Статті в журналах з теми "Lactates"

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1

Opdahl, Lee J., Ricky W. Lewis, Lee A. Kalcsits, Tarah S. Sullivan, and Karen A. Sanguinet. "Plant Uptake of Lactate-Bound Metals: A Sustainable Alternative to Metal Chlorides." Biomolecules 11, no. 8 (July 23, 2021): 1085. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom11081085.

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Global agricultural intensification has prompted investigations into biostimulants to enhance plant nutrition and soil ecosystem processes. Metal lactates are an understudied class of organic micronutrient supplement that provide both a labile carbon source and mineral nutrition for plant and microbial growth. To gain a fundamental understanding of plant responses to metal lactates, we employed a series of sterile culture-vessel experiments to compare the uptake and toxicity of five metals (Zn, Mn, Cu, Ni, and Co) supplied in lactate and chloride salt form. Additionally, primary root growth in plate-grown Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings was used to determine optimal concentrations of each metal lactate. Our results suggest that uptake and utilization of metals in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) when supplied in lactate form is comparable to that of metal chlorides. Metal lactates also have promotional growth effects on A. thaliana seedlings with optimal concentrations identified for Zn (0.5–1.0 µM), Mn (0.5–1.0 µM), Cu (0.5 µM), Ni (1.0 µM), and Co (0.5 µM) lactate. These findings present foundational evidence to support the use of metal lactates as potential crop biostimulants due to their ability to both supply nutrients and stimulate plant growth.
2

Lamberti, Fabio M., Luis A. Román-Ramírez, Paul Mckeown, Matthew D. Jones, and Joseph Wood. "Kinetics of Alkyl Lactate Formation from the Alcoholysis of Poly(Lactic Acid)." Processes 8, no. 6 (June 24, 2020): 738. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pr8060738.

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Alkyl lactates are green solvents that are successfully employed in several industries such as pharmaceutical, food and agricultural. They are considered prospective renewable substitutes for petroleum-derived solvents and the opportunity exists to obtain these valuable chemicals from the chemical recycling of waste poly(lactic acid). Alkyl lactates (ethyl lactate, propyl lactate and butyl lactate) were obtained from the catalysed alcoholysis reaction of poly(lactic acid) with the corresponding linear alcohol. Reactions were catalysed by a Zn complex synthesised from an ethylenediamine Schiff base. The reactions were studied in the 50–130 °C range depending on the alcohol, at autogenous pressure. Arrhenius temperature-dependent parameters (activation energies and pre-exponential factors) were estimated for the formation of the lactates. The activation energies (Ea1, Ea2 and Ea−2) for alcoholysis in ethanol were 62.58, 55.61 and 54.11 kJ/mol, respectively. Alcoholysis proceeded fastest in ethanol in comparison to propanol and butanol and reasonable rates can be achieved in temperatures as low as 50 °C. This is a promising reaction that could be used to recycle end-of-life poly(lactic acid) and could help create a circular production economy.
3

SHELEF, LEORA A. "Antimicrobial Effects of Lactates: A Review." Journal of Food Protection 57, no. 5 (May 1, 1994): 445–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028x-57.5.445.

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Sodium lactate is used as humectant and flavor enhancer in meat and poultry products, and there is growing evidence of antimicrobial properties of the salt. Potassium and calcium lactate are equally effective in controlling growth of aerobes and anaerobes in meats, and antibotulinal and antilisterial activities of the lactate anion have been established. The specific action of lactate on the microbial cell is not well understood. No intracellular pH lowering effect could be demonstrated, and the reported small decreases in water activity appear insufficient to explain the effect. Other explanations have been proposed but not yet confirmed. Although lactates appear to be bacteriostatic, their ability to control spoilage and pathogenic bacteria in fresh and processed meat favors their use, particularly in refrigerated meat products in combination with other microbial inhibitors.
4

Lomba, Laura, Beatriz Giner, Estefanía Zuriaga, Ignacio Gascón, and Carlos Lafuente. "Thermophysical properties of lactates." Thermochimica Acta 575 (January 2014): 305–12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tca.2013.11.010.

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5

Schreurs, Victor V. A. M., and Gertjan Schaafsma. "Lactic acid and lactates." Nutrafoods 9, no. 1 (January 2010): 7–16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/bf03223326.

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6

Walsh, Dominic, Noelia M. Sanchez-Ballester, Katsuhiko Ariga, Akihiro Tanaka, and Mark Weller. "Chelate stabilized metal oxides for visible light photocatalyzed water oxidations." Green Chemistry 17, no. 2 (2015): 982–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c4gc01604a.

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Lactate-stabilized calcium manganese oxide and cobalt hydroxide nanoparticles were utilized as catalysts in visible light photocatalyzed water oxidations. Chelated bi-metallic catalysts captured decomposed cobalt based electron acceptor and gave prolonged two stage reactions. Hydroxylated Co–lactates gave high TOF and O2 yields. Chelation produced extended reactions, higher yields and reduced waste.
7

Grab, Tobias, and Stefan Bräse. "Efficient Synthesis of Lactate-Containing Depsipeptides by the Mitsunobu Reaction of Lactates." Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis 347, no. 14 (November 2005): 1765–68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adsc.200404252.

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8

Taéron, Corinne. "Les lactates sous haute surveillance." Revue Française des Laboratoires 2002, no. 345 (September 2002): 10–11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0338-9898(02)80242-6.

