayish macules affecting the neck, trunk and roots of legs (Panel A). Histopathologic examination showed an increased dermal melanophages (Panel B) and a vacuolization of basal cell layer (Panel C), evoking an ashy dermatosis (AD). Paraclinical assessment didn't find any related disease. Multiple therapy was proposed such as corticosteroids andphototherapy. Evolution was marked by the extension of lesions in members at five years of follow-up.AD was first described by Ramírez. He called the patients «Los cenicientos». The Spanish term cenicienta means Cinderella, because of this folklore character's close association with ashes from sitting at home alone by the fireplace. Most cases present gray–brown macules which are commonly found on the face, arms, neck, and trunk. Histopathologic findings are nonspecific and include vacuolization of the basal layer, pigmentary incontinence and perivascular inflammatory infiltrate. The etiology of AD is unknown. Some authors reported associations with ammonium nitrate, whipworm infestation and HIV seroconversions. Many treatments was proposed such as corticosteroids, dapsone, clofazimine and phototherapy, but the results are not satisfactory. Such as basic research on the pathogenesis and treatment of hypermelanosis continuous, we look for more answers to the questions raised by this case.
19

Yi, Soung Soo, and Jae Yong Jung. "Rare earth doped organic–inorganic hybrid polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane phosphors applied for flexible sheet and anti-counterfeiting." Materials Express 11, no. 10 (October 2021): 1732–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/mex.2021.2073.

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We have developed organic–inorganic hybrid polyhedral oligomeric silsequioxane (POSS) type monomer ligand 2,6-pyridinediamine-bis-propanylheptaisobutyl POSS (PDC-POSS) and synthesized rare earth (RE =Eu3+) doped hybrid complex PDC-POSS phosphors. The PDC-POSS precursor was prepared using (3-aminopropyl)heptaisobutyl POSS, 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid chloride (PDC) as the host material, and then coordinated with RE3+ using europium nitrate regents to synthesize PDC-POSS:Eu3+ phosphors. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the PDC-POSS:Eu3+ hybrid phosphors were detected at 592, 616, 649, 693 nm under UV light (λ= 288 nm) excitation. In addition, the synthesized hybrid phosphors showed red light emission under UV light. The phosphors were demonstrated on a flexible sheet that could be applied for red emitting LEDs, and for anti-counterfeiting, which requires the film to remain hidden and identifiable only by UV light.
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Akojwar, Ashish, Dipak Nagapure, Purushottam Naktode, Kartik Shinde, and Namdeo Kokode. "A novel 5d-7f transition phosphor KAl1–xPO4Cl:Tbx3+ (0.1 ≤ x ≤ 1.0)." European Physical Journal Applied Physics 97 (2022): 5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/epjap/2021210199.

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The present work reports on the synthesis of Terbium (Tb) doped KAlPO4Cl phosphors by the combustion of metal nitrates and urea carried out in a muffle furnace at a temperature of 650 °C. The powder phosphor samples obtained after combustion were characterized for structural and morphological analysis. Upon excitation with ultraviolet light of 380 nm, KAlPO4Cl doped with trivalent terbium ions exhibited strong emission in green light region with a weak emission in blue region which is very close to NUV region emission peaks situated at 544 nm and 551 nm. The emission spectrum reveals the potential of KAlPO4Cl:Tb3+ phosphor for LED as well as W-LEDs.
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Ranajit Ku, Shaha. "Role of Light in the Regulation of the Nitrate Reductase level in Lentil (Lens esculenta L.)." Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 6, no. 21 (October 2003): 1802–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/pjbs.2003.1802.1807.

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Samuolienė, Giedrė, Aušra Brazaitytė, Julė Jankauskienė, Akvilė Viršilė, Ramūnas Sirtautas, Algirdas Novičkovas, Sandra Sakalauskienė, Jurga Sakalauskaitė, and Pavelas Duchovskis. "LED irradiance level affects growth and nutritional quality of Brassica microgreens." Open Life Sciences 8, no. 12 (December 2013): 1241–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/s11535-013-0246-1.

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AbstractThis study examines the effect of irradiance level produced by solid-state light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on the growth, nutritional quality and antioxidant properties of Brassicaceae family microgreens. Kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes, ‘Delicacy Purple’) mustard (Brassica juncea L., ‘Red Lion’), red pak choi (Brassica rapa var. chinensis, ‘Rubi F1’) and tatsoi (Brassica rapa var. rosularis) were grown using peat substrate in controlled-environment chambers until harvest time (10 days, 21/17°C, 16 h). A system of five lighting modules with 455, 638, 665 and 731 nm LEDs at a total photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD) of 545, 440, 330, 220 and 110 µmol m−2s−1 respectively were used. Insufficient levels of photosynthetically active photon flux (110 µmol m−2 s−1) suppressed normal growth and diminished the nutritional value of the Brassica microgreens studied. In general, the most suitable conditions for growth and nutritional quality of the microgreens was 330–440 µmol m−2 s−1 irradiation, which resulted in a larger leaf surface area, lower content of nitrates and higher total anthocyanins, total phenols and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical scavenging capacity. High light levels (545 µmol m−2 s−1), which was expected to induce mild photostress, had no significant positive impact for most of investigated parameters.
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Naeem, K., and A. Hussain. "Development of a Matlab Code for Plane Wave Lens and its Validation by Autodyn-2D." Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research 8, no. 6 (December 2018): 3614–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.48084/etasr.2415.

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Plane wave generator is normally composed of two explosives having dissimilar detonation velocity. It is used for directing the spherically outgoing shock wave front to a planar form. Plane wave generators are utilized to find material behavior under dynamic loading. This paper presents the shock arrival time for two plane wave generators by developed Matlab code and its comparison with Ansys Autodyn. The diameter of both plane wave generators is kept the same. One plane wave generator is composed of Octogen and Barium Nitrate and the other is composed of Octogen and Tri Nitro Toluene. Obtained results were surprisingly in agreement. Maximum and minimum obtained flatness for the plane wave were ±0.56 and ±0.08ms respectively within the whole diameter of the plane wave generator. The developed code can be utilized to find the profile of a plane wave generator, minimizing the time and cost many times.
24

Lauf, Peter K., Sandeep Misri, Ameet A. Chimote, and Norma C. Adragna. "Apparent intermediate K conductance channel hyposmotic activation in human lens epithelial cells." American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology 294, no. 3 (March 2008): C820—C832. http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00375.2007.

