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Статті в журналах з теми "Oil and petrochemical sector":

1

Bin Amin, Md Fouad, and Mohd Ziaur Rehman. "Asymmetric Linkages of Oil Prices, Money Supply, and TASI on Sectoral Stock Prices in Saudi Arabia: A Non-Linear ARDL Approach." SAGE Open 12, no. 1 (January 2022): 215824402110711. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/21582440211071110.

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This study examines the asymmetric effects of oil prices, money supply, and the Tadawul All Share Index (TASI) on sectoral stock prices in Saudi Arabia. By applying a nonlinear auto-regressive distributive lag (NARDL) approach to monthly data spanning from January 2007 to December 2016, we found that the positive shocks of oil prices were more than the negative ones in the building and construction, energy and utilities, and petrochemical sectors, while higher oil prices adversely influenced the stock price of the bank and financial service sector. We identified the long-run and short-run asymmetric relationships of the Saudi stock market development on the stock prices of bank and financial services, energy and utilities, and the petrochemical sector and only a long-running asymmetric relationship with the building and construction sector. We also found the absence of long-run and short-run asymmetric impact of money supply on three sectors, namely, building and construction, energy and utilities, and the petrochemical sector except for the bank and financial service sector where only a long-running asymmetric relation was observed. These findings are appropriate for investors and portfolio managers to make judicious investment decisions. Policymakers should diversify their economic sectors apart from the oil dependencies to achieve the Vision 2030.
2

Maitah, Mansoor, and Bassam Abdoljabbar. "The Economic Role of Petrochemical Industry in Iran." Modern Applied Science 9, no. 11 (September 30, 2015): 101. http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/mas.v9n11p101.

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<p>Iran’s economy is characterized by over dependence on the oil sector. Iran has been gradually growing into a centre for production of petrochemicals in the world. Petrochemical industry is one of the significant components of oil industry and is one of the principal industries in Iran which has an influential role in Iran’s economy. Although it is widely acknowledged that exports, particularly through manufactured components, play an important role as a potential source of economic growth. Hence, the aim of this research is to analysis the impact of petrochemical products export revenue on economic growth. Therefore the main objective of this research is the study of export-led growth hypothesis (ELG hypothesis) of Iran’s economy in the petrochemical industry by taking a time series data for the period of 1990-2010. It applies ordinary least square (OLS) method to investigate the relationship between gross domestic product, exports of petrochemical products, real exchange rate and inflation. The results of the study show that there is a positive relationship between export of petrochemical products and economic growth which validate export-led growth hypothesis in petrochemical industry while negative impact of inflation and real exchnage rate is observed.</p>
3

Mutlu Çamoğlu, Seval. "The Impacts of Oil Prices, Exchange Rate and COVID-19 Pandemic on BIST Petrochemical Market." World Journal of Applied Economics 7, no. 1 (June 23, 2021): 17–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.22440/wjae.7.1.2.

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Stock markets are developing with the economic growth of the countries in a liberal market economy. Petrochemicals is an indicator of the performance of the country's industry with high inter-industry linkage by providing input to several sectors, producing various outputs with a certain number of raw materials. The COVID-19 pandemic period has affected all markets worldwide and caused fluctuations in the index values of large firms in the petrochemical industry in Borsa Istanbul (BIST). This study analyzes the impact of the pandemic period and change in the oil prices and exchange rate on the petrochemical market in Turkey. The monthly data of petrochemical stock market index, exchange rate, oil prices are used in this time series analysis. A pandemic information index representing the COVID-19 pandemic was derived and included in the model. According to the results, it is observed that the most important determinant of the fluctuations on the BIST petrochemical index is the oil prices. While a shock in oil prices negatively affects the BIST petrochemical index, the petrochemical index responds positively to the shock in the pandemic index.
4

Hambleton, H. G. "L’essor de l’industrie pétrochimique en Arabie Saoudite." Note 57, no. 4 (January 21, 2009): 589–98. http://dx.doi.org/10.7202/601008ar.