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9

VELUGOTI, PADMANABHA REDDY, LALIT K. BOHRA, VIJAY K. JUNEJA, and HARSHAVARDHAN THIPPAREDDI. "Inhibition of Germination and Outgrowth of Clostridium perfringens Spores by Lactic Acid Salts during Cooling of Injected Turkey†." Journal of Food Protection 70, no. 4 (April 1, 2007): 923–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028x-70.4.923.

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Inhibition of Clostridium perfringens spore germination and outgrowth by lactic acid salts (calcium, potassium, and sodium) during exponential cooling of injected turkey product was evaluated. Injected turkey samples containing calcium lactate, potassium lactate, or sodium lactate (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, or 4.8% [w/w]), along with a control (product without lactate), were inoculated with a three-strain cocktail of C. perfringens spores to achieve a final spore population of 2.5 to 3.0 log CFU/g. The inoculated product was heat treated and exponentially cooled from 54.5 to 7.2°C within 21, 18, 15, 12, 9, or 6.5 h. Cooling of injected turkey (containing no antimicrobials) resulted in C. perfringens germination and an outgrowth of 0.5, 2.4, 3.4, 5.1, 5.8, and 5.8 log CFU/g when exponentially cooled from 54.4 to 7.2°C in 6.5, 12, 15, 18, and 21 h, respectively. The incorporation of antimicrobials (lactates), regardless of the type (Ca, Na, or K salts), inhibited the germination and outgrowth of C. perfringens spores at all the concentrations evaluated (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, and 4.8%) compared to the injected turkey without acetate (control). Increasing the concentrations of the antimicrobials resulted in a greater inhibition of the spore germination and outgrowth in the products. In general, calcium lactate was more effective in inhibiting the germination and outgrowth of C. perfringens spores at ≥1.0% concentration than were sodium and potassium lactates. Incorporation of these antimicrobials in cooked, ready-to-eat turkey products can provide additional protection in controlling the germination and outgrowth of C. perfringens spores during cooling (stabilization).
10

Dépret, François, and Matthieu Legrand. "Are capillary and arterial lactates interchangeable?" Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine 36, no. 3 (June 2017): 149. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.accpm.2017.04.001.

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11

Caramello, Valeria, Valentina Beux, Alessandro Vincenzo De Salve, Alessandra Macciotta, Fulvio Ricceri, and Adriana Boccuzzi. "Comparison of different prognostic scores for risk stratification in septic patients arriving to the Emergency Department." Italian Journal of Medicine 14, no. 2 (June 17, 2020): 79–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/itjm.2020.1232.

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We evaluated the prognostic performance of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA), quick-SOFA (qSOFA), modified early warning score (MEWS), lactates and procalcitonin in septic patients. Prospective study on adults with sepsis in the Emergency Department (ED). Area under the Receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) was calculated to assess how scores predict mortality at 30 and 60 days (d) and upon admission to Intensive care unit (ICU). Among 469 patients, mortality was associated with higher SOFA, qSOFA, MEWS and lactates level. ICU admission was associated with higher SOFA, procalcitonin and MEWS. Prognostic performance for mortality were: SOFA AUC 30 d 0.76 (0.69-0.81); 60 d 0.74 (0.68-0.79); qSOFA AUC 30 d 0.72 (0.66-0.79); 60 d 0.73 (0.67-0.78) and lactates AUC 30 d 0.71 (0.60-0.82); 60d 0.65 (0.54- 0.73). For the outcome ICU admission, procalcitonin had the highest AUC [0.66 (0.56-0.64], followed by SOFA [0.61 (0.54-0.69)] and MEWS [0.60 (0.53-0.67)]. SOFA, qSOFA and lactates assessment after arrival in the ED have a good performance in detecting patients at risk of mortality for sepsis. Procalcitonin is useful to select patients that will need ICU admission.
12

Prudius, S. V., N. L. Hes, A. M. Mylin, and V. V. Brei. "Conversion of fructose into methyl lactate over SnO2/Al2O3 catalystin flow regime." Catalysis and petrochemistry, no. 30 (2020): 43–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.15407/kataliz2020.30.043.

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In recent years, numerous researchers have focused on the development of catalytic methods for processing of biomass-derived sugars into alkyl lactates, which are widely used as non-toxic solvents and are the starting material for obtaining monomeric lactide. In this work, the transformation of fructose into methyl lactate on Sn-containing catalyst in the flow reactor that may be of practical interest was studied. The supported Sn-containing catalyst was ob-tained by a simple impregnation method of granular γ-Al2O3. The catalytic ex-periments were performed in a flow reactor at temperatures of 160-190 °C and pressure of 3.0 MPa. The 1.6-9.5 wt.% fructose solutions in 80% aqueous methanol were used as a reaction mixture. It was found that addition to a reac-tion mixture of 0.03 wt.% potassium carbonate leads to the increase in selec-tivity towards methyl lactate on 15% at 100% conversion of fructose. Prod-ucts of the target reaction С6Н12О6 + 2СН3ОН = 2С4Н8О3 + 2Н2О were ana-lyzed using 13C NMR method. The following process conditions for obtaining of 65 mol% methyl lactate yield at 100% fructose conversion were found: use of 4.8 wt.% fructose solution in 80% methanol, 180 °С, 3.0 МПа and a load on catalyst 1.5 mmol C6H12O6/mlcat/h at contact time of 11 minutes. The cata-lyst productivity is 2.0 mmol C4H8O3/mlcat/h and the by-productі are 1,3-dihydroxyacetone dimethyl acetal (20%) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (10%). It should be noted that a racemic mixture of L- and D-methyl lactates has been obtained by conversion of D-fructose on the SnO2/Al2O3 catalyst. The SnO2/Al2O3 catalyst was found to be stable for 6 h while maintaining full fruc-tose conversion at 55–70% methyl lactate selectivity. After regeneration the catalyst completely restores the initial activity.
13

