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Статті в журналах з теми "Marsupials Nutrition":

1
J. Foley, William. "Marsupial Nutrition." Pacific Conservation Biology 5, no. 3 (1999): 240. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/pc99240a.
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In the early 1980s advances in marsupial biology could no longer be encapsulated in a single volume such as Hugh Tyndale-Biscoe's "Life of Marsupials" and Cambridge University Press commissioned a series of monographs covering a range of different topics in marsupial biology. As it was, only three of that series were realized and among them was the ptedecessor to this book "Digestive Physiology and Nutrition of Marsupials" published in 1982. "Marsupial Nutrition" is a considerably expanded and comprehensive review of studies of nutrition and digestive physiology of Australasian and South American marsupials. In Australia, many ecologists view the limited nutrient status of our soils and vegetation as a fundamental limit to animal populations. This book explains firstly how Australian marsupials have responded to those limitations and secondly asks whether these responses are common amongst marsupials living in New Guinea and South America.
2
HUME, I. D. "Nutrition of marsupials in captivity." International Zoo Yearbook 39, no. 1 (January 2005): 117–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-1090.2005.tb00011.x.
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3
O’Hara, Patricia J., Peter J. Murray, and Athol V. Klieve. "A review of the nutrition of Australian peramelid marsupials." Australian Mammalogy 34, no. 2 (2012): 133. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/am11008.
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European settlement has had a dramatic impact on the distribution and abundance of peramelid (bandicoot and bilby) marsupials. Predation and competition from introduced species and altered habitat have been implicated in their decline or extinction. Bandicoots and bilbies inhabit a broad range of habitats in Australia. Research on the distribution, morphology, gastrointestinal histology, lactation, metabolism and nutritional physiology of extant peramelid species has increased in the last few decades. This paper provides a review that encompasses recent nutritional-based research. Peramelid research is mostly limited to only three species – Isoodon macrourus, Perameles nasuta and Macrotis lagotis – which prevents effective comparisons between species. Peramelids are broadly classified as omnivores and possess relatively uncomplicated gastrointestinal tracts. The caecum is the region of greatest diversity among species. The relatively large caecum of Chaeropus ecaudatus supports the theory that this species may have been the only herbivorous peramelid. The caecum of M. lagotis is less pronounced than other species and is continuous with the proximal colon. M. lagotis also has a longer total colon length, which aids water conservation to ensure survival in an arid environment. Temperate-zone species such as I. macrourus, I. obesulus and P. nasuta are more similar to each other with respect to gastrointestinal morphology than either C. ecaudatus or M. lagotis. Additional research on the morphometrics of the gastrointestinal tracts of P. gunnii, P. bougainville, P. eremiana, M. leucura and I. auratus would enable further comparisons to determine whether differences are a result of geographic distribution, habitat preference or variation between genera and/or individual species. Currently, histological information of the gastrointestinal tract is limited to the small intestine of P. nasuta and I. macrourus. The histology of the small intestine of the weaned juvenile I. macrourus more closely resembles that of P. nasuta pouch young than P. nasuta adults. The younger bandicoots possessed villi whereas in the adult P. nasuta and I. macrourus villi were arranged in a zig-zag formation. The reason for the zig-zag formation of the villi and the function it may serve remains unclear. Detailed nutritional research on captive M. lagotis, I. macrourus and P. nasuta indicate that the two temperate-zone species – I. macrourus and P. nasuta – are more similar to each other than to the arid-dwelling M. lagotis. Detailed nutritional studies are required on all species, both free-living and captive. Experimental diets do not always accurately reflect a natural diet, which means that results from captive studies may not reflect the situation for free-living animals. The hindgut of peramelids is the main region for retention of digesta, and presumably where microbial digestion occurs. However, no studies have been undertaken to examine the microflora of the gastrointestinal tract of bandicoots or the bilby. As captive husbandry is an important tool in conservation management, it should also improve their successful maintenance in captivity by the provision of diets that better meet their nutritional requirements.
4
MARTIN, JENNY. "Marsupials." Austral Ecology 32, no. 6 (September 2007): 719–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1442-9993.2007.01780.x.
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5
Low, BOBBI S. "Marsupials." Science 232, no. 4746 (April 1986): 111.2–112. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.232.4746.111-a.
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Old, Julie M. "Haematopoiesis in Marsupials." Developmental & Comparative Immunology 58 (May 2016): 40–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dci.2015.11.009.
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Gemmell, R. T., C. Veitch, and J. Nelson. "Birth in marsupials." Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 126 (July 2000): S40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0305-0491(00)80079-6.
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Gemmell, Robert T., Colleen Veitch, and John Nelson. "Birth in marsupials." Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 131, no. 4 (April 2002): 621–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1096-4959(02)00016-7.
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Scott, H. Harold. "Tuberculosis in Marsupials." Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 98, no. 1 (August 2009): 249–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.1928.tb07149.x.
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Jones, Menna, and Chris Dickman. "Introduction: Carnivorous marsupials." Wildlife Research 28, no. 5 (2001): I. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/wrv28n5_in.
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Population dynamics and movements were investigated in a population of Pseudantechinus macdonnellensis, a dasyurid marsupial occupying rocky habitats in the Australian arid zone. Intra-annual cycling in abundance, activity and numbers of resident and transient individuals was not regular from year to year, although the number of residents was high compared with the number of transients. Juvenile recruitment varied between years and was as low as 18%. Densities were low (0.05–0.2 ha–1 for females and 0.05–0.3 ha–1 for males), and individuals exhibited large stable long-term ranges – mean Minimum Convex Polygon (MCP) area for males was 427 m2 and for females 171 m2. The constraints of the monoestrous, synchronised reproductive strategy of P. macdonnellensis, together with the ameliorating effect of its rocky habitat, which may decrease food limitation and increase survival, seem to have produced a different pattern of population dynamics to that seen in arid-zone dasyurids that are polyoestrous plains-dwellers. The patterns of movement in P. macdonnellensis also differ from plains-dwelling species, in which individuals display high life-time mobility. The existence of large but non-drifting ranges in P. macdonnellensis may be seen as a consequence of a low but relatively predictable food supply, which precludes the necessity for individuals to shift their activity to temporary patches of high food supply, but requires them to occupy a large range to obtain enough food to meet energy requirements.

