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Статті в журналах з теми "Lungs Pathophysiology":

1

Bland, Richard D. "Pathophysiology of Neonatal Lung Injury." International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care 7, S1 (January 1991): 56–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0266462300012514.

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Respiratory distress in newborn and young infants often develops as a result of acute lung injury, in which disruption of the normal barrier function of the pulmonary endothelium and epithelium causes protein-rich interstitial and alveolar edema. Several conditions may initiate acute lung injury, including aspiration of meconium or gastric contents, bacterial or viral infection, overzealous resuscitation, and birth associated with incomplete lung development that requires ventilatory support with positivepressure mechanical ventilation and high concentrations of inspired oxygen. The latter condition usually occurs after premature birth, but it also may occur as a consequence of impaired fetal lung growth secondary to diaphragmatic hernia or chest compression from lack of liquid in the amniotic cavity. Acute lung injury sometimes progresses to a chronic form of lung disease, which is characterized by edema, fibrosis, airway distortion, and nonuniform inflation of the lungs.
2

Sundar, Isaac K., Hongwei Yao, Michael T. Sellix, and Irfan Rahman. "Circadian molecular clock in lung pathophysiology." American Journal of Physiology-Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology 309, no. 10 (November 2015): L1056—L1075. http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajplung.00152.2015.

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Disrupted daily or circadian rhythms of lung function and inflammatory responses are common features of chronic airway diseases. At the molecular level these circadian rhythms depend on the activity of an autoregulatory feedback loop oscillator of clock gene transcription factors, including the BMAL1:CLOCK activator complex and the repressors PERIOD and CRYPTOCHROME. The key nuclear receptors and transcription factors REV-ERBα and RORα regulate Bmal1 expression and provide stability to the oscillator. Circadian clock dysfunction is implicated in both immune and inflammatory responses to environmental, inflammatory, and infectious agents. Molecular clock function is altered by exposomes, tobacco smoke, lipopolysaccharide, hyperoxia, allergens, bleomycin, as well as bacterial and viral infections. The deacetylase Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) regulates the timing of the clock through acetylation of BMAL1 and PER2 and controls the clock-dependent functions, which can also be affected by environmental stressors. Environmental agents and redox modulation may alter the levels of REV-ERBα and RORα in lung tissue in association with a heightened DNA damage response, cellular senescence, and inflammation. A reciprocal relationship exists between the molecular clock and immune/inflammatory responses in the lungs. Molecular clock function in lung cells may be used as a biomarker of disease severity and exacerbations or for assessing the efficacy of chronotherapy for disease management. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of clock-controlled cellular and molecular functions in the lungs and highlight the repercussions of clock disruption on the pathophysiology of chronic airway diseases and their exacerbations. Furthermore, we highlight the potential for the molecular clock as a novel chronopharmacological target for the management of lung pathophysiology.
3

Levvey, Bronwyn, Kovi Levin, Miranda Paraskeva, Glen Westall, and Gregory Snell. "Donation after Brain Death versus Donation after Circulatory Death: Lung Donor Management Issues." Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 39, no. 02 (March 2018): 138–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0037-1615820.

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AbstractLung transplantation (LTx) has traditionally been limited by a lack of suitable donor lungs. With the recognition that lungs are more robust than initially thought, the size of the donor pool of available lungs has increased dramatically in the past decade. Donation after brain death (DBD) and donation after circulatory death (DCD) lungs, both ideal and extended are now routinely utilized. DBD lungs can be damaged. There are important differences in the public's understanding, legal and consent processes, intensive care unit strategies, lung pathophysiology, logistics, and potential-to-actual donor conversion rates between DBD and DCD. Notwithstanding, the short- and long-term outcomes of LTx from any of these DBD versus DCD donor scenarios are now similar, robust, and continue to improve. Large audits suggest there remains a large untapped pool of DCD (but not DBD) lungs that may yet further dramatically increase lung transplant numbers. Donor scoring systems that might predict the donor conversion rates and lung quality, the role of ex vivo lung perfusion as an assessment and lung resuscitation tool, as well as the potential of donor lung quality biomarkers all have immense promise for the clinical field.
4

Naramala, Srikanth, Sharmi Biswas, Sreedhar Adapa, Vijay Gayam, Romeo C. Castillo, Srinadh Annangi, and Venu Madhav Konala. "Pleomorphic Pulmonary Manifestations of IgG4-Related Disease." Case Reports in Rheumatology 2019 (August 2019): 1–4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/7572869.

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Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a fibroinflammatory disorder which has been first reported in 2001 by Hamano and colleagues in a patient with autoimmune sclerosing pancreatitis. Almost every organ in the human body can be affected by IgG4-RD from infiltration with IgG4-positive plasma cells. Involvement of lungs with IgG4 is reported previously, but still, there is no clear picture of the pathophysiology behind lung involvement. Here, we are presenting a patient who has IgG4-RD presenting as pseudotumor of the lungs.
5

Das, Mita, W. Michael Zawada, James West, and Kurt R. Stenmark. "JNK2 regulates vascular remodeling in pulmonary hypertension." Pulmonary Circulation 8, no. 3 (May 2018): 204589401877815. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2045894018778156.

