Дисертації з теми "Environmental ethics"

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1
Kronlid, David. "Ecofeminism and Environmental Ethics." Doctoral thesis, monograph, Uppsala University, Department of Theology, 2003. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-3307.
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This study focuses on ecofeminist ethical theory. A first aim is to clarify ecofeminist views on five central issues in the field of environmental ethics. These issues are: (1) Views of nature, (2) social constructivism and nature, (3) values of nature, (4) ethical contextualism, and (5) ethical pluralism. A second aim is to compare ecofeminist standpoints with certain standpoints within nonfeminist environmental ethical theory. A third aim is to critically discuss some of the main standpoints in ecofeminism. The analysis focuses on the works of Karen Warren, Sallie McFague, Chris Cuomo, and Carolyn Merchant. Other important sources are the environmental philosophers and ethicists J. Baird Callicott, Paul Taylor, Irene Klaver, Bryan G. Norton, Christopher Stone, Eugene Hargrove, Holmes Rolston III, Per Ariansen, Don E. Marietta, and Bruno Latour.

The result of this study is that there are no main differences between ecofeminism and nonfeminist environmental ethics regarding the main standpoints on the five issues. Rather, the significant differences are found within these main standpoints. In addition, one important characteristic of ecofeminist ethics is its "double nature," that is, the fact that it is rooted in feminism and environmentalism. The double nature of ecofeminism results in a foundation out of which ecofeminism as an environmental philosophy has a unique potential to handle some of the theoretical tensions that environmental ethics creates.

From the perspective that environmental problems consist of complex clusters of natureculture- discourse and that environmental ethical theory ought to be action guiding, it is argued that ecofeminist ethical theory has an advantage compared to nonfeminist environmental ethics. This standpoint is explained by the fact that ecofeminism holds a variety of views of nature, kinds of social constructivism and contextualism, and conceptions of values and of the self, and from the presumption that this variety reflects the reality of environmental problems. However, in order for ecofeminist ethical theory to fulfill its promise as an acceptable environmental ethical theory, its theoretical standpoints ought to be explicated and further clarified.

2
Kronlid, David. "Ecofeminism and Environmental Ethics." Doctoral thesis, monograph, Uppsala universitet, Teologiska institutionen, 2003. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-3307.
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This study focuses on ecofeminist ethical theory. A first aim is to clarify ecofeminist views on five central issues in the field of environmental ethics. These issues are: (1) Views of nature, (2) social constructivism and nature, (3) values of nature, (4) ethical contextualism, and (5) ethical pluralism. A second aim is to compare ecofeminist standpoints with certain standpoints within nonfeminist environmental ethical theory. A third aim is to critically discuss some of the main standpoints in ecofeminism. The analysis focuses on the works of Karen Warren, Sallie McFague, Chris Cuomo, and Carolyn Merchant. Other important sources are the environmental philosophers and ethicists J. Baird Callicott, Paul Taylor, Irene Klaver, Bryan G. Norton, Christopher Stone, Eugene Hargrove, Holmes Rolston III, Per Ariansen, Don E. Marietta, and Bruno Latour. The result of this study is that there are no main differences between ecofeminism and nonfeminist environmental ethics regarding the main standpoints on the five issues. Rather, the significant differences are found within these main standpoints. In addition, one important characteristic of ecofeminist ethics is its "double nature," that is, the fact that it is rooted in feminism and environmentalism. The double nature of ecofeminism results in a foundation out of which ecofeminism as an environmental philosophy has a unique potential to handle some of the theoretical tensions that environmental ethics creates. From the perspective that environmental problems consist of complex clusters of natureculture- discourse and that environmental ethical theory ought to be action guiding, it is argued that ecofeminist ethical theory has an advantage compared to nonfeminist environmental ethics. This standpoint is explained by the fact that ecofeminism holds a variety of views of nature, kinds of social constructivism and contextualism, and conceptions of values and of the self, and from the presumption that this variety reflects the reality of environmental problems. However, in order for ecofeminist ethical theory to fulfill its promise as an acceptable environmental ethical theory, its theoretical standpoints ought to be explicated and further clarified.
3
James, Simon Paul. "Heidegger and environmental ethics." Electronic Thesis or Dissertation, Durham University, 2001. http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/3958/.
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This thesis presents an environmental ethic based on the philosophy of Martin Heidegger. Chapter One uses Heidegger's conception of 'dwelling' as the basis for a satisfying account of the 'otherness' or alterity of nature. Chapter Two draws upon Heidegger's writings on 'the dif-ference', Madhyamaka Buddhist philosophy and the metaphysics of Alfred North Whitehead to develop a 'dialectical' conception of holism which can accommodate both the account of alterity presented in Chapter One and an account of the intrinsic value of individual beings. Chapter Three frames this conception of environmental holism in terms of ethics. It is argued that Heidegger's ideal of 'releasement' can be thought of as an essential 'function' of humans, the exercise of which promotes human flourishing. Extending this Aristotelian line of reasoning, it is shown how one can draw upon Heidegger's philosophy to articulate a form of environmental virtue ethic. Chapter Four investigates the charge that Heidegger's later thought is quietistic, a general allegation which is analysed into four interrelated specific charges: 1) the accusation that Heidegger is advocating a passive withdrawal from the world; 2) Adorno's charge in Negative Dialectics that Heidegger's philosophy is inimical to critical thought; 3) the objection that Heidegger is unable to deal adequately with either interhuman relations or the relations between humans and nonhuman animals; and 4) the charge that Heidegger's later writings cannot be brought to bear upon practical environmental issues. In answer to this last objection, case studies are presented of two environmental issues: 1) the environmental impact of tourism; and 2) the practice of environmental restoration.
4
Torres, Christopher. "What is Ethics without Justice? Reframing Environmental Ethics for Social Justice." Electronic Thesis or Dissertation, University of Oregon, 2011. http://hdl.handle.net/1794/20705.
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The field of environmental ethics has been in discussion and debate the past 40 years over how to best expand the circle of moral consideration away from a privileged human perspective to encompass the rest of the non-human world in order to change minds and social practices to address environmental degradation and destruction. One of the main methods is devoted to arguing for the intrinsic value of non-human lives and places as the means to do this. I argue that this method of environmental ethics because it, at best, is a lazy framework for moral deliberation that ignores the entangled sociopolitical and environmental complexity of a situation by reducing the answer to a single set of predetermined values and interests which (re)produces and reinforces social and environmental injustice. An environmental pragmatist approach geared towards addressing environmental injustice is a better way of addressing both environmental degradation and social inequalities.
5
Wall, Don. "Earth Tones: How Environmental Journalism and Environmental Ethics Influence Environmental Citizenship." Thesis or Dissertation, University of North Texas, 2008. https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc3907/.
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Environmental ethics and environmental journalism are influencing the developing philosophy of environmental citizenship. This philosophy involves the ideas that people are part of the environment, that the future depends on a healthy environment, and that action on behalf of the environment is necessary. It applies to individuals, communities, large and small companies and corporations, governments, and a coalition of nations. Environmental philosophers and environmental journalists can work together, in a symbiotic way, to foster discussions among citizens and policy makers about ideas as well as events, and thus, influence attitudes and policies, and continue to influence environmental citizenship. Environmental citizenship as an extension of democracy offers the best chance for undoing the manmade problems which are degrading the quality of life on Earth. A healthier environment is the will of the people. An informed, voting public will succeed in creating a healthier environment. Pioneering work by philosophers and journalists, especially over the last forty-five years has brought the dialogue about environmental problems to an unprecedented level and continues to offer encouragement to the mindful evolution of mankind. These ecological discussions of rights and responsibilities, intrinsic and economic values, pragmatism and utilitarianism, culture and spirit, are increasingly being applied to a developing idea of sustainability, and are, thus, helping to expand ideas about what it means to be a citizen in a democracy.
6
Burns, Michael Edmund Reid. "Co-evolutionary relationships between environmental ethics and environmental assessment." Thesis, Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2004. http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/52735.
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Thesis (PhD) -- University of Stellenbosch, 2002.
ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The dissertation traces the development of environmental assessment and environmental ethics as these disciplines have evolved independently in response to the global environmental crisis. The aim is to determine the extent to which they can promote the integration of the dissociated objective and subjective spheres of human valuation of the environment. This is a necessary condition, it is argued, for arresting the pathology in the human-environment relationship. The study concludes that both disciplines were initially trapped in narrow, monistic approaches, which rendered them largely ineffective. However, their evolutionary advancement, and a common grounding in a radical conceptualization of sustainable development, greatly enhances their usefulness in environmental decisionmaking.
AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die verhandeling ondersoek die evolusionêre ontwikkeling van omgewingsimpakbepaling en die filosofie van omgewingsetika, na die ontstaan van die twee disiplines in reaksie tot die globale omgewingskrisis. Die studiedoelwit is om te bepaal tot watter mate hulle die integrasie van die gedissosieerde objektiewe en die subjektiewe sfere van menslikeomgewingswaardering kan bevorder. Daar word geredeneer dat sodanige integrasie noodsaaklik is om die patologie in die verhouding tussen die mens en sy omgewing te stuit. Die belangrikste gevolgtrekking is dat beide disiplines, tydens hulle aanvangsstadia, vasgeval was in 'n monistiese benadering wat hul doeltreffendheid belemmer het. Die onlangse ontwikkeling van omgewingsimpakbepaling en omgewingsetika, sowel as 'n gemeenskaplike uitgangspunt binne 'n radikale vertolking van volhoubare ontwikkeling, versterk grootliks hulle bruikbaarheid vir omgewingsbesluitneming.
7
Corbeil, Marc J. V. "Process environmental philosophy." Thesis or Dissertation, University of North Texas, 2005. https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc6148/.
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A process-information approach is examined as a foundation for an environmental philosophy that is dynamic and elastic, with particular emphasis on value, beauty, integrity and stability supporting Aldo Leopold's vision. I challenge one of the basic assumptions of Western philosophy, namely the metaphysical primacy of substance. The classical, medieval and modern metaphysics of substance is presented with particular attention given the paradoxes of substance. Starting from the philosophy of Heraclitus, relatively ignored by the Western tradition of philosophy, a process philosophy is developed as an alternative to standard metaphysical attitudes in philosophy. A possible resolution of Zeno's paradoxes leads to consideration of other paradoxes of substance metaphysics. It is argued that substance metaphysics is incompatible with evidence found in the shifting paradigms of ecology and general science. Process philosophy is explored as a basis for an environmental philosophy, attempting to put the environment back into philosophy.
8
Runwen, Zhu. "Environmental Virtue Ethics : Wildlife Tourism in Sweden." Student thesis, Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för organisation och entreprenörskap (OE), 2018. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-76288.
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With the permission of Swedish Allemansrätten, the Right of Public Access, allows people to interact with the natural environment... . Environmental ethics, discuss about the relationship between man and nature, and is hence clearly connected to the questions of wildlife tourism. Great part of the previous literature has focused on the environmental ethics in tourism from the perspective of utilitarianism or deontology, with special concern in animal rights, animal ethics and animal welfare. However, questions like ‘what kind of people will do good to the environment?’, ‘What are the characteristics of these people?’ are among those that still need to be discussed in the field of wildlife tourism research. According to the theory of environmental virtue ethics, man's attitude towards nature originates from the internal quality and character of human beings. Whether it is the western scholars Thomas Hill and Geoffrey Frasz, or the ancient Chinese School of Confucianism and Taoism, they all put forward their own opinions on the characters required by the virtue ethics of the environment. In this thesis, documentary writing and network media records of wildlife tourists in Sweden are used as empirical materials to demonstrate the behavioral and psychological manifestations of the three characters of environmental virtues ethics. These three characters reflect the harmonious interaction between man and nature, and contribute in the theoretical discussions of of ethics in Tourism Studies.
9
Gillespie, Al. "International environmental ethics : value and method in international environmental law and policy." Electronic Thesis or Dissertation, University of Nottingham, 1994. http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.361026.
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10
Palmer, Clare. "Process theology and the challenge of environmental ethics." Electronic Thesis or Dissertation, University of Oxford, 1993. http://ora.ox.ac.uk/objects/uuid:7592ee99-6439-4bd9-82cb-a8d47077911a.
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The aim of this thesis is to examine process theology in the light of questions raised by environmental issues. To facilitate this study, different approaches to the nonhuman natural world developed in environmental philosophy - in particular in environmental ethics - are compared with the work of process theologians. The primary focus is on the systems of A.N.Whitehead and Charles Hartshorne, but John Cobb, Jay McDaniel and Daniel Dombrowski are also considered. In Chapter 1, the derivation of value and the formation of ethics in process thinking is examined, and its ethical methodology and content compared with classical utilitarianism and more recent consequentialist approaches to the nonhuman natural world. Ensuing problems including justice, replaceability, the identification of value with experience and the subjectivity of value judgments are considered. In Chapter 2, process ethics is compared with deontological approaches to environmental ethics which focus on the value of individual organisms and natural objects: in particular, the work of Paul Taylor. Problems generated by egalitarianism, individualism and the inability to affirm environmental restitution are examined. The capacity of process thinking to resist such criticisms is assessed. Collective consequentialist ethical approaches to the environment, characterized by Aldo Leopold and J.Baird Callicott, are laid alongside process ethics in Chapter 3. This raises questions concerning the nature of species and ecosystems, and the use of metaphors such as organism, community and society to describe them. The focus moves in Chapter 4 onto a comparison of the metaphysics and ethics of the Deep Ecology movement with that of process theology. This comparison concentrates on two main themes: attitudes to 'holism' and to the 'extension and realization of the self'. Finally, the question whether process theology should reform itself as a better response to environmental ethics is examined. Some suggestions about possible reformation are proffered, but it is tentatively concluded that process thinking is an inappropriate basis for environmental philosophy.
11
黃廣昌 and Kwong-cheong Wong. "On the virtues approach to Buddhist environmental ethics." PG_Thesis, The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong), 2008. http://hub.hku.hk/bib/B4154738X.
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12
Leard, Jason. "Ethics Naturally: An Environmental Ethic Based on Naturalness." Thesis or Dissertation, University of North Texas, 2005. https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4458/.
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In this thesis I attempt to base an environmental ethic on a quality called naturalness. I examine it in terms of quantification, namely, as to whether it can quantified? I then apply the concept to specific areas such as restoration and conservation to create an environmental ethic and to show how such an ethic would be beneficial in general, and especially to policy issues concerning the environment. The thesis consists of three chapters: (1) the definition of nature and natural by way of a historical approach; (2) the place of humans in this scheme; and (3) the place of value and the discussion concerning quantification.
13
Spash, Clive L. "Environmental Values in Conservation: Ethics, Economics and Pragmatism." Paper, WU Vienna University of Economics and Business, 2017. http://epub.wu.ac.at/5499/1/sre%2Ddisc%2D2017_01.pdf.
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14
Tan, Gregory. "Ecological Virtue Ethics: Towards Conversion and Environmental Action." Thesis, Boston College, 2017. http://hdl.handle.net/2345/bc-ir:107480.
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Thesis advisor: James T. Bretzke
Thesis advisor: Andrea Vicini
This thesis argues that, in order to address adequately the ecological crisis, humanity needs to change drastically soon from ecologically harmful to ecologically friendly attitudes and practices. In our Christian understanding, this change requires a conversion from ecological vices to ecological virtues. To do so, humanity needs to move away from its overtly anthropocentric concerns to a more genuine respect for creation. Drawing from Church tradition, this thesis establishes that creation has rights, endowed by the Creator, that need to be protected, if ecological integrity is to be preserved. This thesis suggests what these rights should be and the means that would allow their protection. I then argue that, for the necessary changes in human behaviour to take places, ecological conversion needs to begin with individual conversion before social transformation is possible. This thesis, therefore, proposes the ecological virtues needed for individual conversion, and then ecological social action and advocacy. Thus, this thesis charts a course forward from principles, to motivations, and finally, to action
Thesis (STL) — Boston College, 2017
Submitted to: Boston College. School of Theology and Ministry
Discipline: Sacred Theology
15
Lindemann, Monica A. "Environmental Virtue Education: Ancient Wisdom Applied." Thesis or Dissertation, University of North Texas, 2008. https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4859/.
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The focus of environmental philosophy has thus far heavily depended on the extension of rights to nonhuman nature. Due to inherent difficulties with this approach to environmental problems, I propose a shift from the contemporary language of rights and duties to the concept of character development. I claim that a theory of environmental virtue ethics can circumvent many of the difficulties arising from the language of rights, duties, and moral claims by emphasizing the cultivation of certain dispositions in the individual moral agent. In this thesis, I examine the advantages of virtue ethics over deontological and utilitarian theories to show the potential of developing an ecological virtue ethic. I provide a preliminary list of ecological virtues by drawing on Aristotle's account of traditional virtues as well as on contemporary formulations of environmental virtues. Then, I propose that certain types of rules (rules of thumb) are valuable for the cultivation of environmental virtues, since they affect the way the moral agent perceives a particular situation. Lastly, I offer preliminary formulations of these rules of thumb.
16
Parker, Jonathan. "Sustainable Environmental Identities for Environmental Sustainability: Remaking Environmental Identities with the Help of Indigenous Knowledge." Thesis or Dissertation, University of North Texas, 2012. https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc177240/.
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Early literature in the field of environmental ethics suggests that environmental problems are not technological problems requiring technological solutions, but rather are problems deeply rooted in Western value systems calling for a reorientation of our values. This dissertation examines what resources are available to us in reorienting our values if this starting point is correct. Three positions can be observed in the environmental ethics literature on this issue: 1. We can go back and reinterpret our Western canonical texts and figures to determine if they can be useful in providing fresh insight on today's environmental challenges; 2. We abandon the traditional approaches, since these are what led to the crisis in the first place, and we seek to establish entirely new approaches and new environmental identities to face the environmental challenges of the 21st century; 3. We look outside of the Western tradition for guidance from other cultures to see how they inhabit and interact with the natural world. This dissertation presents and evaluates these three options and ultimately argues for an approach similar to the third option, suggesting that dialogue with indigenous cultures and traditions can help us to reorient our values and assist in developing more sustainable environmental identities.