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ABSTRACT Eight giant petrochemical joint ventures will come on stream in Saudi Arabia between 1983 and 1985, reaching full capacity by 1987. While the equity for these complexes will be at least $12 billion, they will benefit from very cheap feedstock making them highly competitive. With the foreign partners in the ventures marketing much of the output abroad and with a growing domestic demand, there should be little difficulty with sales. In any event Saudi Arabia can link the sale of petrochemicals with the availability of crude oil. A re-structuring of the world production of petrochemicals is virtually inevitable, with Saudi Arabia and other countries with cheap feedstock producing bulk petrochemicals while the more industrialized countries concentrate on specialty petrochemicals with a greater value-added. Quebec, with petrochemicals a growth sector, is well placed to take advantage of these changes. Saudi Arabia, which normally runs a substantial trade surpluses with Quebec—some $360 million in 1981—might well opt to invest part of theses surpluses in a petrochemical industry in Quebec.
5

Kadyrbergenova, A., N. Ismagulova, R. Bagitova, and M. Azhmagambetova. "FEATURES OF THE PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRY OF THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN AND ASSESSMENT OF ITS COMPETITIVENESS." Statistika, učet i audit 81, no. 2 (June 30, 2021): 87–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.51579/1563-2415.2021-2.13.

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The petrochemical market is a necessary element of resource supply for all sectors of the economy. The petrochemical market is a necessary element of resource supply for all sectors of the economy. In its development, petrochemicals are ahead of related industries, such as oil production and refining. Even today, the volume of sales in monetary terms significantly exceeds the volume of sales of oil or petroleum products. In the future, the global petrochemical market will continue to grow faster than the oil and petroleum products market. The annual growth of the production rate of multi-tonnage plastics is expected to reach 5% by 2023, and the production of polyester fibers-6%. At the same time, the growth rate of oil demand, according to the Energy Information Agency (USA), will be 1.7% per year, including in developed countries – about 1% per year. The petrochemical industry is characterized by rapid development of scientific and technological progress, increasing the efficiency of public production. Even today, the volume of sales in monetary terms significantly exceeds the volume of sales of oil or petroleum products. In the future, the global petrochemical market will continue to grow faster than the oil and petroleum products market. The annual growth of the production rate of multi-tonnage plastics is expected to reach 5% by 2023, and the production of polyester fibers-6%. At the same time, the growth rate of oil demand, according to the Energy Information Agency (USA), will be 1.7% per year, including in developed countries – about 1% per year. The petrochemical industry is characterized by rapid development of scientific and technological progress, increasing the efficiency of public production.
6

Azad, Sayyed Mohsen, and Seyed Hassan Ghodsypour. "Modeling the dynamics of technological innovation system in the oil and gas sector." Kybernetes 47, no. 4 (April 3, 2018): 771–800. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/k-03-2017-0083.

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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to model the relationship between “innovation systems” players and markets to indicate the “innovation functions” behavior during the petrochemical technology life cycle. Design/methodology/approach In a general classification, innovation systems are divided into four categories: technical, sectoral, regional and national. If two approaches are hybrid, their benefits would be combined. According to the sectoral structure of the governance model in Iran, in many sectors, such as petrochemical technology, the combination of one another with a sectoral approach is essential. Hence, this paper has introduced a new hybrid approach, called a techno-sectoral innovation system, and has used system dynamics as a methodology and a petrochemical industry as a case study. Findings The results predict the functions state of the innovation system and detect activation of innovation motors in each stage of innovation life cycle. Validation is investigated using Monte Carlo simulation that shows the error of the indices is acceptable. It can be concluded that the model is relatively in a development state and the motor of entrepreneurship functions. Originality/value This case-based model can help other researchers, as a generic model. It could be customized with the input parameters and relational flows of new cases, and functions (F1-F7) can show the result of each scenario made by the innovation analyst and the policymaker.
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EGOROV, O. I. "FORMATION OF REGIONAL PETROCHEMICAL CLUSTERS AS THE BASIS FOR INNOVATIVE DEVELOPMENT OF NATIONAL ECONOMY." Neft i gaz 2, no. 116 (April 15, 2020): 140–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.37878/2708-0080/2020.010.