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Pulmonary arterial (PA) wall modifications are key pathological features of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Although such abnormalities correlate with heightened phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases 1/2 (JNK1/2) in a rat model of PH, the contribution of specific JNK isoforms to the pathophysiology of PH is unknown. Hence, we hypothesized that activation of either one, or both JNK isoforms regulates PA remodeling in PH. We detected increased JNK1/2 phosphorylation in the thickened vessels of PH patients’ lungs compared to that in lungs of healthy individuals. JNK1/2 phosphorylation paralleled a marked reduction in MAP kinase phosphatase 1 (JNK dephosphorylator) expression in patients’ lungs. Association of JNK1/2 activation with vascular modification was confirmed in the calf model of severe hypoxia-induced PH. To ascertain the role of each JNK isoform in pathophysiology of PH, wild-type (WT), JNK1 null (JNK1-/-), and JNK2 null (JNK2-/-) mice were exposed to chronic hypoxia (10% O2 for six weeks) to develop PH. In hypoxic WT lungs, an increase in JNK1/2 phosphorylation was associated with PH-like pathology. Hallmarks of PH pathophysiology, i.e. excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix and vessel muscularization with medial wall thickening, was also detected in hypoxic JNK1-/- lungs, but not in hypoxia-exposed JNK2-/- lungs. However, hypoxia-induced increases in right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) and in right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) were similar in all three genotypes. Our findings suggest that JNK2 participates in PA remodeling (but likely not in vasoconstriction) in murine hypoxic PH and that modulating JNK2 actions might quell vascular abnormalities and limit the course of PH.
6

Raredon, Micha Sam Brickman, Taylor Sterling Adams, Yasir Suhail, Jonas Christian Schupp, Sergio Poli, Nir Neumark, Katherine L. Leiby, et al. "Single-cell connectomic analysis of adult mammalian lungs." Science Advances 5, no. 12 (December 2019): eaaw3851. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aaw3851.

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Efforts to decipher chronic lung disease and to reconstitute functional lung tissue through regenerative medicine have been hampered by an incomplete understanding of cell-cell interactions governing tissue homeostasis. Because the structure of mammalian lungs is highly conserved at the histologic level, we hypothesized that there are evolutionarily conserved homeostatic mechanisms that keep the fine architecture of the lung in balance. We have leveraged single-cell RNA sequencing techniques to identify conserved patterns of cell-cell cross-talk in adult mammalian lungs, analyzing mouse, rat, pig, and human pulmonary tissues. Specific stereotyped functional roles for each cell type in the distal lung are observed, with alveolar type I cells having a major role in the regulation of tissue homeostasis. This paper provides a systems-level portrait of signaling between alveolar cell populations. These methods may be applicable to other organs, providing a roadmap for identifying key pathways governing pathophysiology and informing regenerative efforts.
7

Frétaud, Maxence, Delphyne Descamps, Daphné Laubreton, Marie-Anne Rameix-Welti, Jean-François Eléouët, Thibaut Larcher, Marie Galloux, and Christelle Langevin. "New Look at RSV Infection: Tissue Clearing and 3D Imaging of the Entire Mouse Lung at Cellular Resolution." Viruses 13, no. 2 (January 2021): 201. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v13020201.

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Background: Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is the major cause of severe acute respiratory tract illness in young children worldwide and a main pathogen for the elderly and immune-compromised people. In the absence of vaccines or effective treatments, a better characterization of the pathogenesis of RSV infection is required. To date, the pathophysiology of the disease and its diagnosis has mostly relied on chest X-ray and genome detection in nasopharyngeal swabs. The development of new imaging approaches is instrumental to further the description of RSV spread, virus–host interactions and related acute respiratory disease, at the level of the entire lung. Methods: By combining tissue clearing, 3D microscopy and image processing, we developed a novel visualization tool of RSV infection in undissected mouse lungs. Results: Whole tissue analysis allowed the identification of infected cell subtypes, based on both morphological traits and position within the cellular network. Furthermore, 3D imaging was also valuable to detect the cytoplasmic viral factories, also called inclusion bodies, a hallmark of RSV infection. Conclusions: Whole lung clearing and 3D deep imaging represents an unprecedented visualization method of infected lungs to allow insight into RSV pathophysiology and improve the 2D histology analyses.
8

Greenspan, Jay, Thomas Miller, and Thomas Shaffer. "The Neonatal Respiratory Pump: A Developmental Challenge with Physiologic Limitations." Neonatal Network 24, no. 5 (September 2005): 15–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1891/0730-0832.24.5.15.

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Newborn lungs are particularly susceptible to pathophysiology. Respiratory distress commonly brings infants to the intensive care nursery. Premature birth compromises the infant’s ability to respond to early lung dysfunction because of the reduced functional reserve available at younger gestational ages. The respiratory pump consists of respiratory musculature and the chest wall. The respiratory pump is the physiologic “machine” that responds to lung pathology. From gestation onward, components of the pump undergo developmental changes that influence its compensatory ability in the neonate. Careful observation of the synchrony of the chest wall and abdomen during spontaneous breathing efforts assists the caretaker in detecting respiratory compromise and impending respiratory failure. Noninvasive monitoring of respiratory patterns is a valuable tool for the neonatal caregiver, who must understand the developmental changes in the respiratory pump and be able to identify an infant’s ineffective responses to lung pathophysiology.
9

Armstead, Valerie E., Irina L. Opentanova, Alexander G. Minchenko, and Allan M. Lefer. "Tissue Factor Expression in Vital Organs during Murine Traumatic Shock." Anesthesiology 91, no. 6 (December 1999): 1844. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00000542-199912000-00039.