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This study explores the nature of K fluxes in human lens epithelial cells (LECs) in hyposmotic solutions. Total ion fluxes, Na-K pump, Cl-dependent Na-K-2Cl (NKCC), K-Cl (KCC) cotransport, and K channels were determined by 85Rb uptake and cell K (Kc) by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and cell water gravimetrically after exposure to ouabain ± bumetanide (Na-K pump and NKCC inhibitors), and ion channel inhibitors in varying osmolalities with Na, K, or methyl-d-glucamine and Cl, sulfamate, or nitrate. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot analyses, and immunochemistry were also performed. In isosmotic (300 mosM) media ∼90% of the total Rb influx occurred through the Na-K pump and NKCC and ∼10% through KCC and a residual leak. Hyposmotic media (150 mosM) decreased Kc by a 16-fold higher K permeability and cell water, but failed to inactivate NKCC and activate KCC. Sucrose replacement or extracellular K to >57 mM, but not Rb or Cs, in hyposmotic media prevented Kc and water loss. Rb influx equaled Kc loss, both blocked by clotrimazole (IC50 ∼25 μM) and partially by 1-[(2-chlorophenyl) diphenylmethyl]-1H-pyrazole (TRAM-34) inhibitors of the IK channel KCa3.1 but not by other K channel or connexin hemichannel blockers. Of several anion channel blockers (dihydro-indenyl)oxy]alkanoic acid (DIOA), 4-2(butyl-6,7-dichloro-2-cyclopentylindan-1-on-5-yl)oxybutyric acid (DCPIB), and phloretin totally or partially inhibited Kc loss and Rb influx, respectively. RT-PCR and immunochemistry confirmed the presence of KCa3.1 channels, aside of the KCC1, KCC2, KCC3 and KCC4 isoforms. Apparently, IK channels, possibly in parallel with volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying Cl channels, effect regulatory volume decrease in LECs.
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Laishram, Bibek, T. Basanta Singh, Athokpam Kalpana, Merinda Wangkheirakpam, Sunil Kumar Chongtham, and W. Jiten Singh. "Effect of Salicylic Acid and Potassium Nitrate on Growth and Yield of Lentil (Lens culinaris L.) under Rainfed Condition." International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences 9, no. 11 (November 2020): 2779–91. http://dx.doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2020.911.337.

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HAYAT, S., and A. AHMAD. "Soaking seeds of Lens culinaris with 28-homobrassinolide increased nitrate reductase activity and grain yield in the field in India." Annals of Applied Biology 143, no. 1 (August 2003): 121–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7348.2003.tb00276.x.

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27

Bantis, Filippos, Mariangela Fotelli, Zoran S. Ilić, and Athanasios Koukounaras. "Physiological and Phytochemical Responses of Spinach Baby Leaves Grown in a PFAL System with LEDs and Saline Nutrient Solution." Agriculture 10, no. 11 (November 2020): 574. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10110574.

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Spinach is a leafy vegetable containing a plethora of bioactive compounds. Our study aimed to evaluate the physiological (i.e., JIP-test) and phytochemical response of spinach baby leaves grown with regular or mildly saline (40 mM NaCl) nutrient solution and irradiated by four light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with broad spectra. T1 (highest red and far-red, low blue) and T3 (high red, balanced blue, green and far-red) led to a better developed photosynthetic apparatus compared to T2 (red peak in 631 nm) and T4 (highest blue and green), highlighted by PIABS and its structural components: RC/ABS, φP0, ψE0, and ΔVIP. Elevated salinity only affected the latter parameter. T1 induced the maximum yield production but also the highest nitrate content which was far below the maximum level permitted by European legislation. Regardless of salinity level, T3 enhanced total phenol, chlorophyll, and carotenoid content. T2 and T4 led to inferior nutritional quality. Non-saline nutrient solution promoted the chlorophyll and carotenoid contents and the antioxidant potential, regardless of light treatment. By contrast, soluble sugar content was enhanced by saline nutrient solution. Our study shows that physiology and nutritional quality of spinach baby leaves can be manipulated by small interplays in the light spectra and salinity level.
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Lei, Yang, Huang, and Yeh. "Enhancement of Light Extraction Efficiency for InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes Using Silver Nanoparticle Embedded ZnO Thin Films." Micromachines 10, no. 4 (April 2019): 239. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/mi10040239.

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In this study, we propose a liquid-phase-deposited silver nanoparticle embedded ZnO (LPD-Ag NP/ZnO) thin film at room temperature to improve the light extraction efficiency (LEE) for InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The treatment solution for the deposition of the LPD-Ag/NP ZnO thin film comprised a ZnO-powder-saturated HCl and a silver nitrate (AgNO3) aqueous solution. The enhanced LEE of an InGaN/GaN LED with the LPD-Ag NP/ZnO window layer can be attributed to the surface texture and localized surface plasmon (LSP) coupling effect. The surface texture of the LPD-Ag/NP ZnO window layer relies on the AgNO3 concentration, which decides the root-mean-square (RMS) roughness of the thin film. The LSP resonance or extinction wavelength also depends on the concentration of AgNO3, which determines the Ag NP size and content of Ag atoms in the LPD-Ag NP/ZnO thin film. The AgNO3 concentration for the optimal LEE of an InGaN/GaN LED with an LPD-Ag NP/ZnO window layer occurs at 0.05 M, which demonstrates an increased light output intensity that is approximately 1.52 times that of a conventional InGaN/GaN LED under a 20-mA driving current.
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Mohite, R. M., J. N. Ansari, A. S. Roy, and R. R. Kothawale. "Significant Enhancement in the Conductivity of Al-Doped Zinc Oxide thin Films for TCO Application." International Journal of Nanoscience 15, no. 04 (August 2016): 1650011. http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/s0219581x16500113.

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Nanostructured Al-doped Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were deposited on glass substrate by chemical bath deposition (CBD) using aqueous zinc nitrate solution and subjected for different characterizations. Effect of Al[Formula: see text] substitution on the properties of ZnO annealed at 400[Formula: see text]C was studied by XRD and UV-Vis for structural studies, SEM and TEM for surface morphology and DC four probe resistivity measurements for electrical properties. Al[Formula: see text] substitution does not influence the morphology and well-known peaks related to wurtzite structure of ZnO. Electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) confirms rod shaped Al-doped ZnO nanocrystals with average width of 50[Formula: see text]nm. The optical band gap determined by UV–Visible spectroscopy was found to be in the range 3.37[Formula: see text]eV to 3.44[Formula: see text]eV. An EPR spectrum of AZO reveals peak at [Formula: see text] is due to shallow donors Zn interstitial. The DC electrical resistivity measurements of Al-doped ZnO show a minimum resistivity of [Formula: see text]-cm. Therefore, these samples have potential use in n-type window layer in optoelectronic devices, organic solar cells, photonic crystals, photo-detectors, light emitting diodes (LEDs), gas sensors and chemical sensors.
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Nguyen, Thi-Phuong-Dung, Ngoc-Thang Vu, Quang-Thach Nguyen, Thi-Thanh-Huyen Tran, Phi-Bang Cao, Il-Seop Kim, and Dong-Cheol Jang. "Growth and Quality of Hydroponic Cultivated Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) Affected by the Light Intensity of Red and Blue LEDs." Sains Malaysiana 51, no. 2 (February 2022): 473–83. http://dx.doi.org/10.17576/jsm-2022-5102-12.