17
Meyers, Ronald B. "A heuristic for environmental values and ethics, and a psychometric instrument to measure adult environmental ethics and willingness to protect the environment /." Text, The Ohio State University / OhioLINK, 2002. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=osu1486549482668723.
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18
Meyers, Ronald B. "A Heuristic for Environmental Values and Ethics, and a Psychometric Instrument to Measure Adult Environmental Ethics and Willingness to Protect the Environment." Text, The Ohio State University / OhioLINK, 2012. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=osu1039113836.
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19
Day, Philip Garrett. "Environmental Imagination: the Constitution and Projection of a Sustainable Ethos." Thesis or Dissertation, University of North Texas, 2012. https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700043/.
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This dissertation provides a theoretical analysis and examination of the role of imagination in the formation of an environmental ethos. The majority of ethical theories in environmental thought largely neglect the role that imagination plays in both the relationships that humans form with their environment, and the subsequent role that imagination plays in constituting the way that those relationships are understood ethically. To explore the role of imagination in constituting and subsequently projecting such an ethical way of being, this dissertation selectively analyzes the history of imagination in philosophy, cognitive science, and environmental thought. In addition, this dissertation also explores the role that images play in forming collective responses to environmental disasters, and the further role that imagination plays in overcoming the moral motivation gap.
20
Yucel, (karakoc) A. Gamze. "Environmental Ethics Approach In The World And In Turkey." Ph.D. Thesis, METU, 2012. http://etd.lib.metu.edu.tr/upload/2/12606909/index.pdf.
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This thesis analyzes the environmental knowledge, attitudes and environmentally significant behaviors of the environmental professionals such as academicians and higher level of bureaucrats in Turkey. Additionally socio-demographic characteristics of target groups were measured to examine if environmental professionals having environmental knowledge and defending ecocentric or at least homocentric approaches do really reflect their attitudes and knowledge into actual behaviors or a paradox arises when actual behaviors are compared with expressed beliefs and attitudes. It was found that, socio-demographic characteristics such as gender, age and education were not show statistically significant difference at the respondents&rsquo
behavior. There only exist a positive relationship between education and environmental knowledge. Additionally, the data herein supports the theoretical assumption that, distinct professional groups have different environmental ethical approaches and different levels of environmental knowledge. Academicians have the highest consciousness level of environmental knowledge. Finally the most striking result is
although respondents have at least moderate level of environmental knowledge
there exist a statistically significant negative correlation between respondents&rsquo
environmental knowledge and their behavior.
21
Nelson, Michael Paul. "The land ethic : a theory of environmental ethics defended." Electronic Thesis or Dissertation, Lancaster University, 1997. http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.246100.
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22
Evanoff, Richard. "A constructivist approach to intercultural dialogue on environmental ethics." Electronic Thesis or Dissertation, Lancaster University, 2002. http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.403730.
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23
Kaplan, Christopher Francis. "Environmental Virtue Ethics and the Virtue of Ecological Sensitivity." Electronic Thesis, The University of Arizona, 2015. http://hdl.handle.net/10150/579285.
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What traits and virtues must a person possess to be considered environmentally virtuous? And further, must we recognize new human excellences specific to environmental contexts, or can the traditional virtues be 'extended' to apply to environmental interactions and relationships? Current disagreement in the environmental virtue ethics literature over how to identify and ratify environmental virtue represents a significant issue in the literature because its answer impinges upon other areas of an environmental virtue ethic's framework, including the acquisition and sufficiency of virtue, environmental practical wisdom, and the normative resources available to an environmental virtue ethic. Ronald Sandler, a proponent of non-extensionist environmental virtue ethics, has suggested the recognition of a novel human virtue called "ecological sensitivity".¹ However, Sandler left open at the time exactly what character dispositions and traits constitute that virtue, and how it ought to be fully understood. The thesis presented here attempts to identify the dispositions, attitudes, and traits that constitute ecological sensitivity (or eco-sensitivity).
24
Laÿna, Droz-dit-Busset. "The Milieu as Common Grounds for Global Environmental Ethics." DGAM, Kyoto University, 2003. http://hdl.handle.net/2433/253451.
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25
Mridha, Shibaji. "Ecocinema, Slow Violence, and Environmental Ethics: Tales of Water." Text, Kent State University / OhioLINK, 2004. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=kent1555608601107401.
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26
Lindemann, Monica A. "The Character of Environmental Citizenship: Virtue Education for Raising Morally Responsible Individuals." Thesis or Dissertation, University of North Texas, 2005. https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc271857/.
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Surely, moral education is not merely intended to result in theoretical knowledge, but instead attempts to change people's behavior. However, when examining and evaluating current trends in moral education, it appears that hitherto moral education has fallen short of its goal to make people better. In this paper, I try to determine what has caused this perceived failure of moral education and conclude that approaches that focus on teaching moral reasoning skills rather than on teaching actual moral content, i.e., values and virtues, are generally ineffective for moral improvement. However, a more traditional form of moral education, namely character education, appears to be a viable alternative to the moral reasoning methods. Since character education can be regarded as the practical application of virtue ethics, I first describe and evaluate virtue ethics and defend it against potential criticisms. I then examine what methods are effective for teaching virtues, and how such methods can potentially be incorporated into the curriculum. Since virtues cannot be taught through theoretical instruction, the acquisition of good habits constitutes the necessary foundation for the establishment of good moral character. Some methods that have been suggested for laying the foundation for virtue are the use of stories, role play, as well as the inclusion of physical and outdoor activities, etc. Furthermore, habituation constitutes the basis for the acquisition of good habits, and as such it requires the application of rewards and punishment by a caring tutor, who at the same time can serve as a role model for virtuous behavior. Finally, I extrapolate if and how character education can be employed to make people more environmentally conscious citizens. I conclude that environmental virtue or character education is the most effective method of environmental education, since it affects how an individual understands, views, and subsequently interacts with the natural environment.
27
Scott, Conohar. "The photographer as environmental activist : politics, ethics and beauty in the struggle for environmental remediation." Electronic Thesis or Dissertation, Loughborough University, 2015. https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/2134/19640.
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This practice-based research study examines two questions in an effort to determine how the photographer can play a role in the promulgation of environmental activism. Firstly, I ask if certain aesthetic approaches to the documentation of industrial pollution can be regarded as antithetical to the values of environmentalism; in particular, I examine the use of the sublime and the role that beauty plays in documenting scenes of environmental despoliation. In response to this question, I describe the problems associated with establishing a counter-aesthetic position in my artistic practice, which is commensurate with environmental ethics. Secondly, I ask how photography can be used as a means of conducting environmental protest by working in solidarity with environmental scientists and activists, in the struggle for environmental remediation. In a bid to answer this question, I argue that the production and dissemination of the photobook is one method of realising the dissensual capacity of art to bring about the conditions necessary for remediation to occur. Importantly, my practice proceeds through an understanding of debates ongoing in contemporary theory. In particular, I argue that Jacques Rancière s conceptions of dissensus (Rancière, 2010: 173) and the politics of aesthetics (Rancière, 2004: 25) can be interpreted as a means of understanding how aesthetics can be used to enact a form of political praxis. Using Rancière and Murray Bookchin s concept of social ecology as a basis for my artistic practice, I claim that photography can not only make the existent reality of pollution visible, it can also initiate a form of participatory democratic subjectivity, allowing the demands of the artist to become visible too. Moreover, in the design and dissemination of the three photobooks I have created, I make a case for a collaborative model of artistic practice, which extends beyond the medium specificity of photograph, and embraces multimodality and trans-disciplinarity, as a means of situating the photograph into a broader discursive field.
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Saner, Marc A. "Environmental ethics and biotechnology, a test of Norton's convergence hypothesis." Electronic thesis or dissertation, National Library of Canada = Bibliothèque nationale du Canada, 1999. http://www.collectionscanada.ca/obj/s4/f2/dsk1/tape9/PQDD_0003/MQ43325.pdf.
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Ryan, Sean Edward. "Environmental ethics, an interpretive analysis of outdoor leaders'/scholars' discourse." Electronic thesis or dissertation, National Library of Canada = Bibliothèque nationale du Canada, 1999. http://www.collectionscanada.ca/obj/s4/f2/dsk1/tape10/PQDD_0019/MQ46993.pdf.
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30
Somaratne, Indika. "The role of religion and environmental ethics in climate change." DoctoralThesis, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Kultur-, Sozial- und Bildungswissenschaftliche Fakultät, 2004. http://dx.doi.org/10.18452/17763.