Дисертації з теми "Marsupials Nutrition":

1
Parameswaran, Nivethitha (Nevi). "Toxoplasma gondii in Australian Marsupials." Parameswaran, Nivethitha (Nevi) (2008) Toxoplasma gondii in Australian Marsupials. PhD thesis, Murdoch University, 2008. http://researchrepository.murdoch.edu.au/1680/.
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Diagnostic tools were developed and utilised to detect Toxoplasma gondii infection in a range of Australian marsupial species and identify epidemiological trends. An ELISA was developed to detect anti-T. gondii IgG in macropod marsupials. When compared with the commercially available MAT (modified agglutination test), the ELISA was in high agreement and yielded a ê coefficient of 0.96. Of 18 western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus) tested for the presence of T. gondii DNA by PCR, the 9 ELISA positive kangaroos tested PCR positive and the 9 ELISA negative kangaroos tested PCR negative indicating that the ELISA protocol was both highly specific and sensitive and correlated 100% with the more labour intensive PCR assay. A T. gondii seroprevalence study was undertaken on free ranging Australian marsupials. There was a T. gondii seroprevalence of 15.5% (95%CI: 10.7-20.3) in western grey kangaroos located in the Perth metropolitan area. The T. gondii seroprevalence in male western grey kangaroos was significantly less than their female counterparts (p=0.038), which may be related to behavioural differences causing differences in exposure to oocysts or recrudescence of T. gondii infection in pregnant females. Marsupial populations located in islands free from felids had a low overall T. gondii seroprevalence. A case control study determined that marsupials located in areas where felids may roam are 14.20 (95%CI: 1.94-103.66) times more likely to be T. gondii seropositive than marsupials located on felid-free islands. PCR, immunohistochemistry and serological techniques were used to detect T. gondii infection in marsupial dams and their offspring. T. gondii DNA was detected in the pouch young of chronically infected western grey kangaroos and a woylie (Bettongia penicillata). T. gondii DNA was also identified in the mammary gland of the woylie dam suggesting that infection of the woylie pouch young was from suckling milk from the mammary gland. Results of the study demonstrate that vertical transmission of T. gondii occurs in Australian marsupials and may be of importance in the maintenance of T. gondii infection in Australian marsupial populations. Animal tissue and meat from Australia, predominately from Australian marsupials, were screened for T. gondii DNA using PCR primers for the multi-copy, T. gondii specific B1 gene. Sequencing of the B1 gene revealed atypical genotypes in 7 out of 13 samples from Australia. These 7 isolates contained single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the B1 gene that could not be matched with known sequences from strains I, II, III and X. Six unique genotypes were identified out of the 7 atypical isolates; two out of the 7 isolates had the same unique sequence at the B1 gene whereas the other 5 isolates each had different combinations of SNPs at the B1 gene. A majority of T. gondii isolates sampled from native Australian marsupials were of an atypical genotype. The discovery of atypical strains of T. gondii in Australia leads to further questions regarding the origin and transmission of these atypical strains. Additional studies linking atypical strains with their clinical manifestation are also warranted.
2
com, Nevi Parameswaran@gmail, and Nivethitha (Nevi) Parameswaran. "Toxoplasma gondii in Australian Marsupials." Murdoch University, 2008. http://wwwlib.murdoch.edu.au/adt/browse/view/adt-MU20100203.145857.
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Diagnostic tools were developed and utilised to detect Toxoplasma gondii infection in a range of Australian marsupial species and identify epidemiological trends. An ELISA was developed to detect anti-T. gondii IgG in macropod marsupials. When compared with the commercially available MAT (modified agglutination test), the ELISA was in high agreement and yielded a ê coefficient of 0.96. Of 18 western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus) tested for the presence of T. gondii DNA by PCR, the 9 ELISA positive kangaroos tested PCR positive and the 9 ELISA negative kangaroos tested PCR negative indicating that the ELISA protocol was both highly specific and sensitive and correlated 100% with the more labour intensive PCR assay. A T. gondii seroprevalence study was undertaken on free ranging Australian marsupials. There was a T. gondii seroprevalence of 15.5% (95%CI: 10.7-20.3) in western grey kangaroos located in the Perth metropolitan area. The T. gondii seroprevalence in male western grey kangaroos was significantly less than their female counterparts (p=0.038), which may be related to behavioural differences causing differences in exposure to oocysts or recrudescence of T. gondii infection in pregnant females. Marsupial populations located in islands free from felids had a low overall T. gondii seroprevalence. A case control study determined that marsupials located in areas where felids may roam are 14.20 (95%CI: 1.94-103.66) times more likely to be T. gondii seropositive than marsupials located on felid-free islands. PCR, immunohistochemistry and serological techniques were used to detect T. gondii infection in marsupial dams and their offspring. T. gondii DNA was detected in the pouch young of chronically infected western grey kangaroos and a woylie (Bettongia penicillata). T. gondii DNA was also identified in the mammary gland of the woylie dam suggesting that infection of the woylie pouch young was from suckling milk from the mammary gland. Results of the study demonstrate that vertical transmission of T. gondii occurs in Australian marsupials and may be of importance in the maintenance of T. gondii infection in Australian marsupial populations. Animal tissue and meat from Australia, predominately from Australian marsupials, were screened for T. gondii DNA using PCR primers for the multi-copy, T. gondii specific B1 gene. Sequencing of the B1 gene revealed atypical genotypes in 7 out of 13 samples from Australia. These 7 isolates contained single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the B1 gene that could not be matched with known sequences from strains I, II, III and X. Six unique genotypes were identified out of the 7 atypical isolates; two out of the 7 isolates had the same unique sequence at the B1 gene whereas the other 5 isolates each had different combinations of SNPs at the B1 gene. A majority of T. gondii isolates sampled from native Australian marsupials were of an atypical genotype. The discovery of atypical strains of T. gondii in Australia leads to further questions regarding the origin and transmission of these atypical strains. Additional studies linking atypical strains with their clinical manifestation are also warranted.