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Background Tissue factor (TF) is a cell-surface glycoprotein responsible for initiating the extrinsic pathway of coagulation that has been shown to have a role in the pathophysiology of sepsis and reperfusion injury. The purpose of this study was to investigate TF expression in vital organs and to determine possible regulatory mechanisms of TF expression in the lung during traumatic shock in rats. Methods Noble-Collip drum trauma was induced in anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. Anesthetized rats without trauma served as controls. TF activity was measured in plasma and lung tissue. TF messenger RNA (mRNA) was measured in the lung, liver, and small intestine using ribonuclease protection assays. Electromobility shift assays were used to quantify binding of nuclear extracts from lung to TF-specific consensus domains for transcription factors NF-kappaB and AP-1. Results TF activity in plasma increased up to 14-fold and +232% in the lung (P < 0.001 for plasma and lung) 2 h after trauma. TF mRNA level was significantly increased in the lungs (P < 0.01), small intestine (P < 0.01), and liver (P < 0.05) 1 h after trauma compared to sham-operated control rats. TF mRNA expression continued to increase in the lungs and the liver (both, P < 0.001) 2 h after trauma TF sequence-specific complex binding to AP-1 and NF-kappaB domains was enhanced in the lungs of trauma rats (+395%, P < 0.001 and +168%, P < 0.001, respectively). Conclusions These results suggest that TF may play an important role in the pathophysiology of severe trauma and that regulatory elements AP-1 and NF-kappaB may be involved in the regulation of TF mRNA expression in traumatic shock.
10

Reddy, R. Chandramouli, Basavaraj Devaranavadagi, and Kusal K. Das. "Nickel Induced Alteration of Pathophysiology of Lungs in Experimental Rats." Indian Journal of Public Health Research & Development 10, no. 8 (2019): 145. http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0976-5506.2019.01867.9.

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Дисертації з теми "Lungs Pathophysiology":

1

McLennan, Geoffrey. "Oxygen toxicity and radiation injury to the pulmonary system." Title page, index and forward only, 1997. http://web4.library.adelaide.edu.au/theses/09PH/09phm164.pdf.

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Bibliography: leaves 168-184. The work in this study encompasses oxygen free radical related inflammation in the peripheral lung and in lung cells. Animal and human studies have been used. Methods include cell culture with function studies, protein chemistry, animal and human physiology, and cell and lung structure through histopathology, and various forms of electron microscopy. The work resulting from this thesis has formed an important basis for understanding acute and chronic lung injury.
2

McNamara, Tracy Renee. "Chlamydia pneumoniae and airways inflammation : an investigation of the host cell-pathogen relationship /." Title page, table of contents and abstract only, 2004. http://web4.library.adelaide.edu.au/theses/09PH/09phm4791.pdf.

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3

Chan, Ching Eunice, and 陳清. "Pathogenetic role of aberrant promoter methylation in lung cancer." PG_Thesis, The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong), 2007. http://hub.hku.hk/bib/B39557819.

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4

Smedley, Jeremy Vance. "A Combined In Vivo and In Vitro Approach to the Study of Endotoxemia in Swine." Thesis, Virginia Tech, 2000. http://hdl.handle.net/10919/33947.

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The cardiopulmonary effects of endotoxin administration (1 microgram/kg) were evaluated in 8-10 week old SPF-derived Yorkshire pigs, both because endotoxemia is a common and important swine problem, and because the pig is a good model for human adult respiratory distress syndrome. Physiological changes included sustained increases in mean pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance, pulmonary arterial wedge pressure, heart rate, hematocrit, and the arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide. Transient increases were also observed in central venous pressure and airway pressure. Transient increases, followed by decreases, were observed in mean systemic arterial pressures and systemic vascular resistance. Decreases were seen in cardiac output, cardiac index, arterial partial pressure of oxygen and oxygen saturation. The number of circulating leukocytes, lymphocytes and segmented neutrophils decreased with endotoxin infusion. To investigate the role of airway smooth muscle, bronchial rings were isolated and exposed to contractile agents in tissue baths. A hyperresponsiveness of the third generation bronchi to substance P, carbachol, bradykinin and electric field stimulation was observed. However the increase in response to bradykinin and electric field stimulation were not statistically significant. Histopathology of the lungs demonstrated congestion, hemorrhage and neutrophilic infiltration.
Master of Science
5

Kerckx, Yannick. "Modeling nitric oxide production and transport in the human lung." DoctoralThesis, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, 2009. http://hdl.handle.net/2013/ULB-DIPOT:oai:dipot.ulb.ac.be:2013/210324.

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Le travail présenté ici porte sur l’étude de la production et du transport du monoxyde d’azote (NO) dans le poumon humain. Le NO est une molécule dont l’implication dans des processus physiologiques n’a été mis en évidence qu’en 1987. Depuis, il a été démontré que le NO joue de nombreux rôles dans le corps humain. Le NO est un gaz labile (instable) dans les conditions physiologiques, il diffuse très facilement au travers des parois et il a une grande affinité pour l’hémoglobine. La production du NO est liée à 3 isoformes différentes de la protéine appelées synthases du NO ou NO synthases.

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Doctorat en sciences, Spécialisation physique
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6

Bondue, Benjamin. "Role of chemerin and its receptor ChemR23 in the physiopathology of inflammatory lung diseases." DoctoralThesis, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, 2010. http://hdl.handle.net/2013/ULB-DIPOT:oai:dipot.ulb.ac.be:2013/209992.