Nikseresht, Asghar, Iman Yabande, Karamatollah Rahmanian, and Abdolreza Sotoodeh Jahromi. "Blood lactate level in Elite boy swimmers after lactate tolerance exercise test." Biomedical Research and Therapy 4, no. 05 (May 22, 2017): 1318. http://dx.doi.org/10.15419/bmrat.v4i05.170.

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Introduction: To avoid injuries during high-intensity sports training, it is important to recognize conditions of bodily consumption and production of adequate energy; exercise increases the concentration of the blood lactate. This paper is an attempt to compare pre and post lactate tolerance exercise test - blood lactate concentrations - of elite boy swimmers. Methods: Blood lactates are measured by an enzymatic method on 12 subjects 30 minutes before and adjust and 24 hours after the test. Results: The mean lactate concentration of 30.35±12.16 mg/dl is observed in swimmers 30 minutes before the test. Swimmers adjust after the test show mean blood lactate concentration of 108.52±18.17 mg/dl that is significantly higher than 30 minutes before the test (p<0.001). Then blood lactate level decreases below baseline level at 24 hours after the test. Conclusion: Blood lactate increases with the test and decreases below baseline within 24 hours after the test.
14

Burkett, Lee N., Jack Chisum, Jack Pierce, Kent Pomeroy, Jim Fisher, and Margie Martin. "Blood Flow and Lactic Acid Levels in Exercising Paralyzed Wheelchair Bound Individuals." Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly 5, no. 1 (January 1988): 60–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/apaq.5.1.60.

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Twenty spinal-cord-injured subjects (4 quadriplegics and 16 paraplegics) were maximally stress tested on the Arizona State University wheelchair ergometer. Physiological data for each individual were collected as follows: (a) blood flow in the left leg by a photoelectric plethysmograph before exercise, during exercise, and postexercise, and (b) blood lactates before exercise and post-exercise. Eleven subjects had increased leg blood flow and vasodilation during exercise, but vasoconstriction postexercise. The lactate readings, in comparison to able-bodied individuals, were higher at rest but lower at maximal exercise.
15

Berthier, S. "Signification d'une augmentation des lactates-déshydrogénases sériques." Revue Française des Laboratoires 2002, no. 344 (June 2002): 13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0338-9898(02)80010-5.

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16

Nawwar, Mahmoud A. M., Amany M. D. El-Mousallamy, Heba H. Barakat, Joachim Buddrus, and Michael Linscheid. "Flavonoid lactates from leaves of Marrubium vulgare." Phytochemistry 28, no. 11 (January 1989): 3201–6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0031-9422(89)80307-3.

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17

Cassanas, G., M. Morssli, E. Fabrègue, and L. Bardet. "Vibrational spectra of lactic acid and lactates." Journal of Raman Spectroscopy 22, no. 7 (July 1991): 409–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jrs.1250220709.

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18

Tamakawa, Taro, Hiroshi Endoh, Natuo Kamimura, Kazuki Deuchi, and Kei Nishiyama. "Impact on outcomes of measuring lactates prior to ICU in unselected heterogeneous critically ill patients: A propensity score analysis." PLOS ONE 17, no. 11 (November 28, 2022): e0277948. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0277948.

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Background Elevated blood lactate levels were reported as effective predictors of clinical outcome and mortality in ICU. However, there have been no studies simply comparing the timing of measuring lactates before vs. after ICU admission. Methods A total of 19,226 patients with transfer time ≤ 24 hr were extracted from the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care IV database (MIMIC-IV). After 1:1 propensity score matching, the patients were divided into two groups: measuring lactates within 3 hr before (BICU group, n = 4,755) and measuring lactate within 3 hr after ICU admission(AICU group, n = 4,755). The primary and secondary outcomes were hospital mortality, hospital 28-day mortality, ICU mortality, ICU length of stay (LOS), hospital LOS, and restricted mean survival time (RMST). Results Hospital, hospital 28-day, and ICU mortality were significantly higher in AICU group (7.0% vs.9.8%, 6.7% vs. 9.4%, and 4.6% vs.6.7%, respectively, p<0.001 for all) Hospital LOS and ICU LOS were significantly longer in AICU group (8.4 days vs. 9.0 days and 3.0 days vs. 3.5 days, respectively, p<0.001 for both). After adjustment for predefined covariates, a significant association between the timing of measuring lactate and hospital mortality was observed in inverse probability treatment weight (IPTW) multivariate regression, doubly robust multivariate regression, and multivariate regression models (OR, 0.96 [95%CI, 0.95-0.97], OR 0.52 [95%CI, 0.46-0.60], OR 0.66 [95%CI, 0.56-0.78], respectively, p<0.001 for all), indicating the timing as a significant risk-adjusted factor for lower hospital mortality. The difference (BICU-AICU) of RMST at 28- days after ICU admission was 0.531 days (95%CI, 0.002-1.059, p<0.05). Placement of A-line and PA-catheter, administration of intravenous antibiotics, and bolus fluid infusion during the first 24-hr in ICU were significantly more frequent and faster in the BICU vs AICU group (67.6% vs. 51.3% and 126min vs.197min for A-line, 19.6% vs.13.2% and 182min vs. 274min for PA-catheter, 77.5% vs.67.6% and 109min vs.168min for antibiotics, and 57.6% vs.51.6% and 224min vs.278min for bolus fluid infusion, respectively, p<0.001 for all). Additionally, a significant indirect effect was observed in frequency (0.19879 [95% CI, 0.14061-0.25697] p<0.001) and time (0.07714 [95% CI, 0.22600-0.13168], p<0.01) of A-line replacement, frequency of placement of PA-catheter (0.05614 [95% CI, 0.04088-0.07140], p<0.001) and frequency of bolus fluid infusion (0.02193 [95%CI, 0.00303-0.04083], p<0.05). Conclusions Measuring lactates within 3 hr prior to ICU might be associated with lower hospital mortality in unselected heterogeneous critically ill patients with transfer time to ICU ≤ 24hr, presumably due to more frequent and faster therapeutic interventions.
19