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Intensive development of the oil and gas complex causes an urgent need to solve the problem of harmoniousdevelopment of productiveforces. It is knownthat theeffectivenessof theinvestments in the development of the oil and gas sector is significantly reduces due to large losses of products potentially contained in crude hydrocarbon. The development of ways to efficiently use hydrocarbon resources by increasing the share of the refining sector will help to meet domestic needs for refined products and petrochemicals, less vulnerability of the country’s economy to world price level for crude hydrocarbon.
8

SHIMKO, Oleg V. "Priority measures to overcome the consequences of the introduction of new sanctions against the oil and gas sector of the Russian Federation." National Interests: Priorities and Security 18, no. 8 (August 15, 2022): 1584–604. http://dx.doi.org/10.24891/ni.18.8.1584.

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Subject. The article considers new sanctions against the oil and gas sector of Russia and the policy of leading foreign oil and gas companies. Objectives. The focus is on the assessment of export prospects of the fuel and energy complex. Methods. The study employs methods of comparative analysis and generalization. Results. The paper reveals that new sanctions against the oil and gas industry of Russia are aimed at limiting the export of domestic fuel and energy products, access to oil refining technologies, and investment inflows. The import of hydrocarbons from Russia is not critical for the United States, Great Britain, Canada, and Australia, while the European Union is seriously dependent on the supply of Russian energy resources, and, therefore, there is a time reserve for transformation of the entire domestic energy sector. Conclusions. New sanctions against the energy sector are a powerful external impetus for the domestic petrochemical industry development.
9

Weisman, Camila. "MECHANISMS AND INSTRUMENTS FOR ENSURING ECONOMIC SECURITY OF OIL AND PETROCHEMICAL ENTERPRISES." Russian Journal of Management 8, no. 1 (May 22, 2020): 126–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.29039/2409-6024-2020-8-1-126-130.

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The oil and gas industry remains for Russia the most important source of income, a strategic industry. According to official figures of the Ministry of Finance of the Russian Federation, income from the oil and gas sector, according to the results of 2019, is 40% of the total budget of the country. A large volume of crude oil and gas is exported from the country. The tax burden on raw materials reaches up to 60% of the initial cost, which makes oil production at new fields extremely unprofitable. The most important direction for the country is the transition from a strategy for the sale of crude oil products to refined ones, which have an additional cost. The article discusses the features of domestic oil production, analyzes the reasons for overpriced in comparison with competitive raw materials from other oil producing leader countries. The strategy of ensuring the economic security of the industry is noted, the main tools are listed and the mechanisms for ensuring the economic security of petrochemical industry enterprises are presented.
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Bustamante, Gustavo, Biagio Fernando Giannetti, Feni Agostinho, Gengyuan Liu, and Cecília M. V. B. Almeida. "Prioritizing Cleaner Production Actions towards Circularity: Combining LCA and Emergy in the PET Production Chain." Sustainability 14, no. 11 (June 2, 2022): 6821. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/su14116821.

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Petrochemicals, which convert oil and gas into products such as plastics, are fundamental to modern societies. Chemists recognize their role in designing materials and the adverse effects that these may have on the environment, preventing sustainable development. Several methodological frameworks and sustainability assessment approaches have been developed to evaluate the resources used in the petrochemical sector in terms of environmental costs. Still, there is a need to evaluate these systems in terms of environmental costs deeply. A combination of life cycle assessment and emergy accounting—to assess the environmental support for resource use—is applied in this study of the PET production chain in Europe. The unit emergy values of several intermediates are calculated or updated to facilitate the discernment of the quality of energy used and the processes’ efficiency. Several routes for synthesizing renewable para-xylene and ethylene glycol from biomass are discussed and confronted with the efforts focused on recycling and recovering the final product, providing concurrently a procedure and a valuable data set for future CP actions. The results show that understanding the efficiencies changing across the production chain may help stakeholders decide where and when interventions to promote a circular economy are most effective along a petrochemical production chain.