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This study aimed to evaluate the effect of four light intensities (90, 140, 190 and 240 µmol m-2 s-1) provided by red-blue LED light (spectrum ratio: R660/B450 = 4/1) on the growth and quality of hydroponic cultivated spinach. The results showed that when the light intensity increased, plant height, leaf number, root length, leaf width, shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, root fresh weight and root dry weight were increased but specific leaf weight and shoot-to-root ratio did not increase. The highest values of growth parameters were observed under 190 µmol m-2 s-1 treatment, while the lowest values were observed under 90 µmol m-2 s-1 treatment. At higher light intensities, K+, oxalic acid and nitrate contents tended to decrease but not Ca2+ content. Meanwhile, the highest values of Fe2+, crude fiber, soluble-solids, total polyphenol and vitamin C contents were observed under 190 µmol m-2 s-1 treatment, but 190 µmol m-2 s-1 treatment showed the lowest organic acid content. Our results indicated that among all experimental lighting treatments, 190 µmol m-2 s-1 light intensity showed the best effect on the growth and quality of hydroponic cultivated spinach.
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Han, Yu-Ze, Wen-Xiang Ji, Bi-Cun Jiang, Ye-Chao Tian, Shan-Qi Shen, Dong Zhou, Yan Li, et al. "Developing a Miniaturized Spectrophotometer Using 235 and 275 nm UVC-LEDs for Fast Detection of Nitrate in Natural Water and Wastewater Effluents." ACS ES&T Water 1, no. 12 (November 2021): 2548–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsestwater.1c00351.

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MORIGA, TOSHIHIRO, YUTA SAKANAKA, YOSHINORI MIKI, KEI-ICHIRO MURAI, and ICHIRO NAKABAYASHI. "LUMINESCENT PROPERTIES OF (Y,Gd)3Al5O12:Ce PHOSPHORS PREPARED BY CITRIC-GEL METHOD." International Journal of Modern Physics B 20, 25n27 (October 2006): 4159–64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/s0217979206041021.

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Y 3 Al 5 O 12: Ce and ( Y , Gd )3 Al 5 O 12: Ce powder phosphors were prepared by a citric-gel method by using metals nitrates as starting materials and citric acid as a complexing agent. Single phase of Y 3 Al 5 O 12: Ce was obtained by firing a precursor of the metal-citrate complexes at as low as 1000°C for 5 hours. All the Y 3 Al 5 O 12: Ce phosphors showed broad emission peaks in the range of 480-650nm and had the maximum intensity at 529nm, which were stimulated by blue-LEDs. Excitation spectra of Y 3 Al 5 O 12: Ce with different concentrations of Ce showed that the optimum amount of the doping was 1mol% for best luminescence. The photoluminescent wavelength of the ( Y , Gd )3 Al 5 O 12: Ce ( Ce :1mol%) increased monotonically with increasing the amount of Gd concentration (up to 560nm for Gd 3 Al 5 O 12: Ce ), in accordance with a linear increase of their lattice constant (e.g. 12.01Å for Y 3 Al 5 O 12: Ce and 12.11Å for Gd 3 Al 5 O 12: Ce ).
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Gacem, Hocine, Hadjer Nour El Imane Beriala, Asma Hamzi, Rachida Derghal, and Amel Ahmane. "Drug-drug interactions: prospective study targeting department of cardiology." Batna Journal of Medical Sciences (BJMS) 1, no. 1 (July 2014): 2–6. http://dx.doi.org/10.48087/bjmsoa.2014.1102.

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Background: Drug-drug interactions are a major cause and a source of iatrogenic events. It has been estimated that 42% of adverse drug reactions are preventable and occur mainly at the stage of prescription (49%) of which 17% are caused by drug-drug interactions. Aim: To estimate the prevalence of drug-drug interactions in the cardiology department, describe and analyze them according to associated factors. Method: A prospective observational study during 5 months from February to June 2013, at the medical cardiology department of Batna, was conducted on patients aged over 16 years who were admitted at least during 24 hours and received at least two drugs. Demographic and pharmacological data were collected using a validated and tested questionnaire. The prescriptions were analyzed searching for possible drug-drug interactions, using an automatized system of detection (THERIAQUE®). Descriptive statistics are generated and a univariate study is used to determine the associated factors. Results and Discussion: A total of 313 patients were included in the study, with a predominance of ischemic cardiopathy (43.8%, n: 137). 1115 interactions were identified in 285 patients. The prevalence of drug-drug interactions was estimated at 90.7% where drug classes most commonly involved belong to the cardiovascular system (63%) and the blood and blood-forming organs (32.4%). The most commonly concerned drugs were nitrates/inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme- angiotensin II receptor antagonist (14.0%) and heparin/inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme- angiotensin II receptor antagonists (12.1%). Drug classes most commonly involved belong to the cardiovascular system (63%) and that of the blood and blood-forming organs (32.4%). 50.2% of patients expressed adverse drug reactions whose most observed were: hypotension (36.3%) and bleeding (17.2%). Age, number of comorbidities, number of medications are factors for drug-drug interactions. Obtained prevalence is significantly high relative to that reported by literature (14-58 %). This difference is due to the fact that some studies were conducted in a single department while others in all departments of the hospital which may have high-level recruitment at low risk and therefore lower prevalence than those emerged in one department.
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Brito, Ângela, Mariana Rocha, Jan Kaštovský, Jorge Vieira, Cristina P. Vieira, Vitor Ramos, Manuel Correia, et al. "A new cyanobacterial species with a protective effect on lettuce grown under salinity stress: Envisaging sustainable agriculture practices." Journal of Applied Phycology 34, no. 2 (February 2022): 915–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10811-022-02692-4.

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AbstractIn this work, a new terrestrial cyanobacterial species, Oculatella lusitanica LEGE 161147, was isolated and characterized using a polyphasic approach. Morphologically, O. lusitanica shares characteristics with different Oculatella species (mainly with O. crustae-formantes), lacking distinctive features. However, the phylogeny based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence and the 16S-23S ITS secondary structures support the establishment of this isolate as a new species. O. lusitanica is placed within a clade mainly composed by other Oculatella terrestrial strains; however, it forms a separate lineage. In addition, our species differs from the other Oculatella described so far by lacking the V2 helix within the ITS region. Since cyanobacteria are known to release compounds that promote plant growth and/or increase their tolerance to stresses, the effect of this newly described cyanobacterial species on Lactuca sativa (lettuce) plants development and salinity stress resistance was evaluated. Our results showed that, although the cyanobacterium had no impact on plant growth under the conditions tested, it was able to mitigate the deleterious salinity stress effects on plant size, root and aerial part fresh weight, by eliciting the non-enzymatic antioxidant response system (proline, H2O2 and reduced glutathione). In addition, the microorganism was able to induce a priming effect on lettuce plants by stimulating defensive mechanisms under non-stress conditions, and enhances the activity of nitrogen metabolism-related enzymes glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamine synthetase and nitrate reductase. These results indicate that this native terrestrial cyanobacterial species could be employed as a tool in sustainable agricultural practices.
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Keramati, Arezoo, Soroush Azizi, Ali Hashemi, and Farshid Pajoum Shariati. "Effects of flashing light–emitting diodes (LEDs) on membrane fouling in a reciprocal membrane photobioreactor (RMPBR) to assess nitrate and phosphate removal from whey wastewater." Journal of Applied Phycology 33, no. 3 (February 2021): 1513–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10811-021-02388-1.

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36

Pagels, Fernando, José Bonomi Barufi, Julia Vega, Roberto Abdala-Díaz, Vitor Vasconcelos, A. Catarina Guedes, and Félix L. Figueroa. "Light regulating metabolic responses of Cyanobium sp. (Cyanobacteria)." Fundamental and Applied Limnology / Archiv für Hydrobiologie 193, no. 4 (June 2020): 285–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1127/fal/2020/1290.