Jašek, Vojtěch, Jan Fučík, Lucia Ivanová, Dominik Veselý, Silvestr Figalla, Ludmila Mravcova, Petr Sedlacek, Jozef Krajčovič, and Radek Přikryl. "High-Pressure Depolymerization of Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) Using Bio-Based Solvents: A Way to Produce Alkyl Esters Which Can Be Modified to Polymerizable Monomers." Polymers 14, no. 23 (December 1, 2022): 5236. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym14235236.

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The polyesters poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) used in various applications such as food packaging or 3D printing were depolymerized by biobased aliphatic alcohols—methanol and ethanol with the presence of para-toluenesulphonic acid (p-TSA) as a catalyst at a temperature of 151 °C. It was found that the fastest depolymerization is reached using methanol as anucleophile for the reaction with PLA, resulting in the value of reaction rate constant (k) of 0.0425 min−1 and the yield of methyl lactate of 93.8% after 120 min. On the other hand, the value of constant k for the depolymerization of PHB in the presence of ethanol reached 0.0064 min−1 and the yield of ethyl 3-hydroxybutyrate was of 76.0% after 240 min. A kinetics study of depolymerization was performed via LC–MS analysis of alkyl esters of lactic acid and 3-hydroxybutanoic acid. The structure confirmation of the products was performed via FT-IR, MS, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR. Synthesized alkyl lactates and 3-hydroxybutyrates were modified into polymerizable molecules using methacrylic anhydride as a reactant and potassium 2-ethylhexanoate as a catalyst at a temperature of 80 °C. All alkyl esters were methacrylated for 24 h, guaranteeing the quantitative yield (which in all cases reached values equal to or of more than 98%). The methacrylation rate constants (k′) were calculated to compare the reaction kinetics of each alkyl ester. It was found that lactates reach afaster rate of reaction than 3-hydroxybutyrates. The value of k′ for themethacrylated methyl lactate reached 0.0885 dm3/(mol·min). Opposite to this result, methacrylated ethyl 3-hydroxybutyrate’s constant k′ was 0.0075 dm3/(mol·min). The reaction rate study was conducted by the GC-FID method and the structures were confirmed via FT-IR, MS, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR.
20

Kim, Kyung Duk, Zichun Wang, Yijiao Jiang, Michael Hunger, and Jun Huang. "The cooperative effect of Lewis and Brønsted acid sites on Sn-MCM-41 catalysts for the conversion of 1,3-dihydroxyacetone to ethyl lactate." Green Chemistry 21, no. 12 (2019): 3383–93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9gc00820a.

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21

Schwartz, Aaron L., Matthew F. Basilico, and Jennifer L. Friedman. "Lactates and Local Knowledge — A Parable of Teamwork." New England Journal of Medicine 380, no. 15 (April 11, 2019): 1392–93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/nejmp1815228.

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22

Zhang, Heng, Yulin Hu, Liying Qi, Jian He, Hu Li, and Song Yang. "Chemocatalytic Production of Lactates from Biomass-Derived Sugars." International Journal of Chemical Engineering 2018 (November 13, 2018): 1–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/7617685.

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In recent decades, a great deal of attention has been paid to the exploration of alternative and sustainable resources to produce biofuels and valuable chemicals, with aims of reducing the reliance on depleting confined fossil resources and alleviating serious economic and environmental issues. In line with this, lignocellulosic biomass-derived lactic acid (LA, 2-hydroxypropanoic acid), to be identified as an important biomass-derived commodity chemical, has found wide applications in food, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. In spite of the current fermentation of saccharides to produce lactic acid, sustainability issues such as environmental impact and high cost derived from the relative separation and purification process will be growing with the increasing demands of necessary orders. Alternatively, chemocatalytic approaches to manufacture LA from biomass (i.e., inedible cellulose) have attracted extensive attention, which may give rise to higher productivity and lower costs related to product work-up. This work presents a review of the state-of-the-art for the production of LA using homogeneous, heterogeneous acid, and base catalysts, from sugars and real biomass like rice straw, respectively. Furthermore, the corresponding bio-based esters lactate which could serve as green solvents, produced from biomass with chemocatalysis, is also discussed. Advantages of heterogeneous catalytic reaction systems are emphasized. Guidance is suggested to improve the catalytic performance of heterogeneous catalysts for the production of LA.
23

Shuklov, Ivan A., Natalia V. Dubrovina, Joachim Schulze, Wolfgang Tietz, Klaus Kühlein, and Armin Börner. "Ruthenium- and lipase-catalyzed inversion of l-lactates." Tetrahedron Letters 53, no. 47 (November 2012): 6326–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tetlet.2012.08.126.