Дисертації з теми "Oil and petrochemical sector":

1

Al, Ankari Abdulrahman. "Technology transfer : a case study analysis of the Saudi oil and petrochemical sectors." Thesis, Cranfield University, 2009. http://hdl.handle.net/1826/3465.

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In the recent past a number of technologies have been imported into The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This experience has affirmed the conviction that technology can make an invaluable contribution to the growth of The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. However, in doing so, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, like other nations, faces some questions of possible obstacles, trials and errors during the course of industrial development and technology transfer, that can be addressed by utilising science and technology efficiently to develop many sectors, improve output of industry, develop standards and -status of national manpower and its utilisation. This study analyses issues related to successful technology transfer in Saudi industry As such, the purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between industrial development and technology transfer in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and the important role that modem technology can play in development of the oil and petrochemicals sectors. The aims are to provide a better understanding of the linkage between technology transfer and industrial development strategies in general, with special emphasis on the performance of the Saudi oil and petrochemical industry in particular. As such, to avoid failures on technology transfer, it becomes an imperative to analyse technology transfer by considering various approaches, as follows: Technology and industry is a key to future growth in Saudi Arabia - The main objective here is to locate, attract and keep industry. The concept of technology and industry deals with role of technology and the dynamics of Saudi's industry environment to excel in markets. Strategy at the functional level - this relates to the various activities assigned to different departments in the organisational structure. The concept means that all functions must be conducted in accordance with industry, technology and strategy. Strategy and technology - this means how to transfer an already existing technology to Saudi industry. Strategy for research and development - The concept deals mainly with how to plan, finance and implement R&D for products, security, environmental protection etc. Where to draw the line between general and specific objectives in R&D. The chosen method to study these issues is case study analysis of SABIC (Saudi Basic Industries Corporation) and Saudi Aramco (Saudi Arabian Oil Company). SABIC has been established for two main strategic objectives that go together in two parallel lines. The first objective aims to develop human resources and to turn them into a trained category that has the capability to transfer, assimilate and develop the most sophisticated technologies. The second objective aims to develop the natural resources and convert them to industrial products, helping to diversify the domestic income sources and open iii the doors for building up processing industries to satisfy the local and external market requirements. The first case study (SABIC) provides an overview of the phenomenon of technology transfer to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. For comparative purposes the second case study involves a case study of Saudi Arabia's largest oil firm (Saudi Aramco). These two case studies have been selected for their: i role in technology transfer in Saudi oil and petrochemical sectors, ii approach and access to greater resources in technology transfer, iii exposure of firm behaviour in the Saudi industrial sector, iv contribution to Saudi economic development and realisation of additional income through improved operations. The two case studies, typical of large companies not only in Saudi Arabia but also in the world, will address the obstacles in learning, committing and increasing performance through technology transfer. These cases highlight a range of choices available in technology transfer, which provide a wide range of means for technological learning through transfer. They offer different opportunities for further innovation and technology development. Although Saudi Aramco and SABIC claim 80 percent and 73 percent " Saudisation", respectively, the survey indicates that native Saudis need more participation and involvement in technology process in order to raise their technological know-how. As a result of this study, a common approach to technology transfer into Saudi Aramco and SABIC may be developed and applied by industry, per its requirements to address existing and prospective problems. At present Saudi Arabia has the capacity to absorb new technologies in its growing industrial sector. This is required to meet its desired objectives of becoming industrialised and self-sufficient in required technologies. The real test of effective technology transfer in this study is the need to build Saudi local technological capability supported by an effective learning strategy. The ultimate aim is to expand the scope of this study beyond the academic level towards the practical challenges of improving the efficiency and effectiveness of inward technology transfer for future Saudi industrial development.
2

Auda, R. S. "An analysis of the role of the oil sector in the Iraqi economy 1953-75 and an appraisal of the petrochemical industry as a strategy for achieving future self-sustained development." Thesis, Robert Gordon University, 1985. http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.370497.