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Die meisten Menschen denken, dass Klimawandel und Nachhaltigkeit wichtige Herausforderungen darstellen. Allerdings legen zu wenige Weltbürger mit hohem treibhausgasproduzierenden Verhalten nicht in ausreichendem Maße auch ein treibhausgasverringerndes Verhalten an den Tag, um den Anstieg von Treibhausgasen und anderen Umweltproblemen aufzufangen. Warum ist das so? Strukturelle Barrieren, wie. z. B. eine klimaschädliche Infrastruktur, sind ein Teil der Antwort, aber auch psychologische Barrieren verhindern ein Verhalten, das Mitigation, Anpassung und ein nachhaltiges Umweltmanagement ermöglicht. Aber wer kann die psychologischen und ethischen Barrieren entfernen, um ein umweltfreundliches Verhalten zu etablieren? Die aktuellen Institutionen dieser Welt haben es nicht geschafft, die Bedrohung durch den Klimawandel adäquat zu adressieren. Keiner der Politiker war bisher dazu bereit, das kurzfristige ökonomische Wohl seines Landes zu opfern, auch wenn sie gleichzeitig einsehen, dass Nachhaltigkeit auf lange Sicht unabdingbar ist. Die Umweltkrise ist nicht einfach nur ein technologisches Problem (wie es von einigen Industrieländern definiert wird). Probleme entstehen auch nicht, weil unsere Technologie nicht genügend Nahrungsressourcen zur Verfügung stellen kann und auch nicht, weil wir nicht in der Lage sind, fortschrittlichere Technologien zu erfinden, um den Giftmüll, den wir produzieren, herauszufiltern. Das Wesen der modernen Umweltkrise dreht sich um die moderne Zivilisation und die Werte, die ihr zugrunde liegen. „Unsere ökologische Krise ist das zwangsläufige Ergebnis des Mangels an Sensibilität der modernen Wirtschaft gegenüber der Verletzlichkeit und der Grenzen der Natur, des verrückten Machtkampfes der modernen Politik, des weltweiten Verhaltens der Völker, Glück mit materieller Befriedigung gleichzusetzen, und deren überwältigenden Akzeptanz einer mechanischen und dualistischen Sichtweise der Natur.“
Most people think Climate Change and sustainability are important problems, but too few global citizens engaged in high-greenhouse-gas-emitting behaviour are engaged in sufficient mitigating behaviour to stem the increasing flow of greenhouse gases and other environmental problems. Why is that? Structural barriers such as a climate-averse infrastructure are part of the answer, but psychological barriers also impede behavioural choices that would facilitate mitigation, adaptation and environmental sustainability. But who can remove the psychological and ethical barriers to pro-environmental actions? The world''s present institutions have failed to address adequately the threat of Climate Change. No politician has been willing to sacrifice the short-term economic welfare of his or her country, even while agreeing that sustainability is essential in the long term. The environmental crisis is not simply an issue of technology (as defined by some developed countries). It is neither because our technology cannot provide enough resources for us to consume, nor because we cannot invent more advanced technology to refine the toxic wastes we produce that environmental problems arise. The essence of the modern environmental crisis is about modern civilization and its underlying values. “Our ecological crisis is the inevitable outcome of the modern economy’s insensitivity to the vulnerability and limits of nature, the mad power struggle of modern politics, modern people’s universally equating happiness with material satisfaction, and their overwhelming acceptance of a mechanical and dualist view of nature.”
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Roberts, James Rowland. "The development of an environmental ethics undergraduate curriculum for California." Text, CSUSB ScholarWorks, 2001. https://scholarworks.lib.csusb.edu/etd-project/2573.
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This study included an environmental ethics syllabi research project, an environmental ethics curriculum development survey of all colleges in California, and the subsequent development of tables to compare the results. The curriculum development survey of California colleges includes a listing of all course descriptions of environmental ethics and related courses.
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Olvitt, Lausanne Laura. "Deciding and doing what's right for people and planet : an investigation of the ethics-oriented learning of novice environmental educators." Thesis, Rhodes University, 2012. http://hdl.handle.net/10962/d1007238.
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This study probes the ethics-oriented reflexive deliberations of three novice environmental education practitioners in South Africa. Two of the cases examined work in a local government context, and the third in an environmental non-governmental organisation context. All three practitioners are studying a one-year professional development course in environmental education. The research asks how their ethical deliberations ‘come to be what they are’, at the interface of their workplace and course-based learning processes. Working within a relational, social realist ontology, the study takes a sociocultural-historical approach to learning, development and social change. Cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) provides theoretical tools and a descriptive language to approach the rich, qualitative data derived from workplace and course observations, extensive interviews, and document review. Critical discourse analysis was used as a secondary analytical tool to probe ethical and environmental discourses that were found to be influential in the course and workplace activity systems. Data from the three case studies was analysed in stages. In the first stage, CHAT provided a theoretical perspective and language of description to analyse the interacting activity systems in which each learner-practitioner’s ethics-oriented reflexive deliberations occurred. This provided a platform for the second stage of analysis which was framed by Margaret Archer’s (1995) social realist theory of morphogenesis/ morphostasis, followed by a summative retroductive analysis, to give an account of the interplay of historically-emergent social and cultural structures and individual reflexivity in relation to the ethical dimensions of environmental education practice. The study traces how ethics-oriented reflexive deliberations occur at the untidy, unpredictable intersection of workplace, course and personal contexts, and are strongest when they are situated in authentic contexts that resonate with learner-practitioners’ ‘ultimate concerns’ (after Archer, 2003; 2007). In this study, the learner-practitioners’ ‘ultimate concerns’ included family, personal well-being, social justice, cultural identity and religious commitments. The scope and depth of learner-practitioners’ social-ecological knowledge was also identified as a key factor influencing ethics-oriented reflexive deliberations, although the mediation of such knowledge can be hindered by language and conceptual ii barriers, amongst others. The study also noted how ethical positions circulating in the workplace, course and personal contexts were diverse, uneven and dynamic. Some ethical positions were found to be more explicitly differentiated than others, either resonating with or being overlooked by the learner-practitioners as they deliberated the ethical dimensions of their environmental education practice. In situations where there was limited depth, conceptual clarity and/ or confidence to engage directly with ethical concerns, there was a tendency towards (inadvertent) ethical relativism. Insights derived from the study suggest that these factors have limiting effects on the ethics-oriented reflexive deliberations of novice environmental educators. These insights point to the need for ethical deliberations to be re-personalised in context and underpinned by depth knowledge. A relational and pragmatic approach to environmental ethics (that recognises the validity of judgemental rationality – which can be fallible – and which seeks out practical adequacy) is put forward as appropriate and potentially generative in environmental education and training processes. This would need to be supported by careful attention to the influence of environmental discourses and practices in shaping ethical deliberations, and may also be helpful in developing a much-needed accessible, everyday language of ethical engagement. This study’s contribution to new knowledge in the field of environmental education is through its account of ethics-oriented reflexive deliberations emerging (in the Archerian morphogenetic sense) in complex, indeterminate ways at the interface of sociocultural and social-ecological contexts. The ethics-oriented reflexive deliberations of novice environmental educators occur in relation to their ‘ultimate concerns’ and are advanced or hindered by the historically-emergent practices, discourses and material realities of their workplace, personal and educational contexts. These insights require that the complex interplay of intersecting contexts and concerns that shape ethics-oriented reflexive deliberations be acknowledged and carefully mediated in both workplace-based and coursebased professional development processes.
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Tatay, Nieto Jaime. "Catholic Contributions to an Ethics of Responsibility toward Creation." Thesis, Boston College, 2011. http://hdl.handle.net/2345/2503.
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Thesis advisor: Stephen Pope
Agendas in ethics are often set by questions raised in the wider society. The growth and flourishing of environmental ethics is a good example of this phenomenon. In recent decades, the growing concern among scientists, politicians, economists, and the media regarding the future of life on the planet has raised all kinds of questions about the origin of the so-called ecological crisis. Complex analyses and different sets of solutions have followed. Yet the problems seem far from being solved. Ethicists and theologians have joined the conversation and have also proposed interpretations and complex, often contradictory, solutions to the problems raised by this crisis
Thesis (STL) — Boston College, 2011
Submitted to: Boston College. School of Theology and Ministry
Discipline: Sacred Theology
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Hanna, Paul. "Consuming sustainable tourism : ethics, identity, practice." Electronic Thesis or Dissertation, University of Brighton, 2011. https://research.brighton.ac.uk/en/studentTheses/e7073b3d-9105-4872-93e3-f4e9faedf906.
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In recent years, contemporary western society has played witness to a growth in the production, promotion, and consumption of ostensibly ‘ethical’ products such as Fair Trade goods. Such commodities are characterised by an emphasis on rebalancing inequalities that ‘mass’ production/consumption are said to create. This thesis takes sustainable tourism as a novel example of such concerns. With recent inroads in psychology and the social sciences suggesting that the practice of consumption represents a prominent ‘mode’ for ‘identity work’ (including class identities), the consumption of ‘ethical’ products may arguably signify the manifestation of ‘ethical identity/identities’. However, ‘ethics’ and ‘identity’ are ambiguous words with significant concerns surrounding the ‘ethics’ of ‘ethical’ products, and the extent to which individuals exhibit ‘ethical identity/identities’ through the consumption of such goods. Building on Michael Foucault’s ‘technologies of self’ and ‘ethics’, this thesis seeks to contribute to our understanding of ‘ethics’, ‘identity’, and ‘practice’ in relation to sustainable tourism.