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24

Borho, Nicole, and Martin A. Suhm. "Self-organization of lactates in the gas phase." Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry 1, no. 23 (2003): 4351. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b308580e.

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25

Shuklov, I. A., N. V. Dubrovina, K. Kühlein, and A. Börner. "Chemo-Catalyzed Pathways to Lactic Acid and Lactates." Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis 358, no. 24 (October 4, 2016): 3910–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adsc.201600768.

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26

Lacinová, Lenka, Martina Černíková, Jaroslav Hrabal, and Miroslav Černík. "In-Situ Combination of Bio and Abio Remediation of Chlorinated Ethenes." Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S 20, no. 3 (September 1, 2013): 463–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/eces-2013-0034.

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Abstract This article deals with combined abio-bioreductive methods for in-situ removal of chlorinated ethenes. The method is based on the use of bioremediation supported by lactate and chemical reduction using nZVI. The method is compared with the use of the individual methods alone, mainly with nZVI. In an environment with very low permeability a poor contaminant removal efficiency was achieved during repeated application of nZVI (about 50% of the original content of contamination). Separate application of lactate resulted in conversion of PCE to 1,2-cis-DCE, whose degradation occurred very slowly. When using the combined abio-bioreductive method, based on consecutive application of lactates and nZVI, over 75% of the original content of contamination was removed. This article discusses not only the changes in concentrations of contaminants but also pH and ORP. Both methods are also compared from an economic point of view.
27

Balakrishnan, Vamsi, John Wilson, Brent Taggart, James Cipolla, and Rebecca Jeanmonod. "Impact of Phlebotomy Tourniquet Use on Blood Lactate Levels in Acutely Ill Patients." CJEM 18, no. 5 (February 11, 2016): 358–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/cem.2016.6.

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AbstractObjectiveLactate levels are increasingly used to guide resuscitation efforts. Some surgical literature suggests that tourniquet use during phlebotomy falsely elevates results, although studies in healthy volunteers have not demonstrated this. The purpose of this study was to determine in clinical practice whether tourniquet use during the drawing of a lactate results in significantly altered levels compared to the result of a level drawn without a tourniquet.MethodsA prospective cohort study was carried out on emergency department patients whose clinical presentation led a physician to order a lactate level. Written informed consent was obtained from patients or their proxies. Study lactates were obtained using a tourniquet during the draw sequence of other laboratory studies. Lactate levels for clinical use were drawn per hospital protocol with no tourniquet. The time of lactate measurements and patient demographic information were recorded. Lactate levels for each patient were compared with the Wilcoxon Rank-Sum Test.Results40 patients were consented and enrolled. The median clinical lactate level was 1.9 (interquartile range 1.5-2.6), and the median study lactate level was 1.9 (interquartile range 1.4-2.7). There was no difference between paired lactate values (p=0.95).ConclusionsTourniquet use appears to have no impact on measured lactate levels. Our findings suggest that current practices at many institutions regarding lactate collection are likely too stringent and should be changed.
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Kohli-Seth, Roopa, Satyanarayana Reddy Mukkera, Andrew B. Leibowitz, Nimish Nemani, John M. Oropello, Anthony Manasia, Adel Bassily-Marcus, and Ernest Benjamin. "Frequency and Outcomes of Hyperlactatemia After Neurosurgery." ICU Director 2, no. 6 (November 2011): 211–14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1944451611424486.

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Objectives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and significance of elevated serum lactate and its impact on outcome in postoperative neurosurgical patients admitted to neurosurgical intensive care unit (NSICU). Design. This study’s design is a retrospective analysis in a 13-bed NSICU in a tertiary care hospital. A total of 673 patients were screened and 328 patients were included in the study. Methods. Patients were divided into neurosurgery versus nonneurosurgical admissions. Neurosurgical patients were further grouped as brain surgery, spinal surgery, or intracranial vascular surgery. Reason for admission, length of stay, serum lactate levels, and survival were analyzed. Results. The incidence of hyperlactatemia (lactate level ≥2.0 mmol/L) ranged from 67% in the brain tumor group to 33% in the nonneurosurgery group. Mean serum lactates were significantly higher in the brain tumor (3.17 ± 1.99) and spinal surgery groups (2.79 ± 1.51) than in the nonneurosurgery group (1.86 ± 1.10), P < .05, but not in the intracranial vascular surgery group (2.28 ± 1.71), P > .05. The serum lactate level was not significantly associated with survival. Conclusion. Postoperative hyperlactatemia occurs frequently in neurosurgery patients but appears benign.
29

Sebert, P., L. Barthelemy, J. Caroff, and P. Mialon. "Relations entre catécholamines, lactates et ions chez le sportif." Science & Sports 3, no. 1 (May 1988): 51–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0765-1597(88)80057-1.

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30

Yee, Gereon M., Marc A. Hillmyer, and Ian A. Tonks. "Bioderived Acrylates from Alkyl Lactates via Pd-Catalyzed Hydroesterification." ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering 6, no. 8 (July 19, 2018): 9579–84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acssuschemeng.8b02359.