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Chemoattractant agents play a crucial role in the initiation of immune responses, by regulating the traffic and function of leucocyte populations. Their receptors are therefore considered as potential targets for the development of new therapies in the fields of cancer and inflammatory diseases. ChemR23, a previously orphan receptor discovered in the laboratory, is structurally related to receptors for chemoattractant agents. It is expressed on immature myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (mDCs and pDCs respectively), as well as on adipocytes, macrophages, NK and endothelial cells. Chemerin, the endogenous ligand of ChemR23, is abundant in various human samples originating from inflammatory diseases, including pleural effusions. Chemerin is secreted as an inactive precursor, prochemerin, and is activated by the removal of six or seven amino-acids from its carboxy-terminus by serine proteases, such as as cathepsin G and elastase. Chemerin acts as a chemoattractant agent of low nanomolar potency for macrophages, immature mDCs and pDCs. It is however more active on pDCs, in line with the higher expression of ChemR23 on these cells. pDCs possess important immunoregulatory properties in lung diseases, and their ability to secrete large amounts of type I interferon (IFN) upon viral infection makes them crucial players in anti-viral immunity.

According to these elements, and to the role of neutrophils in the physiopathology of many inflammatory lung diseases and in the generation of active chemerin, we began in 2007 to study the role of chemerin and its receptor ChemR23 in inflammatory lung diseases. We first characterized the mouse chemerin/ChemR23 system, and described that this system was very similar to the human one, in terms of distribution, pharmacology and functional properties. We then used wild type mice (WT) and mice invalidated for the receptor (ChemR23-/-) in various models of inflammatory lung diseases, including asthma, lung fibrosis, viral pneumonia, and acute lung injury.

Whereas the asthma and lung fibrosis models did not allow to demonstrate a significant role of the chemerin/ChemR23 system (possibly as a result of the lack of production of active chemerin in these models), infection by either the Pneumonia Virus of Mice (PVM), the mouse counterpart of human RSV, or by a murinized H1N1 influenza strain resulted in a significantly higher mortality rate in ChemR23-/- mice as compared to their WT counterparts. Using the PVM-induced pneumonia model, we observed that the excessive mortality of knock-out mice is caused by an inadequate and excessive innate immune response characterized by a massive recruitment of neutrophils to the lungs, associated with a delayed viral clearance and lower type I IFN synthesis. This latter observation suggested an impairment of pDC recruitment, according to the important contribution of pDCs to the production of type I IFNs in viral diseases, and the role of chemerin in the recruitment of these cells. We indeed confirmed a lower recruitment of pDCs in the lung of infected ChemR23-/- mice, as compared to WT mice. However, experiments of adoptive transfert and depletion of pDCs failed to proof a link between impaired pDC recruitment and the excessive morbidity and mortality observed in ChemR23-invalidated mice.

In parallel, we studied the role of the chemerin/ChemR23 system in the control of innate immune responses, by using a model of acute lung injury caused by the intra-tracheal instillation of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In this model, administration of recombinant chemerin together with LPS in WT mice resulted in a significant (about 50%) reduction of neutrophil recruitment to both lung parenchyma and airways. Assessment of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in broncho-alveolar lavage fluids confirmed this anti-inflammatory effect of chemerin, which was ChemR23-dependent, as the inflammatory response of ChemR23-/- mice was unaffected by chemerin. In our hands, chemerin does not modulate macrophage functions, in contrast to data recently published by other groups, attributing anti-inflammatory effects of chemerin or chemerin-derived peptide to the modulation of macrophage activation and phagocytosis. Other hypotheses that could take our observations into account are presently investigated, including an immunomodulatory role of chemerin on lung epithelial or endothelial cells, and/or the ChemR23-dependent recruitment of subtypes of macrophages or other myeloid cells endowed with immunosuppressive properties.

In conclusion, our studies characterized the mouse chemerin/ChemR23 system and highlighted the role of this system in the physiopathology of some inflammatory lung diseases. Our results suggest that the chemerin/ChemR23 system might be considered as a potential therapeutic target for the development of future anti-infectious and anti-inflammatory therapies, particularly for viral pneumonia, which represent a major public health problem, as well as for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) following severe acute lung injuries.

Les agents chimioattractants jouent un rôle fondamental dans l’initiation des réponses immunes en régulant le trafic et la fonction des populations leucocytaires. Leurs récepteurs constituent dès lors des cibles d’intérêt pour le développement de traitements contre les maladies inflammatoires et le cancer. Le laboratoire d’accueil a identifié le récepteur ChemR23, exprimé à la surface des cellules dendritiques myéloïdes (mDCs) et plasmacytoïdes (pDCs) immatures, des macrophages, des cellules NK, des adipocytes, et des cellules endothéliales. Le ligand endogène du récepteur ChemR23, la chémérine, est présent en abondance dans divers échantillons pathologiques d’origine inflammatoire. La chémérine est produite sous la forme d'un précurseur inactif, la prochémérine, qui nécessite pour devenir active le clivage protéolytique de six ou sept acides aminés à son extrémité carboxy-terminale. La chémérine induit le chimiotactisme des macrophages et des DCs immatures, et en particulier des pDCs immatures en accord avec l’expression plus importante de ChemR23 par les pDCs. Les pDCs jouent un rôle immunorégulateur important en pathologie pulmonaire, en particulier dans la physiopathologie des pneumonies virales, par leur capacité à produire d’importantes quantités d’interféron (IFN) de type I.

Compte tenu de ces éléments et du rôle des polynucléaires neutrophiles dans de nombreuses pathologies pulmonaires, ainsi que dans la génération de chémérine active à partir de son précurseur, nous avons débuté en octobre 2007, l’étude du rôle de la chémérine et de son récepteur ChemR23 dans le contrôle des pathologies pulmonaires inflammatoires. Nous avons tout d’abord caractérisé le système chémérine/ChemR23 chez la souris et avons montré que ce système présentait des caractéristiques similaires à celles décrites chez l’homme, en termes de distribution, de pharmacologie et de propriétés fonctionnelles.