3
Zabaras, Regina, University of Western Sydney, of Science Technology and Environment College, and of Science Food and Horticulture School. "The evolution of semiochemicals in Australian marsupials." THESIS_CSTE_SFH_Zabaras_R.xml, 2003. http://handle.uws.edu.au:8081/1959.7/759.
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The aim of this project was to study the nature and relative proportion of the volatile components in the sternal-gland secretions obtained from a wide range of Australian marsupials.The results obtained were then used to investigate the evolution of semiochemicals in Australian marsupials by using the current phylogenetic tree as a template.The initial part of the study was dedicated to the investigation of some of the techniques available for the sampling and analysis of gland secretions. Individuals from 8 families within the Marsupialia and 1 family from the Monotremata were sampled over an 18 month period.The obtained results were then subjected to multivariate statistical analysis followed by cladistic analysis.In several species the secretion composition was found to be affected by the breeding status of individuals for both genders.Many other factors such as animal-age, hierarchical status, diet,and lifestyle were also observed to affect the secretion composition. Finally, cladistic analysis demonstrated the differences in the levels of divergence at the species, familial and ordinal levels and highlighted secretion components that could be used to differentiate between super families, species and even sexual status of individuals.
Master of Science (Hons)
4
Coldham, Thosaporn Biotechnology &amp Biomolecular Sciences Faculty of Science UNSW. "The detection and characterisation of Helicobacter species in Australian marsupials." Awarded by:University of New South Wales. School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, 2004. http://handle.unsw.edu.au/1959.4/22370.
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This thesis examined the hypotheses that the mucus lining of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of Australian marsupials is colonised with large populations of spiral and fusiform shaped bacteria, many of which belong to the genus Helicobacter and that these Helicobacter species are likely be unique. The presence of spiral and fusiform shaped bacteria in the GIT of 8 Australian marsupial species (32 animals in total) was examined using microscopy, culture and Helicobacter genus specific PCR. The marsupials studied included the brushtail possum, ringtail possum, koala, wombat, Eastern grey kangaroo, Tasmanian devil, Eastern quoll and long nosed bandicoot. The spiral and fusiform shaped isolates were characterised and identified using morphological appearance, Helicobacter genus specific PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons. The spatial distribution of Helicobacter species in the GIT sections was examined microscopically in silver stained sections of the GIT and using Fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) with a Helicobacter genus specific probe. Spiral and/or fusiform shaped bacteria were detected and/or isolated from all marsupials studied. The prevalence and bacterial load of these organisms was found to differ in each marsupial species. These bacteria were found to belong to 3 different genera (Helicobacter, Campylobacter and Desulfovibrio). Each marsupial species appeared to be colonised with one or more unique Helicobacter species. Comparison of the detection of Helicobacter species in different groups of marsupials (herbivores, omnivores and carnivores) suggests that diet as well as the function and structure of the GIT may have a significant impact on their colonisation. Phylogenetic analysis of the new possum Helicobacters showed that they shared a common ancestor. Comparison of Helicobacter species isolated from different species of marsupial and placental mammals, as well as birds, showed that differences in environmental location i.e. gastric vs lower bowel had a major impact on the position of the Helicobacters on the phylogenetic tree.
5
Van, der Ree Rodney, and mikewood@deakin edu au. "Ecology of arboreal marsupials in a network of remnant linear habitats." Deakin University. School of Ecology and Environment, 2000. http://tux.lib.deakin.edu.au./adt-VDU/public/adt-VDU20050804.104814.