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Abuazzah, Haneen F. "Le rôle des stratégies de pleine conscience RSE sur la qualité de la relation client : recherche dans le secteur pétrolier et pétrochimique - Société SABIC." Thesis, Université de Lille (2022-....), 2022. https://pepite-depot.univ-lille.fr/ToutIDP/EDSESAM/2022/2022ULILA004.pdf.

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L'une des définitions les plus anciennes et les plus importantes attribuées à la responsabilité sociale des entreprises (RSE) est celle donnée par Howard Bowen, qui se réfère au père de la RSE pour son livre « historique » de 1953, Social Responsibilities of the Businessman « The obligations of entrepreneurs to ces politiques, de prendre ces décisions ou de poursuivre les lignes d'action souhaitées en fonction des objectifs et des valeurs de notre société » (Bowen, 1953a).Plus tard, (Carroll, 1979a) s'est concentré plutôt sur des obligations fermes envers certaines responsabilités envers la société qui s'étendaient au-delà des domaines économiques et juridiques pour inclure le bien-être des employés et de la communauté, les besoins politiques et éducatifs de la société et le service pour améliorer la qualité de la vie humaine et définir La RSE en tant que : "La responsabilité sociale des entreprises englobe les attentes économiques, juridiques, éthiques et discrétionnaires que la société a des organisations à un moment donné". De nos jours, la RSE est reconnue au niveau mondial, national, régional et même local, principalement comme une « contribution volontaire au développement durable » (Jurkowska-Gomulka et al., 2021). Le concept volontaire de RSE considère la RSE comme un engagement des entreprises envers la durabilité qui va au-delà des exigences légales.Pourtant, la RSE est devenue un élément crucial du plan stratégique d'une entreprise et une réelle préoccupation pour de nombreuses entreprises industrielles (Widad et al., 2021). En conséquence, plusieurs organisations ont mis en place différentes initiatives pour encourager les entreprises à adopter des démarches RSE, telles que la Coopération économique pour le développement, le Pacte mondial des Nations Unies, l'Organisation internationale du travail et la Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) (Shehabi et al., 2016). Toutes ces initiatives ont contribué à l'élaboration d'un cadre RSE unifié connu sous le nom de norme ISO 26000 publiée par l'Organisation internationale de normalisation (ISO) en 2010 (Popa & Dabija, 2019). ISO 26000 définit la RSE comme : la responsabilité d'une organisation vis-à-vis des impacts de ses décisions et activités sur la société et l'environnement, par un comportement transparent et éthique en tenant compte des attentes des parties prenantes (ISO, 2010). Un comportement socialement responsable des entreprises est aujourd'hui attendu par un large éventail d'entités : principalement les consommateurs, mais aussi les partenaires commerciaux, les sous-traitants et les pouvoirs publics (Haseeb et al., 2019). Dans ces circonstances, la RSE n'est plus volontaire, mais devient un devoir moral voire légal fort (certains groupes d'entreprises sont légalement tenus de déclarer leurs activités non financières dans des documents accessibles au public). Les entreprises sont de plus en plus conscientes des dangers que leurs activités peuvent faire peser sur la planète et sur la société à l'avenir. L'entreprise consciente (MC) représente un état d'esprit d'entreprise soucieux de la société, de la communauté et de l'environnement qui se manifeste de manière comportementale dans la modération des activités qui sont à la fois défaitistes et non durables sur le plan environnemental