Ensuite, nous avons comparé des souris sauvages et invalidées pour le récepteur ChemR23 (ChemR23-/-) dans divers modèles de pathologies pulmonaires. Les modèles d’asthme et de fibrose pulmonaire induite par instillation de bléomycine ou de silice n’ont pas permis de mettre en évidence un rôle important du couple chémérine/ChemR23, peut-être en raison de l’absence de génération de forme active de chémérine dans ces modèles. En revanche, l’administration de deux agents viraux différents, le PVM (Pneumonia Virus of Mice), l’équivalent murin du RSV humain, et un virus de l’influenza H1N1 murinisé, a résulté en un taux de mortalité 40% plus élevé pour les souris ChemR23-/- par rapport à leurs homologues sauvages. En utilisant le modèle de pneumonie induite par le PVM, nous avons montré que cette différence de mortalité est causée par une réponse immune inappropriée et excessive, associée à une réduction de l’élimination du virus, ainsi qu’à un déficit de synthèse d’IFN de type I. Les pDCs, dans un contexte d’infection virale, sont capables de synthétiser d’importantes quantités d’IFN de type I, et nous avons mis en évidence un déficit relatif de recrutement en pDCs chez les souris ChemR23-/- infectées. Néanmoins, les expériences de transfert adoptif et de déplétion de pDCs n’ont pas permis de lier ce défaut de recrutement à l’excès de morbidité et de mortalité observé chez les souris ChemR23-/- infectées.

En parallèle, le rôle de ce couple ligand-récepteur dans le contrôle des réponses immunitaires innées a été étudié dans un modèle de pneumopathie aiguë induite par instillation intra-trachéale de lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Dans ce modèle, l’administration simultanée de chémérine recombinante avec le LPS entraîne chez les souris sauvages une diminution significative (environ 50%) du nombre de polynucléaires neutrophiles recrutés dans les voies aériennes et dans le parenchyme pulmonaire, ainsi qu’une importante diminution de synthèse de cytokines pro-inflammatoires. Cet effet anti-inflammatoire de la chémérine est dépendant de ChemR23, et ne semble pas être secondaire à un effet de la chémérine sur l’activation des macrophages, contrairement à certaines données publiées récemment par d’autres groupes. D’autres hypothèses permettraient cependant de prendre en compte ces observations, notamment un effet de la chémérine sur les cellules épithéliales et/ou endothéliales pulmonaires, ainsi que sur le recrutement de sous-populations de macrophages ou d’autres cellules myéloïdes possédant des propriétés immunosuppressives. Des expériences complémentaires ont été initiées afin de tester ces hypothèses.

En conclusion, après avoir caractérisé le système chémérine/ChemR23 chez la souris, nos études ont permis de mettre en évidence le rôle de ce couple ligand/récepteur dans la physiopathologie de certaines pneumopathies inflammatoires, ouvrant ainsi de nouvelles perspectives thérapeutiques, en particulier pour le traitement des pneumopathies virales, qui constituent un problème de santé publique majeur, ainsi que des syndromes de détresse respiratoire aiguë (ARDS).
Doctorat en Sciences médicales
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7

Vanderstocken, Gilles. "Caractérisation du rôle des nucléotides extracellulaires et du récepteur purinergique P2Y2 dans la physiopathologie des maladies pulmonaires inflammatoires." DoctoralThesis, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, 2012. http://hdl.handle.net/2013/ULB-DIPOT:oai:dipot.ulb.ac.be:2013/209591.

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Amongst respiratory diseases, inflammatory lung diseases constitute a major part of public

health problem. As a consequence, investigating the immune mechanisms that contribute to

the pathogenesis of these diseases is essential to identify candidate targets for the

development of new therapeutic drugs. Furthermore, over the past 20 years, the growing awareness

that purinergic signalling events shape the immune and inflammatory responses to infection and

allergic reactions warranted the development of animal models to assess their importance in vivo in

acute lung injury and chronic airway diseases. The field of purinergic inflammation formulated the

unifying concept that ATP is released as a «danger signal» to induce inflammatory responses upon

binding purinergic receptors.

According to these elements, we began in 2007 to evaluate lung inflammation in mice deficient for

the P2Y2 purinergic receptor in TH2 and TH1 models. The most convincing evidence that the P2Y2

receptor is engaged during alarm situations comes from studies related to cystic fibrosis and asthma.

Indeed, chronic respiratory diseases are commonly associated with elevated airway ATP

concentrations, as reported in cystic fibrosis, but also in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and chronic

obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, and they are raised by allergens in asthmatic

patients.

First, we demonstrated a significant role of the P2Y2R in a TH2-ovalbumin(OVA)-induced asthma

model. We observed that eosinophil accumulation, a distinctive feature of lung allergic inflammation,

was defective in OVA-treated P2Y2-deficient mice compared with OVA-treated wild type animals.

Interestingly, the upregulation of VCAM-1 was lower on lung endothelial cells of OVA-treated P2Y2

knockout mice compared with OVA-treated wild type animals. Adhesion assays demonstrated that

the action of UTP on leukocyte adhesion through the regulation of endothelial VCAM-1 was

abolished in P2Y2-deficient lung endothelial cells. Additionally, the level of soluble VCAM-1, reported

as an inducer of eosinophil chemotaxis, was strongly reduced in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of

P2Y2-deficient mice.