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Linear strips of vegetation set within a less-hospitable matrix are common features of landscapes throughout the world. Depending on location, form and function, these linear landscape elements include hedgerows, fencerows, shelterbelts, roadside or streamside strips and wildlife corridors. In many anthropogenically-modified landscapes, linear strips are important components for conservation because they provide a large proportion of the remaining wooded or shrubby habitat for fauna. They may also function to provide connectivity across the landscape. In some districts, the linear strips form an interconnected network of habitat. The spatial configuration of remnant habitat (size, shape and arrangement) may influence habitat suitability, and hence survival, of many species of plant and animal in modified landscapes. Near Euroa in south-eastern Australia, the clearing and fragmentation of temperate woodlands for agriculture has been extensive and, at present, less than 5% tree cover remains, most of which (83%) occurs as linear strips along roads and streams. The remainder of the woodland occurs as relatively small patches and single isolated trees scattered across the landscape. As an assemblage, arboreal marsupials are woodland dependent and vary in their sensitivity to habitat loss and fragmentation. This thesis focusses on determining the conservation status of arboreal marsupials in the linear network and understanding how they utilise the landscape mosaic. Specifically, the topics examined in this thesis are: (1) the composition of the arboreal marsupial assemblage in linear and non-linear woodland remnants; (2) the status and habitat preferences of species of arboreal marsupial within linear remnants; and (3) the ecology of a population of the Squirrel Glider Petaurus norfolcensis in the linear network, focusing on population dynamics, spatial organisation, and use of den trees. The arboreal marsupial fauna in the linear network was diverse, and comprised seven out of eight species known to occur in the district. The species detected within the strips were P. norfolcensis, the Sugar Glider Petaurus breviceps, Common Brushtail Possum Trichosums vulpecula, Common Ringtail Possum Pseudocheirus peregrinus, Brush-tailed Phascogale Phascogale tapoatafa, Koala Phascolarctos cinereus and Yellow-footed Antechinus Antechinus flavipes. The species not detected was the Feathertail Glider Acrabates pygmaeus. Survey sites in linear remnants (strips of woodland along roads and streams) supported a similar richness and density of arboreal mammals to sites in non-linear remnants (large patches or continuous tracts of woodland nearby). Furthermore, the combined abundance of all species of arboreal marsupials was significantly greater in sites in the linear remnants than in the non-linear remnants. This initial phase of the study provided no evidence that linear woodland remnants support a degraded or impoverished arboreal marsupial fauna in comparison with the nonlinear remnants surveyed. Intensive trapping of arboreal marsupials within a 15 km linear network between February 1997 and June 1998 showed that all species of arboreal marsupial (except A. pygmaeus) were present within the linear strips. Further analyses related trap-based abundance estimates to measures of habitat quality and landscape structure. Width of the linear habitat was significantly positively correlated with the combined abundance of all arboreal marsupials, as well as with the abundance of P. norfolcensis and T. vulpecula. The abundance of T. vulpecula was also significantly positively correlated with variation in overstorey species composition, Acacia density and the number of hollow-bearing trees. The abundance of P. norfolcensis was positively correlated with Acacia density and canopy width, and negatively correlated with distance to the nearest intersection with another linear remnant. No significant variables were identified to explain the abundance of P. tapoatafa, and there were insufficient captures of the remaining species to investigate habitat preferences. Petaurus norfolcensis were resident within the linear network and their density (0.95 -1.54 ha-1) was equal to the maximum densities recorded for this species in continuous forest elsewhere in south-eastern Australia. Rates of reproduction were also similar to those in continuous forest, with births occurring between May and December, a mean natality rate of 1.9, and a mean litter size of 1.7. Sex ratios never differed significantly from parity. Overall, the population dynamics of P. norfolcensis were comparable with published results for the species in contiguous forest, clearly suggesting that the linear remnants currently support a self-sustaining, viable population. Fifty-one P. norfolcensis were fitted with radio transmitters and tracked intermittently between December 1997 and November 1998. Home ranges were small (1.3 - 2.8 ha), narrow (20 - 40 m) and elongated (322 - 839 m). Home ranges were mostly confined to the linear remnants, although 80% of gliders also utilised small clumps of adjacent woodland within farm paddocks for foraging or denning. Home range size was significantly larger at intersections between two or more linear remnants than within straight sections of linear remnants. Intersections appeared to be important sites for social interaction because the overlap of home ranges of members of adjacent social groups was significantly greater at intersections than straight sections. Intersections provided the only opportunity for members of three or more social groups to interact, while still maintaining their territories. The 51 gliders were radiotracked to 143 different hollow-bearing trees on 2081 occasions. On average, gliders used 5.3 den trees during the study (range 1-15), and changed den trees every 4.9 days. The number of den trees used by each glider is likely to be conservative because the cumulative number of den trees continued to increase over the full duration of the study. When gliders shifted between den trees, the mean distance between consecutive den sites was 247 m. Den trees were located throughout a glider's home range, thereby reducing the need to return to a central den site and potentially minimising energy expenditure. Dens were usually located in large trees (mean diameter 88.5 cm) and were selected significantly more often than expected based on their occurrence within the landscape. The overall conclusion of this thesis is that the linear network I studied provides high quality habitat for resident populations of arboreal marsupials. Important factors influencing the suitability of the linear remnants appear to be the high level of network connectivity, the location on soils of high nutrient status, the high density of large trees and an acacia understorey. In highly fragmented landscapes, linear habitats as part of the remaining woodland mosaic have the potential to be an integral component in the conservation of woodland-dependent fauna. The habitat value of linear strips of vegetation should not be underestimated.
6
Weisbecker, Vera Biological Earth &amp Environmental Sciences Faculty of Science UNSW. "Postcranial evolution in marsupials: comparative analyses of autopodial diversity and postcranial skeletal ontogeny." Awarded by:University of New South Wales. Biological, Earth & Environmental Sciences, 2008. http://handle.unsw.edu.au/1959.4/43330.
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Marsupial evolution and morphological diversity is traditionally viewed against the background of marsupial life history, central to which are the highly altricial neonates that actively move towards the teat. It has been suggested that this mode of birth leads to a constraint on the marsupial postcranial diversity. However, apart from phylogenetic investigations, few empirical studies have assessed diversity, patterns of adaptation, or ontogeny of the marsupial postcranium. This thesis contributes to the debate by providing diverse, large-scale empirical data on selected issues of marsupial postcranial evolution, using multidisciplinary approaches with focus on quantitative analysis. Chapter 1 provides an overview on previous research on this topic. Chapter 2 assesses the phylogenetic and functional-anatomical implications of marsupial carpal diversity. Chapter 3 is a phylogenetically informed morphometric analysis of diprotodontian manual digits, demonstrating locomotor adaptations similar to those in placentals and allowing the development of a new locomotor predictor ratio. Chapter 4 shows that functional correlates of digit proportions in Diprotodontia also exist in the placental hystricomorph rodents, which resemble Diprotodontia in ecological diversity. Chapter 5 applies the results from Chapters 2-4 to the mostly extinct diprotodontian suborder Vombatiformes, revealing functionally related parallelism in the hand of vombatiforms and kangaroos and questioning previous concepts of locomotion in early vombatiforms. Chapter 6 focuses on the evolution of marsupial syndactyly using a multidisciplinary approach including morphometrics and ossification sequence analysis. The results suggest that syndactylous digits evolve as a functional unit; syndactyly may arise through alteration of developmental patterns as suggested by ossification sequence heterochrony. Chapter 7 is a combined analysis of ossification sequences in marsupial and placental postcrania. The results suggest that the special locomotor and developmental requirements on marsupial neonates may metabolically and mechanically impact postcranial ossification patterns, delaying hindlimb development and accelerating ossification of the anterior torso. Chapter 8 summarises the research presented in this thesis and suggests directions for future work on marsupial postcranial evolution, particularly with respect to integrating information on postcranial diversity with ontogenetic work on morphogen expression patterns.