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31

Berthier, S., M. R. Bertrand, M. Levannier, C. Thomas Martin, B. Bonnotte, J. F. Besancenot, and B. Lorcerie. "Augmentation des lactates déshydrogénases sériques : étude de 196 dossiers." La Revue de Médecine Interne 22 (June 2001): 48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0248-8663(01)83371-3.

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32

Lee, Yeon Soo, Joo Hee Hong, Nan Young Jeon, Keehoon Won, and Bum Tae Kim. "Highly Enantioselective Acylation ofrac-Alkyl Lactates UsingCandida antarcticaLipase B." Organic Process Research & Development 8, no. 6 (November 2004): 948–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/op0498722.

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33

Pescarmona, Paolo P., Kris P. F. Janssen, Chloë Delaet, Christophe Stroobants, Kristof Houthoofd, An Philippaerts, Chantal De Jonghe, Johan S. Paul, Pierre A. Jacobs, and Bert F. Sels. "Zeolite-catalysed conversion of C3 sugars to alkyl lactates." Green Chemistry 12, no. 6 (2010): 1083. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b921284a.

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34

Bhattacharyya, S. K., S. K. Palit, and A. R. Das. "Catalytic syntheses of methyl and ethyl lactates under pressure." Journal of Applied Chemistry 20, no. 1 (May 4, 2007): 7–10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jctb.5010200102.

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35

Masoudi, R., and R. D. Hooton. "Influence of alkali lactates on hydration of supersulfated cement." Construction and Building Materials 239 (April 2020): 117844. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.117844.

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36

Usenko, S. O., A. M. Shostya, V. G. Stoianovskyi, G. O. Birta, L. M. Kuzmenko, and O. I. Myronenko. "Influence of the microelement lactates on prooxidant-antioxidant homeostasis in boars." Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies 22, no. 92 (May 8, 2020): 28–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.32718/nvlvet-a9206.

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The microelements, closely linked to enzymes, vitamins and hormones, cause the metabolic transformations to realize the genetic potential of the productivity in pigs. The use of chelate compounds of microelements as an alternative replacement of mineral salts allows to increase their conversion, to reduce the content in compound feeds, preventing environmental pollution. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of microelement lactates on prooxidant-antioxidant homeostasis in boars. It was used the adult boars of the Large White breed in the study. The duration of the experiment was 120 days, including: preparatory one is 30 days, basic one is 60 days (feeding boars with zinc, selenium, copper and iron lactates) and the final one is 30 days. In the main period of the experiment, the diet of the animals in the control group remained unchanged, and the two experimental ones were with the addition of zinc, selenium, copper and iron. The level of biologically active components in the diet of the study groups was higher by 10 % and 20 % compared with the control group. In the obtained blood samples it has been determined the state of the prooxidant-antioxidant state. Feeding zinc, selenium, copper and iron lactates in the feed mixture for boars significantly changes the prooxidant-antioxidant state in the blood depending on the amount of micronutrients additionally fed. The addition of these biologically active substances by 10 % above normal after 60 days of feeding helps to preserve the content of vitamins antioxidant action, restored glutathione, stimulates the functional activity of superoxide dismutase by 50 % and catalase by 23.6 % and is accompanied by a slight decrease processes of peroxidation decreasing the concentration of conjugates and TBA-active complexes. The addition of the microelement lactates to the feed mixture by 20 % more than the norma for boars compared with the control group after 30 days of the consumption stimulates the processes of peroxidation, accompanied by intensive use of non-enzymatic – vitamin A (P < 0.05–0.01) and the activation of enzymatic antioxidants – superoxide dismutase (P < 0.05–0.01) and catalase, which lasts for 90 days.
37

Grayck, Eva Nozik, Jon N. Meliones, Frank H. Kern, Doug R. Hansell, Ross M. Ungerleider, and William J. Greeley. "Elevated Serum Lactate Correlates With Intracranial Hemorrhage in Neonates Treated With Extracorporeal Life Support." Pediatrics 96, no. 5 (November 1, 1995): 914–17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.96.5.914.

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Objectives. To correlate the initial and maximal lactate levels with the occurrence of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) and survival in patients treated with extracorporeal life support (ECLS). Design. Retrospective chart review. Setting. Pediatric intensive care unit. Patients. Eighty-two neonatal patients placed on ECLS for respiratory failure due to sepsis, meconium aspiration, or persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. Measurements. The initial lactate level measured within 6 hours of initiating ECLS and the maximal lactate level measured throughout the ECLS course were collected. Lactate levels were described as mean lactate ± SE (mM). Head ultrasound reports and survival were reviewed. Platelet counts and activated clotting times (ACTs) were examined. Results. The mean initial and maximal lactate levels were higher in ECLS patients who developed ICH (initial: 10 ± 1.7 mM vs 6.4 ± 0.8 mM, p = .05 and maximal: 12.4 ± 2.5 mM vs 7.9 ± 0.8 mM, p = .04). Initial and maximal lactate levels were also elevated in nonsurvivors (initial: 11.7 ± 3 mM vs 6.4 ± 0.7 mM, p = .01 and maximal: 14.8 ± 3.3 mM vs 7.8 ± 0.8 mM, P &lt; .01). Platelet counts and ACT did not differ in patients with and without ICH. Conclusions. Lactate is a useful marker for the development of ICH in ECLS patients. In addition, elevated lactates during ECLS identify a subgroup of patients with poor outcome. Prospective studies are needed to determine whether the incorporation of this information into pre-ECLS and ECLS management will decrease the occurrence of ICH and improve survival.
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Mizock, Barry A. "The hepatosplanchnic area and hyperlactatemia: A tale of two lactates." Critical Care Medicine 29, no. 2 (February 2001): 447–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00003246-200102000-00047.