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Cyanobacteria are an important group of microorganisms of significant economic interest due to, for ex- ample, the antioxidant capacity of their metabolites. Cyanobium sp. LEGE 06113 is a marine cyanobacterium poorly studied, but with promising future applications. The aim of this study was to optimize the light conditions (both source and irradiance) and nutrient (N and P) concentration for Cyanobium sp. production as a source of high-valued com- pounds. The optimization of the processing parameters was performed using two different light sources (fluorescent and low-pressure sodium lamp), four irradiances (50, 100, 200 and 300 μmol photons m–2 s–1) and two variations of BG11 medium (BG11 and BG11+, with the second containing double amounts of phosphates and nitrates). The effects of the three factors were evaluated on the biomass production, photosynthetic activity, biochemical composition and antioxidant capacity. A synergistic effect between the light source, light intensity, and medium was observed for all measured parameters, with the greatest impact of light irradiance on the metabolism of Cyanobium sp. The combination of the SOX lamp, BG11+ medium, and a light irradiance of 200 μmol photons m–2 s–1 was optimal for the cultivation of Cyanobium sp. This work reports the tools for the production of Cyanobium sp. as a source of high-value products, thus increasing its biotechnological potentials.
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Matysiak, Bożena, Ewa Ropelewska, Anna Wrzodak, Artur Kowalski, and Stanisław Kaniszewski. "Yield and Quality of Romaine Lettuce at Different Daily Light Integral in an Indoor Controlled Environment." Agronomy 12, no. 5 (April 2022): 1026. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12051026.

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In this study, the effect of different photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) provided by LEDs (Light Emitting Diodes) and photoperiod on biomass production, morphological traits, photosynthetic performance, sensory attributes, and image texture parameters of indoor cultivated romaine lettuce was evaluated. Two cultivars of lettuce Lactuca sativa var. longifolium namely ‘Casual’ (Syngenta)—midi romaine lettuce with medium-compact heads—and ‘Elizium’ (Enza Zaden)—a mini type (Little Gem) with compact heavy heads—were used. PPFD of 160 and 240 µmol m−2 s−1 and photoperiod of 16 and 20 h were applied, and Daily Light Integral (DLI) values were 9.2, 11.5, 13.8, and 17.3 mol m−2 day−1. The experiment lasted 30 days in the Indoor Controlled Environment Agriculture facility. DLI equal to 17.3 mol m−2 per day for cv. ‘Casual’ and 11.5–17.3 mol m−2 per day for cv. ‘Elizium’ allowed to obtain a very high fresh weight, 350 and 240 g, respectively, within 30 days of cultivation in an indoor plant production facility. The application of the lowest PPFD 160 µmol m−2 s−1 and 16 h photoperiod (9.2 mol m−2 per day DLI) resulted in the lowest fresh weight, the number of leaves and head circumference. The level of nitrate, even at the lowest DLI, was below the limit imposed by European Community Regulation. The cv. ‘Elizium’ lettuce grown at PPFD 240 µmol m−2 s−1 and 16 h photoperiod had the highest overall sensory quality. The cv. ‘Casual’ lettuce grown at PPFD 160 µmol m−2 s−1 and 20 h photoperiod had the lowest sensory quality. The samples subjected to different photoperiod and PPFD were also successively distinguished in an objective and non-destructive way using image features and machine learning algorithms. The average accuracy for the leaf samples of cv. ‘Casual’ lettuce reached 98.75% and for cv. ‘Elizium’ cultivar—86.25%. The obtained relationship between DLI and yield, as well as the quality of romaine lettuce, can be used in practice to improve romaine lettuce production in an Indoor Controlled Environment.
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Gewiß, Helge, Ulrich Timm, Jens Kraitl, Beate Brock, and Hartmut Ewald. "Non-invasive multi wavelengths sensorsystem for measuring carboxy-and methemoglobin." Current Directions in Biomedical Engineering 3, no. 2 (September 2017): 441–44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/cdbme-2017-0092.

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AbstractStandard pulse oximetry only measures the functional derivatives oxyhemoglobin (O2Hb) and deoxyhemoglobin (HHb) to calculate the arterial oxygenation. However, the two dysfunctional hemoglobin derivatives carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and methemoglobin (MetHb) are of much interest. The gold standard detecting abnormal concentration of COHb or MetHb is the blood gas analysis (BGA). In this paper a non-invasive method for measuring these derivatives and a setup for validation is presented.A standard pulse oximeter utilizes a sensor with two LEDs at the wavelengths 660 nm and 905 nm. For achieving information about the other hemoglobin derivatives, the new sensor is equipped with additional wavelengths between 500 nm and 1400 nm. An artificial blood-flow-model is used to simulate the blood flow through tissue. In this model a variation of the concentrations O2Hb, MetHb and COHb is feasible. The reflection of emitted light is measured for wavelengths between 500 nm and 600 nm, whereas transmission is measured for emitted light above 600 nm. An algorithm was designed to calculate the different hemoglobin derivatives independently. Therefore, the perfusion for each wavelength is computed and combined in a linear regression model.An in-vivo animal study with 18 pigs confirmed previous simulations. The pigs were ventilated with a respiratory minute volume of 4 l. To induce hypoxia (minimal SaO2 70 %), the inhaled air was mixed with nitrogen. Ventilating with 100 % oxygen reoxygenated the pigs. An increase of MetHb up to 35 % was induced by sodium nitrite. Afterwards methylene blue decreased the concentration. Carbon monoxide was mixed with the inhaled air to raise the COHb concentration up to 40 %. Different combinations of concentrations were performed. The references were achieved via BGA.It is shown that this setup is capable of measuring COHb, MetHb and O2Hb non-invasively. The setup is accurate even when manipulating hemoglobin derivatives in parallel.
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Waked, A., O. Favez, L. Y. Alleman, C. Piot, J. E. Petit, T. Delaunay, E. Verlinden, et al. "Source apportionment of PM<sub>10</sub> in a North-Western Europe regional urban background site (Lens, France) using Positive Matrix Factorization and including primary biogenic emissions." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions 13, no. 10 (October 2013): 25325–85. http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/acpd-13-25325-2013.