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Firestone, Karen Beth School of Biological Science UNSW. "The Application of Molecular Genetics to the Conservation Management of Quolls, Dasyurus Species (Dasyuridae:Marsupialia)." Awarded by:University of New South Wales. School of Biological Science, 1999. http://handle.unsw.edu.au/1959.4/17491.
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The quolls are among the largest of the remaining carnivorous marsupials in the Australasian region, and thus occupy an important ecological niche as top predators and scavengers. All quolls are currently in decline and threatened to some degree yet the application of molecular information to the conservation and management of quolls has been unexplored until now. In this thesis I use two independent and highly variable genetic marker systems, the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region and nuclear microsatellites, to explore various aspects of conservation genetics relevant to the management of quolls. These aspects include an examination of the phylogenetic or evolutionary relationships among all six species of quolls, an examination of the genetic diversity within populations and the degree of differentiation between populations of the four Australian species of quolls, and the definition of units for conservation within these species. The development of suitable nuclear markers was a vital first step in defining levels of genetic variability and differentiation within and between the different populations and species. These markers proved to be highly variable and provided a wealth of information of relevance to the conservation of these species, and will be extremely useful in further studies. The use of the mtDNA control region for phylogenetic analyses was a novel approach to examining this question in quolls and also proved to be highly informative. Results from these phylogenetic analyses highlight the necessity of 1) examining more than one exemplar of each species, as well as 2) finally bringing some consensus to the question of the evolutionary relationships among quolls. Results show that northern quolls form the earliest split from all other quolls and that western quolls are closely related to the two New Guinean species. Furthermore, there is evidence for distinct lineages within species, corresponding to geographically separate or isolated populations. Levels of genetic variability within populations were examined using the microsatellites developed previously. Genetic variation was significantly higher in western quolls than in any other species. This was surprising given the long term and widespread decline of this species. There were also significant differences between populations within species in the level of genetic variability. Low levels of variability were usually found in small or captive bred populations or populations in severe decline. Genetic differentiation between populations was also explored using microsatellites. Significant differentiation in allele frequency distributions was found between most pairwise population comparisons, indicating that each of these populations forms a separate management unit (MU) for conservation purposes. One notable exception was found among populations of tiger quolls from a highly localized area in the Barrington Tops region of New South Wales. Using microsatellites, these populations were not significantly subdivided and thus appeared to be one MU. Using mtDNA, however, these populations were significantly subdivided and thus should be considered separate MUs. Differences in the way these two genetic markers are inherited (mtDNA is maternally inherited, microsatellites are biparentally inherited) provides a clue as to the social structure and organization of these cryptic nocturnal species. Consequently, the use of different genetic marker systems shows that there is sex-biased migration within this species. Finally, the degree of genetic differentiation observed within tiger quolls does not conform to the currently recognized subspecific categories within this species. The major genetic split occurs between the Tasmanian and mainland populations of tiger quolls, not between Dasyurus maculatus maculatus and D. m. gracilis. Thus, the Tasmanian and mainland populations form two distinct evolutionarily significant units (ESUs) for conservation purposes, and I propose that the Tasmanian populations should be elevated to the subspecific status to account for this.
8
Scheibel, Raymond Philip. "THE SYSTEMATICS OF MARSUPIAL PARASITES IN VIANNAIIDAE (NEMATODA): A NEW SPECIES AND A RECONSTRUCTION OF CHARACTERS USEFUL IN THEIR CLASSIFICATION." Text, OpenSIUC, 2005. https://opensiuc.lib.siu.edu/theses/1156.