Secondly, we studied the consequences of P2Y2R loss in lung inflammation initiated after pneumonia

virus of mice (PVM) infection in collaboration with the group of Pr. Daniel Desmecht (ULg). We

demonstrated here that P2Y2

-/-

mice display a severe increase in morbidity and mortality rate in

response to PVM. Lower survival of P2Y2

-/-

mice was not correlated with excessive inflammation

despite the higher level of neutrophil recruiters in their broncho-alveolar fluids. Interestingly, we

observed lower numbers of dendritic cells, CD4

+

T cells and CD8

+

T cells in P2Y2

-/-

mice compared to

P2Y2

+/+

infected lungs. Lower level of IL-12 and higher level of IL-6 in broncho-alveolar fluid support

an inhibition of Th1 response in P2Y2

-/-

mice. Quantification of DC recruiter expression revealed

comparable IP-10 and MIP-3&
Doctorat en Sciences biomédicales et pharmaceutiques
info:eu-repo/semantics/nonPublished

8

Wang, Jianpu. "Pathophysiology and treatment of chlorine gas-induced lung injury : an experimental study in pigs /." Linköping : Univ, 2004. http://www.bibl.liu.se/liupubl/disp/disp2004/med877s.pdf.

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9

Tiev, Kiet Phong. "Rôle du monoxyde d'azote dans la physiopathologie des atteintes pulmonaires de la sclérodermie systémique." Electronic Thesis or Diss., Paris Est, 2008. http://www.theses.fr/2008PEST0081.

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Анотація:
La pneumopathie interstitielle (PI) est devenue la principale cause de décès de la sclérodermie systémique (ScS). Au cours de PI, l’activation immunitaire déclenche une forte production du monoxyde d’azote (NO) et l’augmentation de la concentration de NO dans l’air expiré des patients atteints de ScS avec PI suggère que cette méthode pourrait détecter précocement l’alvéolite, afin de traiter à temps la PI pour éviter son évolution vers la fibrose pulmonaire. En utilisant le modèle à deux compartiments séparant le NO alvéolaire (CANO) du NO bronchique, nous avons montré que la CANO est : (1) augmentée chez les patients atteints de ScS comparativement aux volontaires sains; (2) associée à l’alvéolite et (3) corrélée à la sévérité de la PI. De plus, une valeur de CANO = 10,8 ppb permettait d’affirmer la présence de la PI et une valeur = 3,8 ppb, d’écarter l’existence d’une PI avec une valeur prédictive= 95%. Le modèle bi-compartimenté néglige la distribution arborisée des voies aériennes et la diffusion axiale du NO, que prend en compte le nouveau « modèle de la trompette ». Les résultats de CANO des 2 méthodes sont comparables (rho=0,98, p<0.001). Enfin, La capacité des sérums à induire la prolifération des fibroblastes pulmonaires et sa conversion en myofibroblaste est augmentée chez les patients atteints de ScS avec une CANO > 5ppb par rapport à celle des patients atteints de ScS qui ont une CANO = 5 ppb et à celle des volontaires sains. Nos résultats suggèrent une relation possible entre l’inflammation alvéolaire et la fibrose pulmonaire au cours de la ScS
Interstitial lung disease (ILD) has become the main cause of death in systemic sclerosis (SSc). In ILD, immune activation leads to strong nitric oxide (NO) output by inducible NO synthase. Increased the whole fractional rate of NO in exhaled air has been reported in SSc patients with ILD and suggested that exhaled NO can be an accurate none-invasive marker of early alveolar inflammation in order to initiate in time treatment. The two compartment-model method partitioned exhaled NO into alveolar concentration (CANO) and conducting airway flux, We hypothesized that overproduction of NO in the lung eventually leads to ILD in SSc. We have found that CANO is significantly increased in SSc patients as compared with healthy controls. We have also demonstrated that high levels of CANO were related to alveolitis and the severity of ILD in SSc. Moreover, we have found that ILD could be ruled in (positive predictive value > 95%) when CANO = 10.8 ppb, and ruled out when CANO values = 3.8 ppb (negative predictive value > 95%). The two-compartment model neglected the trumpet shape of airway tree and the axial diffusion of NO that the advanced “trumpet model” takes account. We have found that CANO levels assessed by the two models were comparable (rho=0,98, p<0.001). Finally, we have found that the serum ability to induce lung fibroblast proliferation and myofibroblast transition was increased in SSc patients with high levels of CANO (>5ppb) as compared to SSc patients with low levels of CANO (=5ppb) and healthy controls. Our findings suggest a possible link between alveolar inflammation, and lung fibrosis in SSc. 1624 caractères avec espace
10

Ridings, Philip Charles. "An investigation into the role of selectins in the pathophysiology of sepsis and sepsis-induced acute lung injury." Electronic Thesis or Diss., University of Southampton, 1996. http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.266390.

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Книги з теми "Lungs Pathophysiology":

1

Ali, Juzar, Michael G. Levitzky, and Warren R. Summer. Pulmonary pathophysiology: A clinical approach. 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical, 2010.

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2

Grippi, Michael A. Pulmonary pathophysiology. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1995.

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3

West, John B. Pulmonary pathophysiology: The essentials. 8th ed. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Health, 2012.

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4

West, John B. Pulmonary pathophysiology: The essentials. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2008.

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5

West, John B. Pulmonary pathophysiology: The essentials. 3rd ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1987.

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6

West, John B. Pulmonary pathophysiology--the essentials. 4th ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1992.

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7

West, John B. Pulmonary pathophysiology--the essentials. 5th ed. Baltimore, Md: Williams & Wilkins, 1998.

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8

Kayser, Klaus. Analytical lung pathology. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1992.