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Patterson, Aimee. "Theocentric ethics for a secular world : toward a general application of the ethical thought of James M. Gustafson." Electronic Thesis or Dissertation, McGill University, 2005. http://digitool.Library.McGill.CA:80/R/?func=dbin-jump-full&object_id=83137.
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In order to work toward right relationships among humanity and all other things, what is required is an ethical theory that concerns itself with interests that include but are not limited to the human. James M. Gustafson's theocentric ethics, which centres value on God, can accomplish this in the religious sphere. Gustafson's ethical theory also has the potential to work within nontheistic secularism as a way of construing all things as interrelated and interdependent. Underlying Gustafson's theology and value theory is a commonsense ontology, which appreciates evidences from the sciences, affective orientation, and resembles certain webs of beliefs held by many outside religious communities. In order to illustrate the transition to secular Gustafsonian ethical theory, functional surrogates of theology found in secular philosophy, and particularly in the work of Mary Midgley, are identified. Gustafson's ethical theory is used to identify certain obligations and restrictions with regard to environmental ethics.
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Huang, Chih-Tung. "Shaping environmental 'justices'." Electronic Thesis or Dissertation, University of Edinburgh, 2010. http://hdl.handle.net/1842/4480.
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This thesis investigates the concept of environmental justice (EJ) by tracing its origins, the process of its shaping and reshaping, and its adoption in Taiwan. EJ addresses the phenomenon of disproportionate distribution of environmental risks among social groups. As no one can actually “see” how risks are distributed, one has no choice but to rely on scientific (or other) techniques to visualise and then conceptualise these risks. After so doing, EJ has been turned into specific indicators to gauge EJ/injustice and the technical methods to measure it, even though the scope of these concerns is much broader and goes far beyond the technical. Using detailed historical exposition in tandem with interviews, this thesis seeks to demonstrate the processes that have led to the dominant constructions of environmental justice. The main argument of this thesis is that the phenomenon of EJ/injustice is a condensation of power relations/struggle, and the discourses that describe and the measures that gauge it are an expression of this struggle. Specifically, in this thesis I attempt to show that EJ is being constructed through the very process of debate among EJ supporters and with their challengers. Seen from this angle, this thesis shows that the conceptions of EJ differ and are mutable. To say that these conceptions change is not to deny that there is environmental injustice, but to recognise that the key characteristics can be categorised or explained differently. This research discloses that claims about EJ can be framed in much greater variety in terms of identity, difference, territory and governance. This thesis suggests that although understanding EJ through specific indicators and some sorts of techniques are necessary, a just society cannot be achieved through scientific research alone. The question of how much or what sort of data is sufficient to prove the existence of (in)justice is not a scientific one, but a social one. Our research could become much more meaningful if we recognise the specificity and limitations of the dominant approach and if the phenomenon of EJ/injustice is put in context. To achieve this, our intellectual endeavours should be properly conceived as being about a theory of endless political struggles over the issue, rather than simply about “discovering” EJ.
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Aarnio-Linnanvuori, Essi. "Environmental issues in Finnish school textbooks on religious education and ethics." Article in journal, University of Helsinki, 2013. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-27403.
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Solving global environmental problems requires a major change of values. As relates to environmental education, worldview, ethics and spiritual issues are important elements. But how are environmental issues included in such school subjects that especially discuss values and ethics? In this article I examine 24 Finnish religious education and ethics textbooks to analyze, to what extent environmental issues are integrated and discussed in them. I conclude that there is confusion about what environmental education can be in societal school subjects. The environmental texts in textbooks do not always draw on the specific content of the societal subject in question but repeat content from the natural sciences. Therefore, I suggest contexts and perspectives for discussing environmental issues that would comport with these subjects and supplement existing environmental education at school.
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Kadikon, Sulaiman. "An analysis of Islamic environmental ethics with special reference to Malaysia." Electronic Thesis or Dissertation, University of Wales Trinity Saint David, 2004. http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.503614.
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Smith, Ivan Graham. "Subduers of the earth? : the Bible, Christian faith and environmental ethics." Thesis, Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2008. http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/53073.
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Thesis (MPhil)--University of Stellenbosch, 2002.
ENGLISH ABSTRACT: I begin this assignment with an examination of verses such as Gen. 1:28 from the period of primeval history in the Old Testament (0. T.) of the Christian Bible which have been seen by some commentators, particularly Lynn White, as being responsible for a despotic attitude towards the natural environment and consequently for much of the damage that has been done to the environment. These texts are critically examined to determine whether one may interpret them in that manner but also taking into account the form and context of writing. The 'despotic' interpretation of these texts is contrasted with the views of others, such as Robin Attfield who see in them a call to stewardship, not a licence to ruthlessly subjugate. Attfield particularly does not believe that these ancient texts can be held responsible for the present ecological crisis. Thereafter an examination is made ofO.T. texts which refer to the concept of rest for the earth which, for our present-day context is interpreted in this assignment as a rest from the rigours of environmental degradation and from the over-exploitation of the earth's resources. New Testament (N.T.) texts are also critically examined in section 4, examining in the gospels Jesus' attitude towards the natural environment, and also other N.T. texts, particularly from the epistles ofSt Paul. The conclusion in this section is that the N.T. writers portray a benevolent attitude towards non-human nature and portray God as caring for even those inhabitants of the natural realm which humans may deem insignificant, eg, the sparrows referred to in Luke 12: 6. In section 5, there is once again an examination ofN.T. texts, but this time for the purposes of re-interpreting the concept of salvation so that it embraces the whole of creation and not only humankind. The point of departure here is that humans cannot be separated from their non-human environment on this earth. Salvation and reconciliation is for the whole of the created order, as St Paul seems to indicate. Therefore in this section of the assignment an holistic view of salvation is adopted: we are saved in our world and with our world, not apart from it and out of it. Section 6 endeavours to draw together the criteria that would inform an environmental ethic that Christians can subscribe to, given the approach that has been taken in the previous sections of the assignment; 6.2 lists the features necessary for such an ethic. An examination is also made of various ethical theories such as Natural Law (Teleology), Utilitarianism, and Deontology and what impact they would have if applied in an environmental framework. This section ends in 6.5 with an overview of the main tenets of the Deep Ecology movement, not viewing it so much as an ethical system, but more as a set of values which accord with a deep respect for all of nature and which may guide humankind to transform destructive attitudes towards the environment. Because this assignment deals with Christian morality in respect of the environment, it is necessary to critically examine the concept of stewardship which is the thrust of section 7, titled 'Stewardship Revisited'. The views of Robin Attfield, John Passmore and William Dyrness with regard to stewardship in the Bible and Christian tradition are contrasted. Thereafter Elizabeth Dodson Gray's views are referred to and supported as the way towards a much-needed transformation of humans' attitude to the natural environment. Gray rejects the notion of stewardship as an acceptable environmental ethic because it retains the overtones of domination and paternalism. It is concluded that stewardship, even if it is biblically justified and is supported by Christian tradition, has failed to arrest the degradation and destruction of the natural environment caused by human activities. This then leads on to the next section where this assignment supports Gray's 'Ethic of Attunement'. 'Becoming Attuned', the heading of the section describes in two words the basis of Elizabeth Gray's environmental ethic. It is noted here that she calls upon humankind to become attuned to our ecosystems and the life-support systems in the biosphere and to plan and structure our industries and activities to 'fit in'. Gray's ethic of attunement is also supported because it is practical, down-to-earth and takes into account the needs of human beings as part of nature. Section 9 gives a brief overview of some practical implications and applications of an ethic of attunement. The fields of education, industry, farming, energy and nature-conservation are touched on. The last subsection under 9, 9.6, gives a recent example of a clash between human and non-human nature in the Cape Peninsula, namely, the so-called invasion of residential areas by baboons. How this problem may be dealt with under an ethic of attunement is discussed. This assignment concludes in section 10 with the exhortation to move beyond an ethic of stewardship of the natural environment to one ofattunement. Moreover, the urgency of doing so is emphasised. If we do not change our ways to fit in with nature, planet Earth is doomed to eco logical destruction.
AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: In die begin van hierdie taak word verskei Bybelse verse uit die oergeskiedenis in die Ou Testament (O.T.) ondersoek om te bepaal ofhulle verantwoordelik gehou kan word vir die mens se despotiese gesindheid teenoor die natuurlike omgewing en die gevolglike skade wat so 'n gesindheid veroorsaak. Verklaarders soos veral Lynn White is van mening dat verse soos Genesis 1: 28 wel aanleiding gegee het tot so 'n despotiese gesindheid teenoor die omgewing. Hierdie mening word in teenstelling geplaas met die sienswyse van skrywers soos Robin Attfield wie meen dat die verse onder bespreking te doen het met rentmeesterskap eerder as despotisme. Bowendien glo Attfield dat hierdie oeroue tekste nie verantwoordelik gehou kan word vir ons hedendaagse ekologiese krisis nie. Daarna word ondersoek ingestel in die O.T. tekste wat te doen het met die konsep van rus vir die aarde. Die konsep word in hierdie deel van die taak vertolk in ons hedendaagse konteks as 'n_rus vir die aarde van omgewingsdegradasie en die onmatige ontginning van die aarde se hulpbronne. Tekste uit die Nuwe Testament (N.T.) word ook ondersoek. In afdeling 4 word gekyk na Jesus se woorde en gesindheid met betrekking tot die natuurlike omgewing asook ander verse uit die sendbriewe van Paulus. Hier is die gevolgtrekking dat die N.T. skrywers welwillendheid betoon teenoor die nie-menslike natuur en dat hulle vir God afbeeld as besorgd oor die geringste van wesens in die natuurlike wêreld, dit wat die mens as nietig mag beskou, soos die mossies waarna verwys word in Lukas 12: 6. In afdeling 5 word daar weereens N. T. tekste ondersoek, maar hierdie keer met die doelom die tradisionele dogma van verlossing om te skep sodat dit die hele skepping omhels en nie net die mensdom nie. Hier is die uitgangspunt dat ons nie die mens kan afsonder van die res van die skepping nie. Verlossing en versoening is vir die hele skepping, soos dit blyk in party dele van Paulus se briewe. 'n Alomvattende benadering tot verlossing word in hierdie deel van die taak bevorder: ons word verlos in en met die res van die skepping, en nie apart daarvan nie. Afdeling 6 poog om die maatstawwe te identifiseer wat behoort deel te wees van 'n omgewingsetiek vir Christene, gegewe die rigting wat ingeslaan is in die vorige afdelings van die taak. In 6.2 is daar 'n lys opgestel van die maatstawwe wat nodig geag is. Verskeie etiese teorieë soos Utilitarisme en Teleologie word nagegaan om hulle uitwerking op omgewingsetiek te bepaal. Hierdie afdeling eindig met 6.5 waar die grondbeginsels van die 'Deep Ecology' beweging voorgehou word as die soort waardes wat die mensdom kan lei om 'n_innige respek vir die hele natuur te koester. Daar word saamgestem met die mening dat 'Deep Ecology' nie 'n praktiese, stelselmatige omgewingsetiek is nie, maar, as ons die ideale en grondbeginsels daarvan aanneem, mag dit die nodige transformasie veroorsaak in mense se verkeerde gesindheid teenoor die natuur. Omdat hierdie taak met Christelike omgewingsetiek te doen het, is dit nodig om die konsep van rentmeesterskap as omgewingetiek te ondersoek, want dit is deesdae die oorheersende nadering in die Christelike kerk. Die menings van Robin Attfield, John Passmore en William Dyrness met betrekking tot rentmeesterskap word in teenstelling getrek. Daarna word gekyk na Elizabeth Dodson Gray se sienswyse aangaande die etiek van rentmeesterskap teenoor die omgewing. Haar sienswyse word ondersteun - dat rentmeesterskap hoofsaaklik 'n etiek van heerskappy of baasspeel is. Die gevolgtrekking hier is dat rentmeesterskap nie meer voorgehou kan word as 'n paslike omgewingetiek nie. Dit het nie tot dusver geslaag om die degradasie en vernietiging van die natuur deur die mens stop te sit nie. Gray sê dat die mens in ooreenstemming moet kom met die natuur ('become attuned'). Dit is die inhoud van afdeling 8 - 'n uitleg van haar 'Ethic of Attunement'. Haar uitgangspunt is dat die mens homlhaarself moet sien as deel van die natuur en nie as oorheerser nie. Al die mens se aktiwiteite, en veral die nywerheid, moet inpas by die natuur se siklusse. Gray se etiek word ondersteun omdat dit prakties is en omdat dit die belangstellings en benodighede van die mensdom in ag neem, maar as deel van die natuur. Afdeling 9 word gebruik om kortliks te skets wat sommige van die implikasies en praktiese toepassings van hierdie etiek in die samelewing mag wees. Hier word gekyk na die uitwerking op opvoeding, nywerheid, boedery, energie en natuurbewaring. In die laaste onder-afdeling in hierdie afdeling, 9.6, is daar 'n beskrywing van 'n spesifieke probleem wat te doen het met die botsing tussen die mens en nie-menslike natuur. Die onlangse botsings tussen mense en bobbejane in die Kaapse Skiereiland word gebruik om te sien hoe Gray se omgewingsetiek van 'attunement' in so 'n situasie gebruik kan word om 'n oplossing te kry. Die taak eindig met afdeling 10 waar mense aangespoor word om die omgewingsetiek van 'attunement' aan te neem en die etiek van rentmeesterskap af te skaf Bowendien word daar gepleit dat dit dringend moet gebeur want as ons nie ons algemene gesindheid van oorheersing verander nie, is die aarde verdoem tot vernietiging van die natuur.
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Magosha, Tendani Amos. "Social development versus saving nature? : a case study in environmental ethics." Thesis, Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2008. http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/49787.
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Thesis (MPhil)--University of Stellenbosch, 2003.
ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This research project has been purposed at shedding light and bringing clarity and practical resolution to the ethical dilemma brought about by seemingly incompatible principles and value positions associated with the two contentious issues: social development and nature conservation. In view of exposing the contentions between the two above-mentioned value positions, this project has pitted anthropocentrism against biocen trism / ecocen trism. However, as alluded to in this research, many people in developing countries, South Africa included, are victims of poverty and hunger which need redress. Unfortunately the alleviation of the same has been made possible through ruthless exploitation and maximum expansion of natural resources and in the process, the environment suffered much. However, with social development, the natural environment is often sacrificed and conversely with the protection and preservation of nature, man is then condemned to destitution. With the introduction and the case expose forming the introduction of this research project in Chapter 1, Chapter 2 is devoted to the research methodology used throughout this project. Also, given the problem statement, endeavours to search for answers to the central questions are outlined. An analysis of the case study is also made in this chapter. Chapter 3 deals with the weighing of the classical dilemmas namely: anthropocentrism versus biocentrism / ecocentrism and this further entails the notion of justice versus conservation pertaining the case in point. These classical dilemmas are put into critical perspective in Chapter 4 wherein monistic value approaches are exposed in terms of their failures. Precisely, the either-or choices following from pure theoretical principles are put into question with reference to the case under discussion. An alternative, namely the pragmatic approach, which maintains a multiplicity of values, is hereby brought into play. Chapter 5 entails a critical appraisal of the decision to be taken by the Makhado Municipality Council with regard to the development of the shopping complex or the protection of the indigenous tree sanctuary. In conclusion, recommendations and suggestions are stated within the context of the case in point. However, it is imperative to note that these recommendations and suggestions should be read in conjunction with one another, and not in isolation from one another. Furthermore, the same should not in anyway be indiscriminately used as a universal standard in any similar or related case. Further research on this ethical debate is encouraged.
AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die doel van hierdie navorsingsprojek is om helderheid en 'n praktiese oplossing te kry met betrekking tot die etiese dilemma wat voortspruit uit die oeriskynlik onversoenbare beginsels en waardeposisies wat geassosieer word met twee omstrede kwessies, naamlik sosiale ontwikkeling en natuurbewaring. Met die oog daarop om die kwelpunte rondom bogenoemde twee waardeposisies aan die lig te bring, stel hierdie projek antroposentrisme teenoor biosentrisme / ekosentrisme. Baie mense in ontwikkelende lande, insluitend Suid-Afrika, IS slagoffers van armoede en hongersnood, soos aangedui word in die loop van hierdie navorsing. Hierdie situasie noodsaak regs telling. Pogings om verligting te bring in hierdie verband, lei egter tot die genadelose eksploitasie en maksimum ontwikkeling van natuurlike hulpbronne. In hierdie proses word die omgewing ernstig beskadig. Die ongelukkige toedrag van sake is dus dat sosiale ontwikkeling dikwels geskied ten koste van die omgewing, terwyl die beskerming en bewaring van die omgewing op sy beurt dikwels die mens behoeftig laat. Hoofstuk 1 van hierdie navorsingsprojek bevat 'n inleiding en beskrywing van die geval onder bespreking, terwyl Hoofstuk 2 gewy word aan die navorsingsmetodologie wat in hierdie projek gebruik word. Dit bevat ook 'n skets van die pogings om antwoorde te soek op die sentrale vrae van die probleemstelling, en 'n analise van die gevallestudie. In Hoofstuk 3 word die klassieke dilemmas wat verband hou met die betrokke probleem opgeweeg, naamlik antroposentrisme teenoor biosentrismej ekosentrisme, en die idee van geregtigheid teenoor die idee van bewaring. Bogenoemde klassieke dilemmas word in 'n kritiese lig beskou in Hoofstuk 4 deurdat die tekortkominge van monistiese waardebenaderings uitgewys word. Die 6f-6f keuses wat volg uit suiwer teoretiese beginsels word bevraagteken met verwysing na die geval onder bespreking. 'n Pleidooi word uiteindelik gelewer vir 'n alternatiewe pragmatiese benadering wat eerder 'n veelheid van waardes betrek. Hoofstuk 5 bevat 'n kritiese beoordeling van die keuse wat die Makhado Munisipaliteitsraad moet maak tussen die ontwikkeling van 'n winkelkompleks of die beskerming van 'n inheemse boomreservaat. Ter afsluiting word aanbevelings en voorstelle gemaak in verband met die kwessie onder bespreking. Dit is egter belangrik om daarop te let dat hierdie aanbevelings en voorstelle nie apart van mekaar beskou moet word nie, maar eerder saam gelees moet word. Dit is verder ook belangrik dat die aanbevelings en voorstelle wat met betrekking tot hierdie geval gemaak word nie sonder meer gebruik moet word as 'n universele standaard vir soortgelyke of verwante gevalle nie. Verdere navorsing oor hierdie etiese debat word aangemoedig.