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39

JACKSON, G. "Coronary sinus lactates, coronary artery disease and normal coronary arteries." European Heart Journal 18, no. 7 (July 1, 1997): 1186. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.eurheartj.a015415.

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40

Bykowski, Dominik, Agnieszka Grala, and Piotr Sobota. "Conversion of lactides into ethyl lactates and value-added products." Tetrahedron Letters 55, no. 38 (September 2014): 5286–89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tetlet.2014.07.103.

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41

Shelef, L. A., and V. Potluri. "Behaviour of foodborne pathogens in cooked liver sausage containing lactates." Food Microbiology 12 (February 1995): 221–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0740-0020(95)80101-4.

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42

Egiazaryan, Tatevik A., Valentin M. Makarov, Mikhail V. Moskalev, Danila A. Razborov, and Igor L. Fedushkin. "Synthesis of lactide from alkyl lactates catalyzed by lanthanide salts." Mendeleev Communications 29, no. 6 (November 2019): 648–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mencom.2019.11.014.

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43

Medina-Gonzalez, Yaocihuatl, Ahmed Jarray, Séverine Camy, Jean-Stéphane Condoret, and Vincent Gerbaud. "CO2-Expanded Alkyl Lactates: A Physicochemical and Molecular Modeling Study." Journal of Solution Chemistry 46, no. 2 (January 6, 2017): 259–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10953-016-0565-8.

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44

De Clercq, Rik, Michiel Dusselier, Ekaterina Makshina, and Bert F. Sels. "Catalytic Gas-Phase Production of Lactide from Renewable Alkyl Lactates." Angewandte Chemie International Edition 57, no. 12 (February 15, 2018): 3074–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.201711446.

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45

De Clercq, Rik, Michiel Dusselier, Ekaterina Makshina, and Bert F. Sels. "Catalytic Gas-Phase Production of Lactide from Renewable Alkyl Lactates." Angewandte Chemie 130, no. 12 (February 15, 2018): 3128–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ange.201711446.

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46

Kang, Yujin, Mirae Yeo, Hyukjun Choi, Heejin Jun, Soomin Eom, Seong Guk Park, Haejin Yoon, Eunhee Kim та Sebyung Kang. "Lactate oxidase/vSIRPα conjugates efficiently consume tumor-produced lactates and locally produce tumor-necrotic H2O2 to suppress tumor growth". International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 231 (березень 2023): 123577. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2023.123577.

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47

Jackson, D. C., J. S. Wasser, and R. B. Silver. "Effect of induced hypercapnia on anaerobic metabolic rate of anoxic musk turtles." American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 254, no. 6 (June 1, 1988): R944—R948. http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.1988.254.6.r944.

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To evaluate the possible effect of induced hypercapnia on anaerobic metabolic rate during anoxia, musk turtles (Sternotherus odoratus) were submerged in N2-equilibrated water at 10 degrees C for 3 days either with (anoxic hypercapnic) or without (anoxic normocapnic) elevated aquatic PCO2 (30-40 Torr). Control animals had access to air at 10 degrees C. Plasma [lactate] was significantly higher (P less than 0.01) in the normocapnic [59.4 +/- 7.4 (SD) mM; n = 22] than in the hypercapnic (47.4 +/- 8.5 mM; n = 19) anoxic turtles, although the hypercapnic turtles had lower blood pH (P less than 0.05). Plasma ion concentrations (Na, K, Cl, Ca, and Mg), however, were no different in the two groups, although all values other than Na were different from control. In some of the animals, [lactate] and [glycogen] (per g wet wt) of skeletal muscle, heart, and liver were measured in addition to blood acid-base values and lactate. Tissue lactates, although significantly elevated from control, and glycogens, although (with the exception of skeletal muscle) significantly reduced from control, were no different in the two anoxic groups. We suggest that these tissue data are more valid indicators of anaerobic metabolic rate than is plasma lactate and therefore conclude that induced hypercapnia does not significantly depress anaerobiosis in musk turtles at 10 degrees C.
48

Korniichuk, Y. V., N. H. Grushanska, V. M. Kostenko, T. A. Paliukh, and I. F. Makovska. "Prophylaxis of microelementosis in rabbits using a mixture of glauconite, succinic, humic and fulvic acids and minerals." Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems 12, no. 3 (September 2, 2021): 571–79. http://dx.doi.org/10.15421/022178.