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One of the most diverse groups of parasitic nematodes includes the nematodes of the suborder Trichostrongylina. Trichostrongyle systematic classification is based on the study of the anterior end, the female reproductive system, the male copulatory bursa and cuticular ridges, which make up the synlophe. These morphological characters also assist taxonomists to characterize species and assign them into one of the three superfamilies. Heligmosomoidea is the most diverse superfamily, including Viannaiidae. This family represents one of the major evolutionary radiations of trichostrongyles in South America. Members of Viannaiidae parasitize a variety of mammals endemic to the Neotropics including, but not limited to, the opossums. Viannaiids have great morphological variation in the reproductive organs of the females and the secondary sexual structures of the males (e.g., rays in the bursa). Consequently, the placement of these species in classification schemes has drastically changed over time. The prevailing taxonomy relies on the host used by the parasites as well as their geographic distribution. Viannaiidae has always included monodelphic nematodes with simple synlophes, yet it eventually included species in the genus Travassostrongylus, which the morphology is very distinct from the rest of the members of the family. Differences pertain to a greater number of ridges of the synlophe and the didelphic female reproductive system. These features are more similar to trichostrongyles in Herpetostrongylidae and Nicollinidae, which infect Australian vertebrates, the majority of which are marsupials. I herein document the diversity of this group by reporting the presence of a putative new species and use five gene regions to reconstruct the phylogeny of Viannaiidae exclusive of didelphid marsupials. I used the resulting phylogeny to test the monophyly of Travassostrongylus and Viannaia and to reconstruct the character evolution of the monodelphic/didelphic condition and the ornamentation of the cuticle. The phylogeny indicates that Viannaiidae is not monophyletic, recovering a clade with the Travassostrongylus species and trichostrongyles from Australian fauna. The tests for character reconstruction assist in determining that the didelphic condition and the presence of dorsal synlophe ridges in Travassostrongylus and Austrostrongylus may be traits inherited from a common ancestor. Furthermore, it was apparent that a character change from didelphic to monodelphic occurred in the common ancestor of the Viannaia species. This ancestor also underwent a change from a dorsal cuticle with ridges to a smooth cuticle. Though the study suggests that Viannaiidae is not monophyletic, the inclusion of more species from these genera and the viannaiids found in hystricognaths from the New World rodents will conclusively determine the affinities of the members of the family. Finally, I suggest that the relationship between the species in Travassostrongylus and the Australian parasites dates to the Gondwana landmass and that these trichostrongyles, or their ancestors, were present in the marsupials of that time period. The examination of microbiotheriids could provide more information and illuminate the factors that led to the evolutionary relationship between the parasites of America and Australia.
9
au, M. Banazis@murdoch edu, and Michael Banazis. "Development of tools for surveillance of Coxiella burnetii in domestic ruminants and Australian marsupials and their waste." Murdoch University, 2009. http://wwwlib.murdoch.edu.au/adt/browse/view/adt-MU20090707.114918.
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The aim of this study was to develop improved methods to detect viable Coxiella burnetii in wastes from livestock production. The impetus for this work arose because there is a significant risk of infection for humans attributed to contact with waste products from the livestock production industry. This situation is further compounded by the lack of suitable tools to detect viable C. burnetii in these wastes. In addition, effective disinfection strategies for livestock wastes are also required to reduce the risk of infection with C. burnetii for individuals that come into contact with these waste products. A quantitative real-time PCR system (qPCR) with high sensitivity and specificity was developed to detect the C. burnetii in environmental samples associated with domestic ruminants and native Australian marsupials. Different detection chemistries and procedures were evaluated based on their sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility. Overall it was found that the TaqMan PCR targeting the IS1111a locus provided the most sensitive and reproducible test. The Geneworks PowerSoil(tm) DNA isolation kit provided the best compromise between reproducibility and recovery of DNA from livestock wastes. When combined, the IS1111a TaqMan qPCR and Geneworks PowerSoil DNA Extraction Kit provided a test which was capable of detecting as few as two C. burnetii genome equivalents in 0.2g of soil or faeces. Coxiella burnetii has been shown to display extreme resistance to environmental exposure. Therefore, assessment of the viability of the organism in environmental matrices is more useful for risk assessment programs than detection of DNA alone. A quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR was developed that was able to detect viable C. burnetii cells in soil. The sensitivity of the assay was enhanced by heat-treating the soil samples prior to extraction of RNA. The factor most often associated with transfer of C. burnetii to humans is exposure to livestock or their waste. Therefore, decontamination of waste from livestock production industries is a key factor in preventing outbreaks of Q fever. A system was developed to determine the efficacy of various disinfectant treatments against the environmental pathogen C. burnetii. Treatments evaluated included sodium hypochlorite, ozone, ultraviolet light, peracetic acid (PAA), and Virkon S®. Sodium hypochlorite at a concentration of 0.1 mM reduced the infectivity of C. burnetii by over 92% while treatment with the same sodium hypochlorite concentration in wastewater showed significantly reduced efficacy. Despite this reduced potency, sodium hypochlorite is still useful for control of C. burnetii in the liquid waste of animal production. Commercially available ELISA and CFT assays exist for ruminants but there are no immunological tests available for detecting C. burnetii in marsupials even though Australian marsupials are known to be susceptible to C. burnetii. An indirect ELISA for detecting anti-Coxiella antibodies in kangaroos was developed. Paired serum and faecal samples were taken from 379 ruminants from Western Australia and the serum was tested with a commercially available ELISA and the complement fixation test while the faeces was tested using the qPCR developed during this study. Paired serum and faecal samples were taken from 343 kangaroos from WA and were tested with the antibody-ELISA developed during this study and by qPCR. A very low prevalence of anti-Coxiella antibodies was observed in the ruminants sampled and results from immunological tests correlated poorly with qPCR data. The development of an ELISA for use with kangaroo serum was problematic because of the lack of reference sera from animals known to be infected with C. burnetii. Despite this results from the ELISA developed suggested that the apparent seroprevalence in the WA animals surveyed was approximately 34%. Results from testing kangaroo faeces with the qPCR correlated poorly with the results from the antibody-ELISA. These data suggest that kangaroos may be a significant reservoir of C. burnetii in Western Australia and due to cohabitation of kangaroos and domestic ruminants, may provide a link between the wildlife and domestic cycles of C. burnetii.
10
Banazis, Michael. "Development of tools for surveillance of Coxiella burnetii in domestic ruminants and Australian marsupials and their waste." Banazis, Michael (2009) Development of tools for surveillance of Coxiella burnetii in domestic ruminants and Australian marsupials and their waste. PhD thesis, Murdoch University, 2009. http://researchrepository.murdoch.edu.au/718/.