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Pritchett, Justin William. "Cultivating wilderness : a phenomenological theology of wilderness spirituality and environmental ethics." Electronic Thesis or Dissertation, University of Aberdeen, 2018. http://digitool.abdn.ac.uk:80/webclient/DeliveryManager?pid=237796.
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In the wake of Lynne White's 1967 thesis contending Christianity is the historical root of our environmental crises, theologians have struggled to articulate an environmentally friendly theology. These efforts, while substantive, have proven insufficient to reorient Christian environmental ethics and practice en mass. Pope Francis argues in Laudato Si, that dogma, doctrine, and arguments are always insufficient for redeeming human relations and instead calls for an ecological conversion via a wild spirituality. I answer this call by offering a phenomenological theology of wilderness spirituality that grounds environmental ethics in the experience of encountering God in the wilderness. I use the existential phenomenology of American philosopher Henry Bugbee and Czech phenomenologist Erazim Kohák to map phenomenological practice as spiritual discipline. By engaging in lived, practical, and embodied practices bracketing one's intellectual and physical common-sense attitudes, the practitioner is opened to and made receptive to the redeeming work of God. This topology of phenomenology as spiritual discipline illustrates how wilderness functions in scripture. In conversation with Dietrich Bonhoeffer's reading of the Genesis 3 curse as both curse and promise I argue that wilderness functions by killing sicut-deus-humanity and thereby becomes the site of redemption, healing, and benediction. This spiritual and ethical function of wilderness is also evident in the early desert monks and grounds their praxis and ethical development. Ultimately, it is by being made vulnerable and receptive in the wilderness that the early desert monks were able to participate in the reestablishment of the paradisaical innocence. This suggests that redeemed relations between humanity and the non-human world is dependent upon the sanctifying experience of wilderness deconstruction and encounter and thus the efficacy of environmental ethics depends upon the invitation to practice a wilderness spirituality.
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SCHULTE, NEIDE KOHLER. "DESIGN FOR SUSTAINABLE CLOTHING: CONTIBUTIONS OF BIOCENTRIC ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS AND VEGANISM." PublishedVersion, PONTIFÍCIA UNIVERSIDADE CATÓLICA DO RIO DE JANEIRO, 2008. http://www.maxwell.vrac.puc-rio.br/Busca_etds.php?strSecao=resultado&nrSeq=19116@1.
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PONTIFÍCIA UNIVERSIDADE CATÓLICA DO RIO DE JANEIRO
A questão central desse estudo é verificar se os fundamentos da ética ambiental biocêntrica e a proposta do veganismo podem contribuir na reflexão sobre um sistema de moda mais pertinente à sustentabilidade ambiental e ao desenvolvimento da consciência quanto à necessidade de mudança no modo de vida dos humanos para que se preserve o ambiente natural. O pressuposto é que a proposta do veganismo e a ética ambiental biocêntrica oferecem fundamentos para um modo de produção e consumo mais adequados à sustentabilidade ambiental e para um modo de vida humana que seja menos destrutivo. Para alcançar esse objetivo levantou-se o estado da arte e os conceitos sobre moda, sustentabilidade ambiental, ética ambiental biocêntrica e veganismo; apresentou-se a proposta dos teóricos para a ética ambiental biocêntrica e estabeleceu-se uma relação com o estilo de vida dos veganos; entrevistou-se consumidores veganos que, segundo seu discurso, já praticam um consumo mais ético e sustentável, para verificar o seu modo de consumo; identificou-se novas propostas para o design do vestuário que visam um consumo ético e sustentável ambientalmente; e, apresentou-se a proposta do Programa de Extensão Ecomoda que vem sendo desenvolvida no curso de moda da UDESC. Esse trabalho é uma reflexão para contribuir na mudança nas engrenagens do atual sistema da moda, para que ele se torne mais adequado a uma visão de mundo mais sustentável ambientalmente.
The central question of this study is to verify that the fundamentals of biocentric environmental ethics of veganism and the proposal can contribute to reflection on a fashion system more relevant to environmental sustainability and the development of awareness of the need for change in the way of life for human to preserve the natural environment. The assumption is that the proposal of veganism biocentric environmental ethics and provide grounds for a mode of production and consumption to environmental sustainability and appropriate for a human way of life that is less destructive. To achieve this rose the state of the art and concepts about fashion, environmental sustainability, environmental ethics and biocentric veganism, presented the proposal for the theorists of biocentric environmental ethics and establish a relationship with the lifestyle of vegans; consumers interviewed are vegans who, according to his speech, already practice a more ethical and sustainable consumption, to check your mode of consumption, we identified new proposals for the design of clothing aimed at an environmentally sustainable and ethical consumption, and presented proposal to the Program Extension EcoMode being developed in the course of fashion UDESC and develop a reflection on their actions. This research is thought to contribute to a change in the gears of the current system of fashion, so that it becomes more suitable for a vision of environmentally sustainable world.
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Krueger, Barbara Murphy. "Climate Change Virtue Ethics and Ecocriticism in Undergraduate Education." Thesis, Prescott College, 2002. http://pqdtopen.proquest.com/#viewpdf?dispub=1583209.
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This thesis explores the question: can an ecocritical approach to environmental virtue ethics (EVE) in undergraduate climate change education inform students' understanding of the ethical issues of climate change and promote environmental responsibility and action? Philosophical theories of virtue ethics will be discussed from an historical perspective as well as to its renewal in the 20th century, especially within the context of the wicked dimensions of the climate change crisis. Dominant themes in climate change ethics including concerns over the scientific complexity, global dimensions, temporal issues, intergenerational fairness and responsibility, justice, and human rights will be presented and used to devise a compendium of climate change virtues and vices. Environmental and climate change education research will be reviewed as well as the reasons for its failure to produce a substantial shift in attitudes and behavior of people especially in the global North will be deliberated. Ecocriticism, which studies the relationship between literature and visual and audial art will be explored, and a novel curriculum based on theoretical elements from climate change virtue ethics and supported with examples of the ecocritical arts will be proposed. It is my belief that an interdisciplinary framework supported and illustrated by climate change ecocriticism from any and all of the literary, visual, audial, and performance arts will create deeper understandings of climate change complexity.

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Eggers, Michelle. "The Ethics of Intervention in the Nutria Case." Text, OpenSIUC, 2012. https://opensiuc.lib.siu.edu/theses/2067.
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An effective incentivized hunting program was initiated in the United States in 2002 to reduce the population of nutria (Myocastor coypus), an invasive species of rodent contributing to wetland erosion. In this thesis, I analyze the ethics of intervening through the nutria hunting program by applying four different non-anthropocentric theories of animal and environmental ethics to the case: Peter Singer’s utilitarianism, Tom Regan’s animal rights, Paul Taylor’s respect for nature, and Aldo Leopold’s land ethic. I explain why the theories of Singer and Leopold would support intervention, while Regan’s and Taylor’s would not. Additionally, due to its unique features, the situation with the nutria is a perfect test case for evaluating the merits of these four competing theories. After taking issue with Singer’s, Regan’s, and Taylor’s theories as they pertain to the nutria case, I conclude that Leopold’s land ethic is best able to account for our considered moral belief that killing the invasive nutria in order to protect the wetlands is morally appropriate. Because Leopold’s land ethic is holistic and inegalitarian, it can explain both why the nutria are a problem and why they are less morally valuable than the native wetland species they are destroying. Of the four theories, only Leopold’s includes the entire biotic community in the sphere of moral consideration, and in so doing, recognizes that what is at stake in this case is the wetland itself, and that we have a duty to preserve its integrity, even at the cost of nutria life.
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Younis, Khalid M. "The impact of moral values on ethical practices in environmental management." Thesis, University of Phoenix, 2008. http://pqdtopen.proquest.com/#viewpdf?dispub=3583330.
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The Harbormaster Command and Control Center (HCCC) project provides mobile platforms intended to control harbor operations. The main component of the HCCC is a double-expandable shelter mounted on a 5 ton military flatbed truck. Kentucky Trailer Corporation manufactured a baseline shelter using standard materials (aluminum, steel, plywood, etc.) and also considered alternate designs using composite materials (carbon fiber laminates, glass fiber laminates, composite sandwich configurations, etc.).