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Abstract. In this work, the source of ambient particulate matter (PM10) collected over a one year period at an urban background site in Lens (France) were determined and investigated using a~Positive Matrix Factorization receptor model (US EPA PMF v3.0). In addition, a Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) was performed by means of the Hysplit v4.9 model to assess prevailing geographical origins of the identified sources. A selective iteration process was followed for the qualification of the more robust and meaningful PMF solution. Components measured and used in the PMF include inorganic and organic species: soluble ionic species, trace elements, elemental carbon (EC), sugars alcohols, sugar anhydride, and organic carbon (OC). The mean PM10 concentration measured from March 2011 to March 2012 was about 21 μg m−3 with typically OM, nitrate and sulfate contributing to most of the mass and accounting respectively for 5.8, 4.5 and 2.3 μg m−3 on a yearly basis. Accordingly, PMF outputs showed that the main emission sources were (in a decreasing order of contribution): secondary inorganic aerosols (28% of the total PM10 mass), aged marine emissions (19%), with probably predominant contribution of shipping activities, biomass burning (13%), mineral dust (13%), primary biogenic emissions (9%), fresh sea salts (8%), primary traffic emissions (6%) and heavy oil combustion (4%). Significant temporal variations were observed for most of the identified sources. In particular, biomass burning emissions were negligible in summer but responsible for about 25% of total PM10 and 50% of total OC at wintertime. Conversely, primary biogenic emissions were found to be negligible in winter but to represent about 20% of total PM10 and 40% of total OC in summer. The latter result calls for more investigations of primary biogenic aerosols using source apportionment studies, which quite usually disregards this type of sources. This study furthermore underlines the major influence of secondary processes during daily threshold exceedances. Finally, apparent discrepancies that could be generally observed between filter-based studies (such as the present one) and Aerosol Mass Spectrometer-based PMF analyses (organic fractions) are also discussed here.
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Waked, A., O. Favez, L. Y. Alleman, C. Piot, J. E. Petit, T. Delaunay, E. Verlinden, et al. "Source apportionment of PM<sub>10</sub> in a north-western Europe regional urban background site (Lens, France) using positive matrix factorization and including primary biogenic emissions." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 14, no. 7 (April 2014): 3325–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-3325-2014.

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Abstract. In this work, the source of ambient particulate matter (PM10) collected over a one-year period at an urban background site in Lens (France) was determined and investigated using a positive matrix factorization receptor model (US EPA PMF v3.0). In addition, a potential source contribution function (PSCF) was performed by means of the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (Hysplit) v4.9 model to assess prevailing geographical origins of the identified sources. A selective iteration process was followed for the qualification of the more robust and meaningful PMF solution. Components measured and used in the PMF included inorganic and organic species: soluble ionic species, trace elements, elemental carbon (EC), sugar alcohols, sugar anhydride, and organic carbon (OC). The mean PM10 concentration measured from March 2011 to March 2012 was about 21 μg m−3 with typically OM, nitrate and sulfate contributing to most of the mass and accounting respectively for 5.8, 4.5 and 2.3 μg m−3 on a yearly basis. Accordingly, PMF outputs showed that the main emission sources were (in decreasing order of contribution) secondary inorganic aerosols (28% of the total PM10 mass), aged marine emissions (19%), with probably predominant contribution of shipping activities, biomass burning (13%), mineral dust (13%), primary biogenic emissions (9%), fresh sea salts (8%), primary traffic emissions (6%) and heavy oil combustion (4%). Significant temporal variations were observed for most of the identified sources. In particular, biomass burning emissions were negligible in summer but responsible for about 25% of total PM10 and 50% of total OC in wintertime. Conversely, primary biogenic emissions were found to be negligible in winter but to represent about 20% of total PM10 and 40% of total OC in summer. The latter result calls for more investigations of primary biogenic aerosols using source apportionment studies, which quite usually disregard this type of source. This study further underlines the major influence of secondary processes during daily threshold exceedances. Finally, apparent discrepancies that could be generally observed between filter-based studies (such as the present one) and aerosol mass spectrometer-based PMF analyses (organic fractions) are also discussed.
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Константинович, А. В., and И. А. Суходолов. "Valuation growing cocktail-type cucumber hybrids in a vertical farm." Kartofel` i ovoshi, no. 12 (December 2021): 26–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.25630/pav.2021.97.59.005.

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На сегодняшний день главные искусственные источники освещения растений – натриевые лампы высокого давления. Однако в 2021 году уже во многих тепличных комбинатах РФ и других стран мира активно используют светодиодные лампы с различными спектральными режимами в основном в качестве досвечивания. Анализ научных работ показал, что практически отсутствуют достоверные данные по выращиванию основных тепличных культур в условиях использования только светодиодов без естественного освещения. Это не дает полной объективной картины эффективности использования светодиодных ламп. Цель исследований: определить эффективность применения светодиодных ламп при выращивании коктейльных гибридов огурца при повышенной густоте посадки в условиях вертикальной фермы. Исследования проводили в летне-осеннем и весенне-летнем оборотах в 2020–2021 годах на территории УНПЦ «Овощная опытная станция имени В.И. Эдельштейна» РГАУ – МСХА имени К.А. Тимирязева в стеклянных теплицах без досвечивания и ООО «Вертикальные фермы» в закрытом помещении без доступа солнечного света (Москва). Объект исследования – гибриды огурца F1 Ларино, F1 Кватрино, F1 Квирк. В теплице выращивали огурец по малообъемной технологии, в качестве субстрата использовали верховой торф. Для облучения растений применяли светодиодные модули производства ООО «Вертикальные фермы» (30 Вт, 50×7,2 см, в рабочем режиме 2,8–2,9 мкМоль/Дж), которые располагались на расстоянии 0,4 м от растений. Облучали растения по 16 часов в сутки. Установлено, что выращивание растений огурца в вертикальных фермах с использованием полноспектральных светодиодных облучателей и густоты посадки 11,4 раст/м2способствует увеличению общей урожайности огурца в сравнении с остекленной теплицей. При выращивании огурца в условиях вертикальной фермы в плодах огурца накапливалось меньшее количество нитратов (102–105 мг/кг), отмечено более высокое количество содержания сахаров (1,90–1,98%) и сухого вещества (6,21–6,28%) по сравнению с плодами, полученными при выращивании в теплице. Перспективно дальнейшее изучение выращивания культуры огурца в вертикальных фермах с использованием светодиодов. Today, the main artificial sources of plant illumination are high pressure sodium lamps. However, in 2021, many greenhouse plants of the Russian Federation and other countries of the world are actively using LED lamps with various spectral modes mainly as additional illumination. The analysis of scientific papers has shown that there is practically no reliable data on the cultivation of the main greenhouse crops in conditions of using only LEDs without natural lighting. This does not give a complete objective picture of the efficiency of using LED lamps. The purpose of the research: to determine the effectiveness of the use of LED lamps in the cultivation of cucumber cocktail hybrids with increased planting density in a vertical farm. The research was carried out in summer-autumn and spring-summer turns in 2020–2021 on the territory of the V.I. Edelstein Vegetable Experimental Station of the K.A. Timiryazev Russian State Agricultural Academy in glass greenhouses without additional illumination and Vertical Farms LLC indoors without access to sunlight (Moscow). The object of research: cucumber hybrids F1 Larino, F1 Kvatrino, F1Kvirk. Cucumber was grown in the greenhouse using low-volume technology, riding peat was used as a substrate. For irradiation of plants, LED modules manufactured by Vertical Farms LLC (30 W, 50×7.2 cm, in operating mode 2.8–2.9 mmol/J) were used, which were located at a distance of 0.4 m from the plants. Plants were irradiated for 16 hours a day. It was found that the cultivation of cucumber plants in vertical farms using full-spectrum LED irradiators and a planting density of 11.4 rast/m2 contributes to an increase in the total yield of cucumber in comparison with a glazed greenhouse. When growing cucumbers in a vertical farm, fewer nitrates (102–105 mg/kg) accumulated in cucumber fruits, a higher amount of sugar content (1.90–1.98%) and dry matter (6.21–6.28%) were noted compared to fruits obtained when grown in a greenhouse. It is promising to further study the cultivation of cucumber culture in vertical farms using LEDs.
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Karageorgou, Vasiliki (Vicky), and Kleoniki Pouikli. "Access to Justice for Challenging the Decisions of the Competent Authorities for Alleged Violations of the EU Water Legislation before National Courts. Relevant Developments and Trends Through the Lens of the CJEU Judgments in Cases C-197/18 and C-535/18." European Energy and Environmental Law Review 30, Issue 4 (August 2021): 128–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.54648/eelr2021015.