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9

Cagle, Philip T. Advances in surgical pathology: Lung cancer. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2011.

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10

Lee, Kyung Soo. Müller's diseases of the lung: Radiologic and pathologic correlations. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2012.

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Частини книг з теми "Lungs Pathophysiology":

1

Christian, Couture. "Lung cancer." In Applied Respiratory Pathophysiology, 207–22. Boca Raton : CRC Press, [2017]: CRC Press, 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1201/9781315177052-11.

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2

Geneviève, Dion, Cormier Yvon, and Boulet Louis-Philippe. "Interstitial lung diseases." In Applied Respiratory Pathophysiology, 177–205. Boca Raton : CRC Press, [2017]: CRC Press, 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1201/9781315177052-10.

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3

Henske, Elizabeth P., Souheil El-Chemaly, Thomas N. Darling, Angelo M. Taveira-DaSilva, and Joel Moss. "Pathophysiology of Lymphangioleiomyomatosis." In Diffuse Cystic Lung Diseases, 101–20. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2021. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-63365-3_5.

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4

Finsterer, U., and K. Peter. "Pathophysiologie thoraxchirurgischer Eingriffe." In Lunge und Mediastinum, 107–15. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 1991. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-08433-5_11.

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5

Kroegel, C., M. Mohorn, and P. R. Grahmann. "Pathophysiologie der Lunge." In Springer Lehrbuch, 201–22. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2000. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-57115-2_14.

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6

Ward, Chris, Rhys Jones, Mellissa Friel, Eoin Hunt, and Des Murphy. "Pathophysiology in the Lung." In Reflux Aspiration and Lung Disease, 55–69. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2018. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-90525-9_5.

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7

Couture, Christian. "Embryology, anatomy, and histology of the lung." In Applied Respiratory Pathophysiology, 1–14. Boca Raton : CRC Press, [2017]: CRC Press, 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1201/9781315177052-1.

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8

Bhat, Javeed Ahmad, Nawab John Dar, and Wajid Waheed Bhat. "Asthma: Pathophysiology, Current Status, and Therapeutics." In Chronic Lung Diseases, 25–60. Singapore: Springer Singapore, 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-3734-9_2.

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9

Grossi, Adalberto, and PierPaolo Giomarelli. "Pathophysiology of adult RDS." In The Surfactant System of the Lung, 183–90. London: Macmillan Education UK, 1991. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-349-12553-1_30.

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10

Johnston, Nikki. "The Pathophysiology of Gastroesophageal Reflux." In Gastroesophageal Reflux and the Lung, 23–41. New York, NY: Springer New York, 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-5502-8_2.

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Тези доповідей конференцій з теми "Lungs Pathophysiology":

1

Jagani, Jakin, and Alexandrina Untaroiu. "A Study of TCPC-Stent Conjunction for Cavopulmonary Assist in Fontan Patients With Right Ventricular Dysfunction." In ASME 2016 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/imece2016-68760.

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Анотація:
Mechanical circulatory support devices have gained significant importance in recent years as a viable therapeutic option to support paediatric population and children with single functional ventricle. The Fontan operation helps to reroute the deoxygenated blood to the lungs by bypassing the dysfunctional right ventricle. Total Cavopulmonary Connection (TCPC) is usually a method opted by the clinicians to connect the superior vena cava (SVC) and inferior vena cava (IVC) to the left and right pulmonary artery (LPA and RPA). However, the non-physiologic flow patterns created by the Fontan procedure leads to an increase in chances of platelet deposition and pressure loss which calls for heart transplantation to prevent early and late stage pathophysiology. This had led to modification of TCPC geometry to reduce the pressure and energy loss and thereby unload the single functional ventricle to ensure longer survival period. A study on mechanical circulatory device in conjunction with the modified TCPC geometry has seen little exposure and has opened new gates to develop a variety of state-of-art cavopulmonary assist devices. This study is focused on the selection of optimal TCPC to reduce energy loss and the effect of stent inside the modified TCPC on hemodynamics and flow structures. Four TCPC connections, developed for a particular age group of children, were studied for the velocity field, overall pressure and energy loss. In addition, the four TCPC connection geometries were also studied for distribution of hepatic blood from the IVC to both pulmonary arteries, and hence the lungs, to prevent development of any arteriovenous malformations. The entire stent assembly mounted inside the two best performing TCPC connections was examined for the hemodynamic effects using a series of 3D-CFD simulations. The curved-type connection for the TCPC proved to provide minimum pressure and energy loss along with reduced traces of vortex and recirculation. However, it was not efficient in terms of hepatic blood distribution. The flared geometry performed second best in terms of both minimum power loss and even hepatic blood distribution. There was a slight difference in power loss between the flared and the curved TCPC configuration with stent but the flared geometry had better hepatic blood distribution. This study demonstrated that a stent in conjunction with a TCPC leads to development of a helical flow pattern which provides better mixing of blood and even distribution to both the pulmonary arteries. The design of a stent with the best performing flared TCPC configuration can be optimized to reduce the amount of power loss and vortex generation and can be used to design similar scaled models for paediatric population of various age groups.
2

Romem, Ayal, Karen Lammers, Aldo T. Iacono, Mohan E. Tulapurkar, Cinthia Dranchenberg, Jeffrey D. Hasday, and Alessio Fasano. "Zonulin - A Novel Player In Human Lung Pathophysiology." In American Thoracic Society 2012 International Conference, May 18-23, 2012 • San Francisco, California. American Thoracic Society, 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/ajrccm-conference.2012.185.1_meetingabstracts.a4266.