Two faculty members and several graduate students in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Louisville participated in this effort, primarily in terms of material selection, structural analysis, and design approaches. This thesis presents one portion of that work. This consists of a finite element model (FEM) of the HCCC using standard materials. This model was constructed to match the design proposed and later built and delivered by Kentucky Trailer. The thesis also presents two structural analysis simulations performed using the HCCC FEM.

The HCCC FEM was built using ANSY Mechanical APDL. This software utilizes text-based “input files” to build, analyze and post-process the HCCC FEM entirely without user assistance. The author generated these input files to create the HCCC FEM structure using 3D beam elements, layered shell elements, and point mass elements. This approach represented a simplification to eliminate the need for more computationally intensive 3D solid elements; it also provides a simpler approach for changing the model as design changes occur. For example, the thickness of an aluminum plate in the HCCC FEM model is represented as a number that can be easily changed; for a 3D solid element model, revisions would involve changing solid model entities such as volumes and areas followed by remeshing. This is feasible in a small model but impractical in a large complex model such as the HCCC FEM.

The HCCC FEM is constructed in a modular manner, with different models representing the roof, sides, rear and front, floor and both expandable sections. These various submodels are joined together using constraint equations to cause identical displacements and rotations along common boundaries between models. This also permitted scenarios such as analysis with the expandables retracted or expanded. Contact elements are used to simulate support of the HCCC FEM along is bottom by a rigid boundary simulating the truck bed carrying the HCCC. The HCCC FEM is a nonlinear model due to both the contact elements and the ability to solve in cases of arbitrarily large displacement needed for dynamic analysis.

Two analyses using the HCCC FEM are presented. The first is a static analysis under various constant inertial (acceleration) loads to demonstrate that the structure is worthy for air transport using a C-17 aircraft. The second is a dynamic analysis simulating the structural response during a rail impact; this occurs when the HCCC is mounted on a rail car which then collides with another rail car. Both analyses were beneficial in demonstrating that the HCCC design performs sufficiently well in service.

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Haag, Christiane. "Perceptions of environmental ethics among German-speaking foreign landowners in Nova Scotia." Electronic thesis or dissertation, National Library of Canada = Bibliothèque nationale du Canada, 2000. http://www.collectionscanada.ca/obj/s4/f2/dsk1/tape4/PQDD_0015/MQ57289.pdf.
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Lang, Reinisch Luciana. "Once there were fishermen : social natures, environmental ethics and an urban mangrove." Electronic Thesis or Dissertation, University of Manchester, 2015. https://www.research.manchester.ac.uk/portal/en/theses/once-there-were-fishermensocial-natures-environmental-ethics-and-an-urban-mangrove(2f80518e-95bc-4362-93b5-4502594638a5).html.
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This research looks at the change in ethical sensibilities towards a mangrove in a fishing colony in the periphery of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and at how they may have changed as the mangrove became a protected area and entered the environmental assemblage. Formerly called Z-1, this was the first of 800 cooperative fishing colonies founded along the Brazilian coast in 1920 as part of a government initiative. The study unveiled the following pattern around the mangrove: from being a source of livelihood and place for communal activities up until the 1970s, it became the locus of an environmental movement in the 80s and 90s after it was devastated by a big fire. The concrete outcome of the movement was the creation of the APARU, Area of Environmental Protection and Urban Regeneration, which meant that after more than seventy years under a system of tutelage by the Navy, the colony and the mangrove were subjected to an environmental form of governance administered by the City Council, and the mangrove went from being a taken-for-granted thing to an environmentally-oriented concept. It finally fell silent and isolated as it became increasingly polluted, even if ‘protected’ by a municipal decree. The main argument presented is that, as the mangrove passed from nature to environment, which implied a change in governance from the Navy to the Department of Environment, people found creative ways of holding on to its thingness, and to ethical values that at times conflict with the broader environmental assemblage. Those local ethics forge the links that sustain an ecological assemblage, and the ethics prescribed by the environmental governance currently in place can be undermined by more embedded values. That said, local knowledge and practices are environmentally informed, and different ways of being political emerge. This community was not only created literally on a mangrove, but it was also symbolically and politically reproduced through the mangrove, and even more so after it became a protected area. The dialectical outcomes of the relationships between human beings and the mangrove, and between human beings as they multiply, transform the landscape continuously, just as the mangrove in its perpetual unfolding impresses itself upon human matters and sustains the social ordering of things. As new elements are assembled around the mangrove, from discarded utensils to stories of environmental activism, the mangrove is enacted as heritage, as nature, as a biome, as culture, as pollution, as an institution, and as environment. This thesis hopes to contribute towards the broader body of literature on environmental anthropology, political ecology, and anthropology of moralities, by focusing on ‘human-disturbed environments’ (Tsing 2013) and bringing attention to the value of local perceptions in policy making.
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Arbulú, Villanueva Italo. "Environmental ethics and natural resources’ management: understanding the basis of economic issues." Artículo, Politai, 2006. http://repositorio.pucp.edu.pe/index/handle/123456789/92582.
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The discussion about this global framework of rights and duties, between humans and other living things and nonliving things, has given rise to a fascinating body of literature in the field of ethics that has been called environmental ethics. The aim of this paper is twofold, first it seeks to present the current elements in the field of environmental politics governing the definition of economic policies on the use of environment and natural resources. Second, it suggests the appearance of other thinking that can influence the way society evaluates the human-nature relationship.
La discusión sobre este marco global de derechos y deberes, entre los seres humanos y otros seres vivos y seres no vivos, ha dado origen a un cuerpo fascinante de la literatura en el campo de la Ética que se ha denominado ética del medio ambiente. El objetivo de este documento es doble; por un lado, se busca presentar los elementos vigentes en el campo de la ética ambiental que rige la definición de las políticas económicas relativas al uso del medio ambiente y los recursos naturales. Por otro lado, se plantea la aparición de otras vertientes de pensamiento que pueden influir en la forma como la sociedad evalúe la relación humano-naturaleza.
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Shirley, Beth J. "Adapting Environmental Ethics and Behaviors: Toward a Posthuman Rhetoric of Community Engagement." Text, DigitalCommons@USU, 2008. https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/etd/7513.
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What persuades people one way or another to accept or deny climate change? More importantly, what persuades people to act on, ignore, or even be defiant of climate change? We would like to think that people are motivated when they hear the science explained clearly and when they are presented with a clear understanding of how their actions have a lasting impact. Yet the science on climate change has been made clear for some time, and doubt in climate change science is rampant (at least in the United States). This dissertation seeks to answer these questions and develop a new methodology for persuading people to change their behaviors to be more environmentally friendly. I discuss a rhetorical theory called new materialism (a branch of posthumanism) that looks at the impact that nonhuman factors have on an audience’s decision-making. I apply that theory to the study of technical communication in three case studies of rural communities in Utah, Morocco, and Ohio, learning from local knowledges and seeking to understand what persuades these audiences’ in a more complex way than we may have previously thought. I conclude by suggesting what approaches communicators might take with these communities in the future toward engaging them in making the behavior changes that are necessary to mitigate the human contribution to climate change.
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Menning, Nancy Lee. "Reading nature religiously: Lectio Divina, environmental ethics, and the literary nonfiction of Terry Tempest Williams." Dissertation, University of Iowa, 2005. https://ir.uiowa.edu/etd/556.
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This dissertation describes a method for constructing a religious environmental ethic modeled on the spiritual practice of lectio divina, or devotional reading. Lectio divina is an explicitly religious way of reading, distinguished from other modes of reading not by what is read--even sacred scriptures can be read for mastery of content, for entertainment, etc.--but by how it is read. In lectio divina, the reader engages the text with a willingness to be transformed by an encounter with the sacred, mediated somehow by the text. This vulnerability is inherent in a religious reading, as is the intimacy implicit in the repeated engagement with the text that is central to the practice of lectio divina. The emphasis on vulnerability and intimacy marks this religious approach to environmental ethics as a form of virtue ethics. Consistent with the traditional insight conveyed by the two-books metaphor, whereby Christians believed God was revealed both in the Book of Scripture and the Book of Nature, I map the classic stages of lectio divina onto a reading not of scripture but of the natural world. Paying attention requires careful observation, the naming and description of relevant details, and awareness and articulation of emotional responses as one repeatedly visits natural settings. Pondering requires a willingness to enter deeply into the religious, scientific, and other sources that help us understand the natural world and our place within it, as well as a willingness to reflect critically upon those sources. Responding calls upon readers of nature to take definite actions that flow out of the previous stages of paying attention and pondering, utilizing knowledge born of familiarity to address environmental challenges while also protecting natural settings in which the unnamable sacred can be encountered. Surrendering involves acknowledging human limits of understanding, will, and action, and nonetheless finding rest and restoration by trusting in some force beyond the merely human. I illustrate this argument with interpretations of literary works by Terry Tempest Williams, thereby asserting the relevance of religiosity to human transformation and to efforts to imaginatively embody human-land relationships that further human and ecological flourishing.

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