One of the oldest and most prominent definitions attributed to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is that given by Howard Bowen who refers to as the father of CSR for his “landmark” 1953 book, Social Responsibilities of the Businessman “The obligations of entrepreneurs to pursue those policies, to make those decisions, or to pursue desired lines of action in terms of the aims and values of our society” (Bowen, 1953a).Later, (Carroll, 1979a) focused rather on firm obligations to certain responsibilities to society that extended beyond the economic and legal domains to include employee and community welfare, the political and educational needs of society and service to improve the quality of human life and defined CSR as: “Social responsibility of business encompasses the economic, legal, ethical, and discretionary expectations that society has of organizations at a given point in time”. Nowadays, CSR is recognized at the global, national, regional, and even local level, mostly as a “voluntary contribution to sustainable development” (Jurkowska-Gomulka et al., 2021). The voluntary concept of CSR views CSR as firms’ commitment to sustainability that is beyond the legal requirements.However, CSR is become crucial part of a company’s strategy plan and a real concern of many industrial companies (Widad et al., 2021). As a result, several organizations have implemented different initiatives to encourage companies to adopt CSR approaches, such as Economic Cooperation Development, United Nations Global Compact, International Labour Organisation, and Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) (Shehabi et al., 2016). All these initiatives have contributed to developing a unified CSR framework known as ISO 26000 standard published by the International Standard Organization (ISO) in 2010 (Popa & Dabija, 2019). ISO 26000 defines CSR as: responsibility of an organization for the impacts of its decisions and activities on society and the environment, through transparent and ethical behavior by taking into account the stakeholder’s expectations (ISO, 2010). Socially responsible behavior of companies is expected nowadays by a wide scope of entities: mainly consumers, but also trading partners, contractors, and public authorities (Haseeb et al., 2019). Under these circumstances, CSR is no longer voluntary, but is becoming a strong moral or even legal duty (some groups of companies are legally obliged to report their non-financial activities in publicly available documents). Companies have become increasingly aware of the dangers that their activities can cause to the planet and to society in the future. Mindful company (MC) represents a company mindset of caring for society, community and environment which manifests behaviorally in the tempering on activities of which is both defeating and environmentally unsustainable
4