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Impaired metabolism of mineral substances in the conditions of industrial rabbit breeding may cause decrease in increment of live mass, reduction of immunity, mass morbidity and death of animals. In our experiment, we studied the efficiency of using a mineral mixture to prevent the disorders in the metabolism of rabbits according to changes in morphologic, biochemical parameters and antioxidant status of blood, chemical composition of blood plasma and increments in body weight compared to the control group of animals. For the studies, we formed four groups of white New Zealand rabbits, each comprising six individuals aged 70 days with mean body weight equaling 1.99 kg. In group I, the rabbits received an aqueous form of a mixture of glauconite, succinic acid, humic and fulvic acids and lactates of zinc, manganese, cuprum, cobalt and iron with water, rabbits of group II were given a dry form of a mixture of glauconite, succinic acid, humic and fulvic acids and lactates of zinc, manganese, cuprum, cobalt and iron with fodder, and the rabbits of group III were intramuscularly injected with butanol fraction of humic acids. The experiment lasted for 21 days. The results of the experiment indicate that the most effective prophylaxis of malfunctions of mineral metabolism in white New Zealand rabbits aged 70–95 was dry mixture of glauconite, succinic acid, humic and fulvic acids and lactates of zinc, manganese, cuprum, cobalt and iron with fodder (group II), which was given once a day for 21-day period. We determined a positive effect of biologically active supplement on the parameters of hematopoiesis(1.25 times significantly higher level of hemoglobin and 1.14 times higher number of erythrocytes), metabolism of proteins (1.54 times significantly higher content of albumins), mineral substances (significantly higher content of inorganic phosphorus – by 1.17 times, calcium by 2.18 times, manganese by 1.39 times, zinc by 1.50 times, iron by 1.39 times and cuprum by 1.49 times), functional condition of the liver (2.04 times lower activity of gamma-glutamyltransferase), the state of the antioxidant system (lowest catalase activity) and energy of rabbits’ growth (1.20-fold increment in body weight). The results of our study indicate that using a dry form of the mixture of glauconite, succinic acid, humic and fulvic acids and lactates of zinc, manganese, cuprum, cobalt and iron with fodder is an efficient method of preventing malfunctioning of mineral metabolism in rabbits.
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Mazzeo, R. S., G. A. Brooks, G. E. Butterfield, A. Cymerman, A. C. Roberts, M. Selland, E. E. Wolfel, and J. T. Reeves. "Beta-adrenergic blockade does not prevent the lactate response to exercise after acclimatization to high altitude." Journal of Applied Physiology 76, no. 2 (February 1, 1994): 610–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1994.76.2.610.

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We examined the extent to which epinephrine influences blood lactate adjustments to exercise during both acute (AC) and chronic (CH) high-altitude exposure. Eleven male sea level residents were divided into a control group (n = 5) receiving a placebo or a drug group (n = 6) receiving 240 mg/day of propranolol. All subjects were studied at rest and during 45 min of submaximal exercise (approximately 50% of sea level maximal O2 uptake) at sea level (SL) and within 4 h of exposure to and after 3 wk residence at 4,300 m (summit of Pikes Peak). Blood samples were collected from the femoral artery for epinephrine and lactate concentration. Exercising blood lactate concentration was significantly different across all altitude conditions such that AC > CH > SL (P < 0.05). For a given arterial O2 saturation, mean exercising blood lactates were lower for the beta-blocked group compared with controls; however, both groups demonstrated similar patterns across all conditions. Epinephrine levels during exercise followed a similar pattern to that of lactate, averaging 0.67, 0.43, and 0.29 ng/ml for AC, CH, and SL, respectively. The correlation between lactate and epinephrine was 0.93 and 0.84 for control and beta-blocked subjects, respectively. Whereas during exercise epinephrine was consistently higher for the beta-blocked group than controls, this difference was only significant during CH exposure. The epinephrine response was related to the extent of hypoxia in both groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
50

Villar, Julian, Jack H. Short, and Geoffrey Lighthall. "Lactate Predicts Both Short- and Long-Term Mortality in Patients With and Without Sepsis." Infectious Diseases: Research and Treatment 12 (January 2019): 117863371986277. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1178633719862776.

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Objective: To measure the relationship between lactate and mortality in hospital inpatients. Main outcomes of interest were 3-day, 30-day, and 1-year all-cause mortality. Design: Retrospective cohort study, October 2011 to September 2013. Setting: University-affiliated US Veterans Affairs Hospital. Patients: All inpatients with lactate level measured during the study period. Measurements: Analysis of peak lactate level (mmol/L) during the most recent admission for patients who died, and peak lactate level during an admission for surviving patients. Covariates including sepsis, ICU admission, code blue and rapid response calls, medical vs surgical ward, liver disease, kidney disease, and hospice status were recorded. Results: In total, 3325 inpatients were included; 564 patients had sepsis. Median lactate 1.7 mmol/L (interquartile range [IQR] 1.2-2.6). The 3-day, 30-day, and 1-year mortality were 2.5%, 10%, and 24%, respectively. A lactate level cutoff of ⩾4 mmol/L had best test characteristics (sensitivity 52.4%, specificity 91.4%) to predict increased 3-day mortality. Unadjusted risk ratio of death in 3 days for lactate ⩾4 was 10.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.8-15.7). Patients with sepsis had a consistently higher risk of death compared with patients without sepsis for any given level of lactate. Adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 3-day mortality for lactate ⩾4 was 7.6 (95% CI 4.6-12.5); 30-day mortality was 2.6 (95% CI 1.9-3.6); and 1-year mortality was 1.8 (95% CI 1.4-2.6). Lactates in the normal range (<1.7) were also independently associated with 30-day and 1-year mortality. Conclusions: Lactate predicts risk of death in all patients, although patients with sepsis have a higher mortality for any given lactate level. We report the novel finding that serum lactate, including normal values, is associated with long-term mortality.

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