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The aim of the paper is to unpack the recent developments relating to the disputes arising from the ΕU originated Water Legislation in the wake of the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) judgments in the Wasserleitungsverband Nördliches Burgenland and Others (C-197/18) and IL and Others (C- 535/18) Cases respectively. A first issue which is analysed, concerns the contribution of the CJEU Judgments in terms of filling the absence of EU minimum procedural standards, particularly with respect to the standing rights of the natural persons to challenge the decisions of the competent authorities not to take the necessary measures to combat nitrates pollution and the decisions approving infrastructure projects with effects on the water bodies. Issues concerning the standard of review of the respective decisions, which may go beyond the ‘manifest error of assessment’ criterion and the conditions under which direct effect is recognized to the provisions of the EU Environmental Directives, are also discussed. The main conclusion is that the discussed Rulings made a positive contribution in terms of enhancing access to justice before national courts, mainly by ensuring the standing rights of the individual applicants through the enrichment of the concept of those ‘directly concerned’ with the element of the ‘legitimate use’ of the protected environmental good and by reaffirming the Court’s thesis for the direct effect of the provisions of the EU Environmental Directives, which focuses on the obligations of the competent authorities. The Court’s thesis in the IL and Others Case concerning the discretion of MS to limit the pleas which can be permissibly submitted by the individual applicants with regard to the procedural defects does not, though, clarify the issue in a manner that would ensure effective access to justice before national courts. EU Water Legislation, Access to Justice, the Concept of ‘DirectConcern’, Direct Effect, Standard of Review
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Subodha Kumar, Rai G., Nagesha Parvathi, Rangegowda Suresh, Niruvappa Vinay, and Ittigi Vivekananda. "Efficacy and safety of povidone iodine with dimethyl sulfoxide vs 0.05% tretinoin in treatment of molluscum contagiosum: A randomized case control study." Our Dermatology Online 12, e (August 2021): e63-e63. http://dx.doi.org/10.7241/ourd.2021e.63.

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ABSTRACT Background: MC is an infection caused by a poxvirus. It is a self limiting condition, active therapy needed to prevent further spread, relieve symptoms, to prevent scarring and for cosmetic and social reasons. Methods: 40 patients were randomly divided into 2 groups; 20 each for Povidone Iodine with DMSO and 0.05% Tretinoin cream. The given medication was applied at bed time over molluscum lesions. The assessment of response and side effects were performed weekly for 4 weeks. Results: At the end of 4 weeks, the mean lesion count decreased from 6.45±3.60 SD to 4.25±3.76 SD and from 6.85±4.08 SD to 3.60±4.76 SD in patients treated with Povidone Iodine and 0.05% Tretinoin cream respectively. Conclusion: Tretinoin showed fast recovery, lesions were resolved before 4 weeks. In Povidone Iodine with DOMS showed delayed response and even some of lesion extended beyond 4 weeks but the side effect were less. Key words: MC-molluscum contagiosum.DMSO-dimethyl sulfoxide; SD-standard INTRODUCTION Molluscum contagiosum is an infection caused by a poxvirus (molluscum contagiosum virus). It is self-limited infectious dermatosis, frequent in paediatric population, sexually active adults, and immunocompromised individuals. It is caused by molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) which is a virus of the Poxviridae family. MCV is transmitted mainly by direct contact with infected skin, which can be sexual, non-sexual, or autoinoculation [1].The lesions, known as Mollusca, are small, raised, dome shaped and usually pearly white, pink, or flesh-coloured with a dimple or pit in the centre. They often have a pearly appearance. They’re usually smooth and firm. In most people, the lesions range from about the size of a pinhead to as large as 2 to 5 millimetres in diameter. They may become itchy, sore, red, and/or swollen [2]. Mollusca may occur anywhere on the body including the face, neck, arms, legs, abdomen, and genital area, alone or in groups. The lesions are rarely found on the palms of the hands or the soles of the feet. The disease is common, with an estimated prevalence of 5–11%. The disease is rare under the age of 1 year, perhaps due to maternally transmitted immunity and a long incubation period. In hot countries where children are lightly dressed and in close contact with one another, spread within households is not uncommon. The age of peak incidence is reported as between 2 and 5 years. In cooler climates, however, spread within households is rare and infection may occur at a later age, perhaps correlated with the use of swimming pools and shared bathing facilities. A later incidence peak in young adults is attributable to sexual transmission with lesions more common in the genital area [2]. Treatment modalities that have been tried are caustic destruction by cantharidin, trichloroacetic acid, diluted liquefied phenol, Irritants like salicylic acid, adapalene, nitric oxide cream, potassium hydroxide, benzoyl peroxide, lemon myrtle oil, tea tree oil, Surgical irritation like cryotherapy, laser. Immunological modality like diphencyprone, imiquimod, interferon, cimetidine, intralesional immunotherapy and Surgical removal. All-trans-retinoic acid (tretinoin) is easily available as cream base thought to involve the induction of local irritation which damages the viral protein-lipid membrane [2]. Povidone iodine is used primarily in Dermatology as a surgical preparation, as it has been recognized as a broad-spectrum, resistance-free biocidal agent for many years. Povidone iodine also has a long track record of safety and tolerability given its extensive history of use in the operating room. Although incompletely understood, it is likely that free iodine poisons electron transport, inhibits cellular respiration, destabilizes membranes, inhibits protein synthesis, and denatures nucleic acids. Although Povidone iodine kills micro-organisms including bacteria, viruses, yeasts, molds, fungi, and protozoa, it has scarcely been used for purposes outside of skin asepsis in Dermatology. DMSO is currently FDA approved for the treatment of interstitial cystitis. DMSO is also a very effective pharmaceutical vehicle, greatly enhancing percutaneous penetration when used in combination with other substances [3]. Although it is a self limiting condition, a decision may be made in favor of active therapy to prevent further spread, relieve symptoms, to prevent scarring and for cosmetic and social reasons. The current treatment modalities include physical destruction of the lesion by curettage, cryosurgery or manual expression and topical application of caustic agents such as trichloroacetic acid, cantharidin, silver nitrate etc [4]. These therapeutic approaches have to be undertaken in a hospital setup and are not well tolerated by children owing to substantial pain and fear. In addition, these can also result in scarring and abscess formation [5]. Topical application of povidine iodine solution and 0.05% Tretinoin cream are two relatively painless modalities that have been used. Although tretinoin 0.05% cream which is commonly used, have shown different efficacy and safety profile in different studies, there are very few studies using povidone iodine and comparing the two. Hence this study was undertaken in view of comparing the safety and efficacy of the above two modalities in treating molluscum contagiosum. MATERIALS AND METHODS Double blinded randomized control study was conducted among 40 patients who attended Out Patient Department (OPD) of Dermatology Venereology and Leprosy Department, Hassan Institute of Medical Sciences Hassan, during the period of august 2019 to January 2020. Patients with Molluscum contagiosum more than 1 year of age and not taken any treatment for past 3 months were included in the study. Pregnant, lactating women, patients with more than 25 lesions, patients with lesion involving eyelid, patients with secondary infection and those who have history of hypersensitivity to Povidine iodine or Tretinoin were excluded from the study. 40 patients satisfying inclusion and exclusion criteria were recruited irrespective of sex, duration and response of disease to previous therapies. 40 patients were allocated randomly to group 1 and 2. In group 1, 20 patients were treated with povidone iodine with dimethyl sulfoxide and in group 2: 20 patients were treated with 0.05% tretinoin. A detailed history was obtained, and a thorough general, systemic and cutaneous examination was done. Information regarding age, sex, number of lesions, duration of illness, site of involvement, family history, history of atopy and previous treatment were collected. Patients were randomly divided into two groups; 20 each for povidone iodine with dimethyl sulfoxide solution and 0.05% Tretinoin cream group. Parents or guardians were advised to apply petroleum jelly around the lesions followed by application of the above medication to the centre of the lesion using a cotton swab, to be applied once every day at bed time for 4 weeks. If accidental spillage occurred, they were advised to wash the skin with water immediately. Parents were asked to report local (erythema, itching, burning, pain, erosion, crusting) and systemic (fever, flu like illness, diarrhoea, mylagia) side effects immediately. Follow up assessment was done every week for 4 weeks. At each follow up visit, clinical assessment of lesion, photographic assessment of lesion and any side effects were noted. Efficacy assessment was done by weekly examination of patient every week for 4 weeks. In each visit complete remission of number of lesions were noted in both groups and photographic assessment was done. Photographic assessment was done based on resolution of number of lesion in each follow up visit for 4 weeks. Any side effects present were noted at each visit. Statistical Analysis Data was entered in Microsoft Excel and SPSS software was used for the analysis. Results were expressed in percentages and proportions. Chi- square test, unpaired T- test, was used for analysis Ethics Statement Study was conducted after taking ethical committee clearance.
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Berube, Paul M., Anna Rasmussen, Rogier Braakman, Ramunas Stepanauskas, and Sallie W. Chisholm. "Emergence of trait variability through the lens of nitrogen assimilation in Prochlorococcus." eLife 8 (February 2019). http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/elife.41043.