Mardupenko, Aleksey, Andrey Grigorov, Irina Sinkevich, and Alena Tulskaya. "Technological processing of oil sludge." Thesis, ФОП Бондаренко М. О, 2017. http://repository.kpi.kharkov.ua/handle/KhPI-Press/48883.

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Chakraborty, Samayita. "Biovalorization of liquid and gaseous effluents of oil refinery and petrochemical industry." Thesis, Paris Est, 2019. http://www.theses.fr/2019PESC2036.

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L'effluent liquide de la raffinerie de pétrole contient de l'anion sélénium toxique et du phénol, tandis que l'effluent gazeux contient du CO/syngas toxiques. Afin d'éliminer le phénol tout en réduisant les toxyanions de sélénia, une co-culture fongique bactérienne de Phanerochaete Chrysosporium et Delftia lacustris a été mise au point. Deux formes de co-culture de champignons et de bactéries ont été développées. Le premier concerne les bactéries et les champignons à croissance libre (co-culture en croissance suspendue), le second est la croissance de la biomasse bactérienne entourant la biomasse fongique (culture avec croissance solide). Les deux types de co-cultures bactériennes fongiques ont été incubés avec différentes concentrations de phénol à une concentration fixe de sélénite (10 mg / L). Une culture en suspension peut dégrader jusqu'à 800 mg / l de phénol et simultanément réduire de 10 mg / l de nano-Se (0) producteur de sélénite d'un diamètre d'au moins 3,58 nanomètres. Une croissance en lacet pourrait complètement décomposer 50 mg / l de phénol et de sélénite simultanément dans du nano Se (0) de diamètre minimal de 58,5 nm. Pour augmenter le CO / gaz de synthèse en utilisant la technique de bioconversion, la suspension méthanogène anaérobie a été acclimatée pour utiliser le CO comme seul substrat carboné pendant 46 jours dans un réacteur à réservoir sous agitation continue auquel du CO a été ajouté à une vitesse de 10 ml / minute. Les concentrations de métabolites les plus élevées étaient 6,18 g / l d'acide acétique, 1,18 g / l d'acide butyrique et 0,403 g / l d'acide hexanoïque. Plus tard les acides ont été métabolisés à un pH inférieur pour produire de l'alcool à des concentrations de 11,1 g / l d'éthanol, de 1,8 g / l de butanol et de 1,46 g / l d'hexanol, ce qui confirme stratégie d'enrichissement réussie. L'expérience suivante s'est concentrée sur l'absence de tungstène d'éléments en traces et de sélénium séquentiel sur une suspension précédemment modifiée au CO dans les mêmes conditions opératoires. Un gel de copolymère de N-ter-butylacrylamide in situ et de l'acide acrylique synthétisés in situ ont été utilisés pour récupérer de l'éthanol, du propanol et du butanol à partir du bouillon de fermentation synthétique. Le degré d'utilisation répétée du gel pour récupérer l'alcool a été étudié et environ 98% d'alcool a été récupéré à chaque fois
Liquid effluents of oil refinery contain toxic selenium oxyanions and phenol, while gaseous effluents contain toxic CO/syngas. To remove the phenol and simultaneously reduce the selenite oxyanions, a fungal-bacterial co-culture of Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Delftia lacustris was developed. Two modes of co-cultures of the fungus and the bacterium were developed. The first being a freely growing bacterium and fungus (suspended growth co-culture), the second being the growth of the bacterial biomass encircling the fungal biomass (attached growth co-culture). Both types of fungal-bacterial co-cultures were incubated with varying concentrations of phenols with a fixed selenite concentration (10 mg/L). The suspended growth co-culture could degrade up to 800 mg/L of phenol and simultaneously reduce 10 mg/L of selenite with production of nano Se (0) having a minimum diameter of 3.58 nanometer. The attached growth co-culture could completely degrade 50 mg/L of phenol and simultaneously reduce selenite to nano Se(0) having a minimum diameter of 58.5 nm.In order to valorize the CO/syngas by bioconversion techniques an anaerobic methanogenic sludge was acclimatized to use CO as sole carbon substrate for a period of 46 days in a continuous stirred stank reactor, supplied with CO at 10 ml/min. 6.18 g/L acetic acid, 1.18 g/L butyric acid, and 0.423 g/L hexanoic acid were the highest concentrations of metabolites produced. Later, acids were metabolized at lower pH, producing alcohols at concentrations of 11.1 g/L ethanol, 1.8 g/L butanol and 1.46 g/L hexanol, confirming the successful enrichment strategy. The next experiment focused on the absence of trace element tungsten, and consecutively selenium on the previously CO acclimatized sludge under the same operating conditions. An in-situ synthesized co-polymeric gel of N-ter-butyl-acrylamide and acrylic acid was used to recover ethanol, propanol and butanol from a synthetic fermentation broth. The scope of repeated use of the gel for the alcohol recovery was investigated and every time approximately 98% alcohol was recovered
6

Holton, Graham E. L., and gelholton@pacific net au. "State Petroleum Enterprises and the International Oil Industry: The Case of Trinidad and Tobago." La Trobe University. Institute of Latin American Studies, 1994. http://www.lib.latrobe.edu.au./thesis/public/adt-LTU20080304.171849.