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3

Torday, John S. "Evolutionary Biology As A Cipher For Lung Physiology And Pathophysiology." In American Thoracic Society 2010 International Conference, May 14-19, 2010 • New Orleans. American Thoracic Society, 2010. http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/ajrccm-conference.2010.181.1_meetingabstracts.a6416.

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4

Saha, P., S. Jain, I. Mukherjee, S. Durugkar, M. Das, S. Gokhale, S. S. Sohal, V. Naidu, and P. Sharma. "Effect of Long-Term Particulate Matter (PM10) Exposure on Lung Pathophysiology in Mice." In American Thoracic Society 2020 International Conference, May 15-20, 2020 - Philadelphia, PA. American Thoracic Society, 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/ajrccm-conference.2020.201.1_meetingabstracts.a2887.

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5

Basu, S., and A. J. Halayko. "IGFBP3 Modulates Lung Pathophysiology in an Allergen -Specific Manner in Murine Models of Asthma." In American Thoracic Society 2020 International Conference, May 15-20, 2020 - Philadelphia, PA. American Thoracic Society, 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/ajrccm-conference.2020.201.1_meetingabstracts.a5609.

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6

He, M., J. MacLeod, S. J. Callahan, K. Qing, N. Tustison, M. Salerno, J. Mata, et al. "Assessment of Pulmonary Pathophysiology in Lung Transplant Recipients With and Without Chronic Lung Allograft Dysfunction Using Hyperpolarized Helium-3 MRI." In American Thoracic Society 2021 International Conference, May 14-19, 2021 - San Diego, CA. American Thoracic Society, 2021. http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/ajrccm-conference.2021.203.1_meetingabstracts.a4604.

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7

Tan, Yan, and Wei Tan. "Reducing Upstream Compliance Induces Downstream High Pulsatility Flow-Dependent Inflammatory Response in Pulmonary Endothelial Cells via TLR2/NF-KB Pathway." In ASME 2012 Summer Bioengineering Conference. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/sbc2012-80900.

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Анотація:
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a group of chronic, progressive and fatal diseases, characterized by the dysfunction of the small arteries and microvasculature in the pulmonary circulation. Due to high blood pressure and high resistance in the pulmonary arteries, PAH causes detrimental damage on the lung and right heart ventricle. If left untreated, PAH quickly becomes life threatening. Although the exact pathophysiology remains unknown, there is increasing evidence suggesting that inflammation likely plays an important role in inducing and perpetuating the PAH progress. Although anti-inflammatory therapy has been shown effective in certain connective-tissue-disease-associated PAH, this approach has not been tested in other PAH conditions. The potential benefit of anti-inflammatory therapy to treat various PAH conditions could be of importance and require further study on the possible pathological mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects.
8

Sandler, H., B. Gerdin, and T. Saldeen. "STUDIES ON THE ROLE OF THROMBOXANE IN THROMBIN-INDUCED PULMONARY INSUFFICIENCY IN THE RAT." In XIth International Congress on Thrombosis and Haemostasis. Schattauer GmbH, 1987. http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0038-1643379.

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The pathophysiology of the acute pulmonary damage that may occur in association with sepsis, hemorrhagic shock and microembolism seems to involve the activity of cyclooxygenase derived arachidonate metabolites. In the rat, pulmonary microembolism due to infusion of thrombin together with inhibition of fibrinolysis has been found to induce pulmonary insufficiency with similarities to the clinical adult respiratory distress syndrome. The infusion of thrombin results in systemic hypotension, pulmonary hypertension and platelet aggregation, and subsequently, with a certain dealy in time, to increased pulmonary vascular permeability.The main purposes of this investigation were to study the release of TxA2 and PGI2 following thrcmbin-induced pulmonary microembolizaticn in the rat and to examine the effects of a thromboxane synthetase inhibitor (DazoxibenR) on pulmonary arterial and systemic mean arterial pressure and vascular permeability.During infusion of thrcmbin in rats pulmonary arterial pressure rose from 15 ± 2 to 35 ± 3 rmHg and mean arterial pressure fell from 120 ± 6 to 49 ± 27 mmHg. Plasma thromboxane B2 (TxB2) increased from 0.3 ± 0.004 to 3.6 ± 0.5 ng/ml. Ninety minutes later the lung weight and albunin concentration in the lung were increased (2.21 ± 0.13 g and 22.7 ± 4.7 mg/g) compared with controls (1.12 ± 0.14 g and 8.5 ± 0.9 mg/g). Dazoxiben reduced the elevated pulmonary arterial pressure and the elevated plasma TxB2 concentration following infusion of thrombin. Ninety minutes after infusion of thrcmbin, the in vitro synthesis of TxB2 in lung tissue was increased. Dazoxiben and a specific rabbit anti-rat neutrophil serun reduced this synthesis of TxB in vitro. The lung weight (2.18 ± 0.20 g) and lung albumin concentration (21.4 ± 3.4 mg/g) was not affected by Dazoxiben. The results indicate that TxA2 in an important mediator of the pressure changes in the early phase after infusion of thrombin and that neutrophils are associated with thromboxane formation in the lung tissue. Rats pretreated with the antineutrophil serum had less pulmonary weight (1.69 ± 0.28 g) and the albumin concentration in the edema fluid was decreased (17.3 ± 3.6 mg/g), suggesting that polymorphonuclear leukocytes contributed to the pulmonary dysfunction. Dazoxiben when incubated with thrcmbin in a chromogenic substrate system had a linear, dose-related anti-thrombin effect. At a Dazoxiben concentration of 2.4 mM only a few percent of the thrombin activity remained.

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