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Анотація:
The aim of this study was to develop improved methods to detect viable Coxiella burnetii in wastes from livestock production. The impetus for this work arose because there is a significant risk of infection for humans attributed to contact with waste products from the livestock production industry. This situation is further compounded by the lack of suitable tools to detect viable C. burnetii in these wastes. In addition, effective disinfection strategies for livestock wastes are also required to reduce the risk of infection with C. burnetii for individuals that come into contact with these waste products. A quantitative real-time PCR system (qPCR) with high sensitivity and specificity was developed to detect the C. burnetii in environmental samples associated with domestic ruminants and native Australian marsupials. Different detection chemistries and procedures were evaluated based on their sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility. Overall it was found that the TaqMan PCR targeting the IS1111a locus provided the most sensitive and reproducible test. The Geneworks PowerSoil(tm) DNA isolation kit provided the best compromise between reproducibility and recovery of DNA from livestock wastes. When combined, the IS1111a TaqMan qPCR and Geneworks PowerSoil DNA Extraction Kit provided a test which was capable of detecting as few as two C. burnetii genome equivalents in 0.2g of soil or faeces. Coxiella burnetii has been shown to display extreme resistance to environmental exposure. Therefore, assessment of the viability of the organism in environmental matrices is more useful for risk assessment programs than detection of DNA alone. A quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR was developed that was able to detect viable C. burnetii cells in soil. The sensitivity of the assay was enhanced by heat-treating the soil samples prior to extraction of RNA. The factor most often associated with transfer of C. burnetii to humans is exposure to livestock or their waste. Therefore, decontamination of waste from livestock production industries is a key factor in preventing outbreaks of Q fever. A system was developed to determine the efficacy of various disinfectant treatments against the environmental pathogen C. burnetii. Treatments evaluated included sodium hypochlorite, ozone, ultraviolet light, peracetic acid (PAA), and Virkon S®. Sodium hypochlorite at a concentration of 0.1 mM reduced the infectivity of C. burnetii by over 92% while treatment with the same sodium hypochlorite concentration in wastewater showed significantly reduced efficacy. Despite this reduced potency, sodium hypochlorite is still useful for control of C. burnetii in the liquid waste of animal production. Commercially available ELISA and CFT assays exist for ruminants but there are no immunological tests available for detecting C. burnetii in marsupials even though Australian marsupials are known to be susceptible to C. burnetii. An indirect ELISA for detecting anti-Coxiella antibodies in kangaroos was developed. Paired serum and faecal samples were taken from 379 ruminants from Western Australia and the serum was tested with a commercially available ELISA and the complement fixation test while the faeces was tested using the qPCR developed during this study. Paired serum and faecal samples were taken from 343 kangaroos from WA and were tested with the antibody-ELISA developed during this study and by qPCR. A very low prevalence of anti-Coxiella antibodies was observed in the ruminants sampled and results from immunological tests correlated poorly with qPCR data. The development of an ELISA for use with kangaroo serum was problematic because of the lack of reference sera from animals known to be infected with C. burnetii. Despite this results from the ELISA developed suggested that the apparent seroprevalence in the WA animals surveyed was approximately 34%. Results from testing kangaroo faeces with the qPCR correlated poorly with the results from the antibody-ELISA. These data suggest that kangaroos may be a significant reservoir of C. burnetii in Western Australia and due to cohabitation of kangaroos and domestic ruminants, may provide a link between the wildlife and domestic cycles of C. burnetii.

Книги з теми "Marsupials Nutrition":

1
Hume, Ian D. Marsupial nutrition. New York, N.Y: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
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2
Hume, Ian D., Patricia Armati, and C. R. Dickman. Marsupials. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.
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3
Morgan, Sally. Marsupials. North Mankato, Minn: Chrysalis Education, 2004.
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4
Sturm, Jeanne. Marsupials. Vero Beach, Fla: Rourke Educational Media, 2013.
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5
Armati, Patricia J., Chris R. Dickman, and Ian D. Hume, eds. Marsupials. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/cbo9780511541889.
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6
Kalman, Bobbie. Baby marsupials. New York, N.Y: Crabtree Pub., 2012.
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7
Tyndale-Biscoe, C. H. Life of marsupials. Collingwood, Vic: CSIRO Publishing, 2005.
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8
Wexo, John Bonnett. Koalas & other marsupials. Poway, Calif: Wildlife Education, Ltd., 2000.
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9
Swan, Erin Pembrey. Meat-eating marsupials. New York: Franklin Watts, 2002.
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10
Bishop, Nic. Nic Bishop marsupials. New York, NY: Scholastic, 2009.
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Частини книг з теми "Marsupials Nutrition":

1
Holz, Peter. "Marsupials." In Zoo Animal and Wildlife Immobilization and Anesthesia, 521–28. Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2014. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781118792919.ch32.
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2
Williams, Ray. "Carnivorous Marsupials." In Care and Handling of Australian Native Animals, 67–74. P.O. Box 20, Mosman NSW 2088, Australia: Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, 1990. http://dx.doi.org/10.7882/rzsnsw.1990.017.
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3
Haight, John R. "Marsupials, Nervous System." In Comparative Neuroscience and Neurobiology, 63–68. Boston, MA: Birkhäuser Boston, 1988. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4899-6776-3_28.
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4
Aitkin, Lindsay. "Hearing of Marsupials." In Hearing — the Brain and Auditory Communication in Marsupials, 21–29. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 1998. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-58739-9_3.
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5
Rodger, John C. "Fertilization of Marsupials." In A Comparative Overview of Mammalian Fertilization, 117–35. Boston, MA: Springer US, 1991. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4757-8982-9_7.
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6
Aitkin, Lindsay. "Auditory Periphery of Marsupials." In Hearing — the Brain and Auditory Communication in Marsupials, 43–52. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 1998. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-58739-9_5.
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7
Hayman, D. L., R. H. Rofe, and P. J. Sharp. "Chromosome evolution in marsupials." In Chromosomes Today, 91–102. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 1987. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-010-9166-4_9.