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Intraspecific trait variability has important consequences for the function and stability of marine ecosystems. Here we examine variation in the ability to use nitrate across hundreds of Prochlorococcus genomes to better understand the modes of evolution influencing intraspecific allocation of ecologically important functions. Nitrate assimilation genes are absent in basal lineages but occur at an intermediate frequency that is randomly distributed within recently emerged clades. The distribution of nitrate assimilation genes within clades appears largely governed by vertical inheritance, gene loss, and homologous recombination. By mapping this process onto a model of Prochlorococcus’ macroevolution, we propose that niche-constructing adaptive radiations and subsequent niche partitioning set the stage for loss of nitrate assimilation genes from basal lineages as they specialized to lower light levels. Retention of these genes in recently emerged lineages has likely been facilitated by selection as they sequentially partitioned into niches where nitrate assimilation conferred a fitness benefit.
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Manawasinghe, N. K. G. K. R., S. H. Weerasekara, C. S. L. M. Karunaratne, W. A. P. Weerakkody, and B. Kulapala. "Influence of Substrate and Supplementary LED lighting on Vertical Farming of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and Pak Choi (Brassica rapa var. chinensis)." Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, February 2021, 42–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.9734/ajahr/2020/v7i430103.

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Application of “plant factory” concept in protected culture is gaining momentum due to its technological and economic merits in many countries. This research examined the plant growth and yield of vertically grown pak choi (Brassica rapa var. chinensis) (in nutrient film technique (NFT) culture) under supplementary lighting with two different combinations of blue to red color LEDs (1:9 and 1:2 ratios) in comparison with horticulture grade and non-horticulture grade (recommended for general use) white (full spectrum) LED while keeping sunlight as the control treatment. Meanwhile NFT culture was compared to plant growth, yield and nitrate accumulation of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) in comparison with conventional soil, culture and compost mixed coco-peat substrate in a replicated trial, conducted under greenhouse conditions with intensive micro climate control. A significantly high vegetative growth and total to yield could be found in the NFT grown basil. The nitrate accumulation in basil leaves was well below the maximum permissible limit (MPL), set-fourth by the recommendations of the European Health Commission. Meanwhile, the highest overall leaf quality of pak choi was achieved by the normal LEDs. Horticulture graded to LED maintained fairly high chlorophyll a and b contents contributing to its characteristic leaf color.
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Ataklı, Seda Bice, and Sezer Şahin. "Development of Lettuce Plant in Spring and Autumn Period, Effects of Led Lightening on the Quantity of Mineral Substrates and Leaf Nitrate." Asian Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, December 2019, 1–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.9734/ajsspn/2019/v5i330065.

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Aims: This study was performed during early spring and winter period of 2015-2016 by utilizing soilles technique in a non-heated glasshouse that belongs to Gaziosmanpaşa University Faculty of Agriculture. Study Design: Whereas Funly F1 lettuce species was used as vegetal materials, 2:1 ratio cocopeat and perlite mixture was used as cultivation environment. According to the experiment design, experiment coincidence parcels were performed as 3-recurrences. In the experiment, the effects of different colored LED lights (blue, yellow, red, blue + yellow, blue + red, yellow + red, blue + yellow + red) additional to sunlight were examined. Results: SMD strip LEDs with different colors were used as light source. The light practice does not affect on the plant diameter, plant lenght, SÇKM, pH, titered acid, vitamin C and plant nutrient concentrations. Statistically significant difference occured in the yield of spring and winter curly leaf head salad. There was also an increase at 1% importance level in the light practices compared to the control. In the experiment, red and red blue light combinations had an increase of 1% in the curly leaf head salads in the yield rate when it was compared to the control. Whereas the highest total plant head weight was 840 gr/piece in spring practice, and it was 732 gr/piece for the red light practices in winter practice. Compared to the control, the amount of plant leaf nitrate for the light practices resulted in a decrease at 1% importance level in the curly leaf head salad. When the results were compared with the control conditions, the lowest nitrate contents were obtained as 1764.5 mg NO3-kg- in spring practices, 1898.6 NO3-kg- in winter practices. Coclusion: More amount of nitrate was observed on the leaves of curly leaf head salad in winter practice compared to the one in spring. The amount of leaf nitrate decreased in the light practices compared to the control. As a result, the red and blue light practices and their combinations improved the amount of yield and plant growth by reducing nitrate content.
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Proietti, Simona, Stefano Moscatello, Francesca Riccio, Peter Downey, and Alberto Battistelli. "Continuous Lighting Promotes Plant Growth, Light Conversion Efficiency, and Nutritional Quality of Eruca vesicaria (L.) Cav. in Controlled Environment With Minor Effects Due to Light Quality." Frontiers in Plant Science 12 (October 2021). http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.730119.