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8
Renfree, M. B., G. Shaw, and R. V. Short. "Sexual Differentiation in Marsupials." In Genetic Markers of Sex Differentiation, 27–41. Boston, MA: Springer US, 1987. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4899-1965-6_3.
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9
Rodger, John C. "Marsupials: Progress and Prospects." In Reproductive Sciences in Animal Conservation, 309–25. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2019. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-23633-5_11.
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10
Aitkin, Lindsay. "What Do Marsupials Listen To?" In Hearing — the Brain and Auditory Communication in Marsupials, 31–42. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 1998. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-58739-9_4.
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Тези доповідей конференцій з теми "Marsupials Nutrition":

1
Vitek, Natasha, Doug M. Boyer, Suzanne G. Strait, and Jonathan I. Bloch. "THE PHENOMIC TOOLKIT AND PALEONTOLOGY: A CASE STUDY USING PALEOGENE MARSUPIALS." In GSA 2020 Connects Online. Geological Society of America, 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/abs/2020am-356739.
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2
Prameswari, Galuh, Arif Kurnia, Awalukin Arianto, Tsaniatin Nahla, and Mila Aliffia. "Development of Comprehensive General Nutrition and Nutrition Label Questionnaire." In Proceedings of the 5th International Seminar of Public Health and Education, ISPHE 2020, 22 July 2020, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Semarang, Indonesia. EAI, 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.4108/eai.22-7-2020.2300275.
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3
Robledano-Garcia, J., M. Cano-Lamadrid, Santiago Vidal-Garcia, L. Sanchez-Rordriguez, A. A. Carbonell-Barrachina, and Elena Garcia-Garcia. "HEALTHY DIGITAL NUTRITION." In 12th annual International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation. IATED, 2019. http://dx.doi.org/10.21125/iceri.2019.2249.
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4
Emilia, Esi, Rachmat Mulyana, and Risti Rosmiati. "Promoting Balanced Nutrition Guidelines among adolescent: evaluation of the nutrition posters and stickers as a nutrition education media." In International Conference on Education, Science and Technology. Jakarta: Redwhite Press, 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.32698/tech3228.
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5
Rojas, S. Hernández, E. Ramos Santana, I. Plasencia García, C. Fraile Clemente, M. Suárez González, R. Mesa Expósito, and J. Merino Alonso. "OHP-024 Controversy between cyclic parenteral nutrition and total parenteral nutrition." In 22nd EAHP Congress 22–24 March 2017 Cannes, France. British Medical Journal Publishing Group, 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/ejhpharm-2017-000640.418.
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6
Mariem, Choubi, Elkhattabi Wiam, Jabri Hasna, and Afif Hicham. "Nutrition and lung cancer." In ERS International Congress 2016 abstracts. European Respiratory Society, 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/13993003.congress-2016.pa3075.
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7
Britz, Steven, Roman Mirecki, and Joe Sullivan. "Shedding Light on Nutrition." In Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics. Washington, D.C.: OSA, 2009. http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/cleo.2009.ptua3.
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8
Britz, Steve, Roman Mirecki, and Joe Sullivan. "Shedding Light on Nutrition." In International Quantum Electronics Conference. Washington, D.C.: OSA, 2009. http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/iqec.2009.ptua3.
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9
Dewi, Ratna, Liliana Puspa Sari, Ahmad Almunawar, and Ika Endah Puspita Sari. "Sports Nutrition Development Model." In 1st Unimed International Conference on Sport Science (UnICoSS 2019). Paris, France: Atlantis Press, 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.2991/ahsr.k.200305.013.
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10
Emilia, Esi, Risti Rosmiati, and Rachmat Mulyana. "Development of The Nutrition Pocketbook as a Nutrition Education Media in School." In International Conference on Indonesian Technical Vocational Education and Association (APTEKINDO 2018). Paris, France: Atlantis Press, 2018. http://dx.doi.org/10.2991/aptekindo-18.2018.63.
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Звіти організацій з теми "Marsupials Nutrition":

1
Karl Vernes, Karl Vernes. An expedition in search of one of Australia's most mysterious marsupials. Experiment, June 2018. http://dx.doi.org/10.18258/11466.
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2
Ryan, Donna. Military Nutrition Research. Fort Belvoir, VA: Defense Technical Information Center, July 2001. http://dx.doi.org/10.21236/ada395969.
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3
Research Institute (IFPRI), International Food Policy. Global Nutrition Report. Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute, 2014. http://dx.doi.org/10.2499/9780896295643.
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4
Research Institute (IFPRI), International Food Policy. Making SMARTer commitments to nutrition action: Global nutrition report guidance note. Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute, 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.2499/9780896292178.
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5
Research Institute (IFPRI), International Food Policy. Nutrition history in Pakistan. Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute, 2018. http://dx.doi.org/10.2499/1041943677.
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6
Research Institute (IFPRI), International Food Policy. Global Nutrition Report - French. Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute, 2014. http://dx.doi.org/10.2499/9780896298637.
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7
Research Institute (IFPRI), International Food Policy. Global Nutrition Report - Spanish. Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute, 2014. http://dx.doi.org/10.2499/9780896298644.
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8
Research Institute (IFPRI), International Food Policy. Global Nutrition Report - Portuguese. Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute, 2014. http://dx.doi.org/10.2499/9780896298651.
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9
Research Institute (IFPRI), International Food Policy. Nutrition policy in Nigeria. Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute, 2019. http://dx.doi.org/10.2499/p15738coll2.133284.
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10
Patience, John F. Energy in Swine Nutrition. Ames (Iowa): Iowa State University, January 2009. http://dx.doi.org/10.31274/ans_air-180814-880.
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