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Light-emitting diode lamps can allow for the optimization of lighting conditions in artificial growing environments, with respect to light quality, quantity, and photoperiod extension, to precisely manage resources and crop performance. Eruca vesicaria (L.) Cav. was hydroponically cultured under three light treatments to investigate the effect on yield and nutritional properties of rocket plants. A treatment of (W-12h) having a12/12 h light/dark at 600 μmol m−2 s−1 provided by LEDs W:FR:R:B = 12:2:71:15 was compared with two treatments of continuous lighting (CL), 24 h light at 300 μmol m−2 s−1 provided by cool white LEDs (W-CL), and by LED R:B = 73:27 (RB-CL). CL enhanced the growth of the rocket plants: total fresh biomass, leaf fresh weight, and shoot/root ratio increased in W-CL, and leaf dry weight, leaf dry matter %, root fresh and dry weight, and specific leaf dry weight (SLDW) increased in RB-CL. Total carbon content was higher in RB-CL, whereas total nitrogen and proteins content increased in W-12h. Both W-CL and RB-CL increased carbohydrate content in the rocket leaves, while W-CL alone increased the sugar content in the roots. Fibers, pigments, antioxidant compounds, and malic acid were increased by CL regardless of the light spectrum applied. Nitrate was significantly reduced in the rocket leaves grown both in W-CL and RB-CL. Thus, the application of CL with low light intensity can increase the yield and quality value of rocket, highlighting that careful scheduling of light spectrum, intensity, and photoperiod can improve the performance of the crop.
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Yao, Shanshan, and Donghua Chen. "Luminescent properties of Li2 (Ca0.99, Eu0.01) SiO4: B3+ particles as a potential bluish green phosphor for ultraviolet light-emitting diodes." Open Physics 5, no. 4 (January 2007). http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/s11534-007-0042-5.

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AbstractIn our study, the 1% mol Eu2+ doped Li2CaSiO4: B3+ phosphors were prepared by the combustion method as fluorescent material for ultraviolet, light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) used as a light source. The properties of Li2 (Ca0.99, Eu0.01) SiO4: B3+ phosphors with urea concentration, doping boric acid and a series of initiating combustion temperature were investigated. The crystallization and particle sizes of Li2 (Ca0.99, Eu0.01) SiO4: B3+ has been investigated by using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Luminescence measurements showed that the phosphors can be efficiently excited by UV to the visible region, and exhibited bluish green light with a peak of 480 nm. The results showed that the boric acid was effective in improving the luminescence intensity of Li2 (Ca0.99, Eu0.01) SiO4: B3+ and the optimum molar ratio of boric acid to calcium nitrate was about 0.06. The optimized phosphors Li2 (Ca0.99, Eu0.01) SiO4: B0.063+ showed 180% improved emission intensity compared with that of the Li2 (Ca0.99, Eu0.01) SiO4 phosphors under ultraviolet (λex =287 nm) excitation.
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Hoekstra, Sven P., Takahiro Ogawa, Miguel Dos Santos, Greg Handsley, Stephen J. Bailey, Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey, Fumihiro Tajima, Jem L. Cheng, and Christof A. Leicht. "The effects of local versus systemic passive heating on the acute inflammatory, vascular and glycaemic response." Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, January 2021, 1–11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2020-0704.

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The aim of this study was to compare the acute cardiometabolic and perceptual responses between local and whole-body passive heating. Using a water-perfused suit, 10 recreationally active males underwent three 90 min conditions: heating of the legs with upper-body cooling (LBH), whole-body heating (WBH) and exposure to a thermoneutral temperature (CON). Blood samples were collected before and up to 3 h post-session to assess inflammatory markers, while a 2 h oral glucose tolerance test was initiated 1 h post-session. Femoral artery blood flow and perceptual responses were recorded at regular intervals. The interleukin (IL)-6 incremental area under the curve (iAUC) was higher for LBH (1096 ± 851 pg/mL × 270 min) and WBH (833 ± 476 pg/mL × 270 min) compared with CON (565 ± 325 pg/mL × 270 min; p < 0.047). Glucose concentrations were higher after WBH compared with LBH and CON (p < 0.046). Femoral artery blood flow was higher at the end of WBH (1713 ± 409 mL/min) compared with LBH (943 ± 349 mL/min; p < 0.001), and higher in LBH than CON (661 ± 222 mL/min; p = 0.002). Affect and thermal comfort were more negative during WBH compared with LBH and CON (p < 0.010). In conclusion, local passive heating elevated blood flow and the IL-6 iAUC. However, while resulting in more positive perceptual responses, the majority of the included cardiometabolic markers were attenuated compared with WBH. Novelty: The increase in the IL-6 iAUC in response to passive heating is not reduced by upper-body cooling. Upper-body cooling attenuates the plasma nitrite, IL-1ra and femoral artery blood flow response to passive heating. Upper-body cooling leads to more positive perceptual responses to passive heating.
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Wu, Chen Lester R., Tibor Y. Stigter, and Simon G. Craig. "Assessing the Quantity and Quality Controls of the Freshwater Lens on a Semi-Arid Coral-Limestone Island in Sri Lanka." Frontiers in Water 4 (April 2022). http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/frwa.2022.832227.

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Uncertainties in the contamination and salinization mechanisms of the freshwater lens (FWL) in the semi-arid coral-limestone aquifer of Delft Island, Sri Lanka threatens its water security. The processes governing the quality and distribution of the FWL were therefore investigated through recharge assessment and hydrochemical analysis. Potential groundwater recharge zones based on land classification and geology were first identified. A rootzone water balance model was then built, which revealed the spatiotemporal variability of potential groundwater recharge occurring rapidly during the wet season (October to January) and most abundantly on pasture land underlain by yellow and brown sand. Recharge also varied largely between dry and wet years. Where the water table was shallow, intense rainfall in wet years was seen to result in surface flooding. Geochemical modeling using PHREEQC combined with diagrams (Piper and Stiff) and scatter plots, including stable water isotopes, revealed the meteoric origin of groundwater with salinization mainly caused by seawater mixing and slight evaporation. Findings also suggest that salinization is driven by the island's low-lying nature (maximum elevation of 6 m above sea level), the low hydraulic heads (maximum of 3.7 m above sea level), the shallow depth of the marine water, the presence of lagoons in the center which are inferred to be in hydraulic continuity with the ocean, and to some extent by unregulated abstraction of groundwater through shallow hand-dug wells. We hypothesize about infiltration and percolation of saline water through the root zone during storm inundations near the coast, supported by the combined occurrence of high values of partial CO2 pressure, alkalinity and salinity in groundwater samples. Cation exchange showed indications of salinization of wells mostly in low lying areas (minimum Na/Cl value of 0.66), and freshening in areas near the coast with high potential groundwater recharge (maximum Na/Cl value of 1.04). Elevated nitrate concentrations (maximum of 2.55 mmol/L NO3-) in groundwater samples were observed. This suggests that anthropogenic contamination is further threatening the already scarce resource as well as coastal ecosystems that may be groundwater dependent.

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