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British and US oil companies set up the world's largest oil refinery transhipment complex in the Caribbean after the Suez Crisis and a technological revolution in oil tanker design in 1956. Trinidad and Tobago became one of the world's largest oil refinery and transhipment centres. In 1969 the British oil companies began to withdraw their investments and requested the nationalisation of their assets. In 1985 the US companies withdrew their investments in response to the US government's deregulation of the domestic oil industry and financial incentives to bring their investments back home. Requested nationalisation led to the state-ownership of the oil sector. The government of Trinidad set up state-owned petrochemical and iron and steel industries, with some of the world's most sophisticated technology, to utilise the country's large natural gas reserves. But by 1988 state capitalism had failed to provide the expected economic and social benefits, despite the drain on limited financial reserves and massive foreign loans. The government's reliance on the oil sector as the `prime mover' of the economy had caused sectoral and trade imbalance, high inflation, increased unemployment, currency instability, debt crisis and political instability which culminated in an attempted coup in July 1990. The root cause of the failure of state capitalism was the governments' rush to industrialise and the structure of the state petroleum enterprises. The lack of accountability and responsibility of top management and government interference led to poorly run, unprofitable industries in which government waste and corruption were common.
7

Babakhani, Victor, and Aalhuizen Christoffer. "Oil Price and Sector Returns : An International Analysis on the role of Oil Dependency in the Financial Sector." Thesis, Uppsala universitet, Företagsekonomiska institutionen, 2019. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-376483.

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Olja har under det förgångna seklet varit en av industrialiseringens stöttepelare. Idag, med omfattande satsningar inom hållbar utveckling så är inverkan av oljan högt aktuellt och inom en snar framtid kan den se en påtaglig nedbringa även om det har visats att dess relevans kommer kvarstå åtminstone fram till 2040. Tidigare forskning har påvisat att fluktuationer i oljepriset är en bidragsgivare till de systematiska risker företag ställs inför dagligen. Denna studie utvidgade analysområdet genom att välja ut länder med en netto-import av olja och sortera de på den andel relativa oljetillförsel som nationen erhållit gentemot nivån av systematisk risk från oljeprisfluktuationer som företagen ställs inför. Analysen utfördes över 120 Finansiella företag i 12 europeiska länder. Det anträffades utpräglade mönster i studiens resultat som kan antyda en koppling mellan dessa variabler, men resultaten återfinns i majoritet till att inte uppnå statistisk signifikans. Vidare kan studiens modell utgöra en bas för vidare forskning inom området.
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Pulster, Erin L. "Assessment of Public Health Risks Associated with Petrochemical Emissions Surrounding an Oil Refinery." Scholar Commons, 2015. http://scholarcommons.usf.edu/etd/5761.

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Refinery operations have been associated with a wide variety of atmospheric emissions consisting of criteria air pollutants, volatile organic components, hazardous air pollutants as well as other pollutants. With approximately 100 oil refineries in the Wider Caribbean region (WCR), hydrocarbons in this region pose significant environmental and human health risks. One of the oldest and largest refineries in the WCR is the Isla Refineriá, which is located on the island of Curaçao, and has been the basis of historical debates and conflict between the public and the local government over the environmental and human health risks. This research aims to establish baseline levels of ambient petrochemical emissions in Curaçao, specifically polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), inhalable particulate matter (PM10) and sulfur dioxide (SO2), and to evaluate through comparative literature analysis and recommended public health guidelines the potential health risks in Curaçao. In addition, source elucidation of PAHs was conducted using concentration profiles, distribution profiles, binary diagnostic ratios and factor analysis. Passive air samplers with polyurethane foam collection disks (PAS-PUFs) were deployed in 2011 (n=43) and in 2014 (n=30) to measure ambient PAH concentrations. Ambient PAH concentrations ranged from 1.2 ng/m3 in 2011 and 27.3 to 660.1 ng/m3 in 2014, demonstrating no temporal differences. However, there were highly significant spatial differences, with the samples downwind of the refinery having significantly higher ambient PAH concentrations than those upwind in 2014. Source elucidation revealed the ambient PAHs were dominated by petrogenic emission sources (i.e., refinery) in the 2011 and the 2014 downwind samples, whereas the 2014 upwind locations were equally influenced by both petrogenic (i.e., refinery) and pyrogenic (i.e., vehicle emissions) sources. Available hourly, daily and monthly PM10 and SO2 measurements were downloaded from June 2010 through December 2014 from two local air monitoring stations. Concentrations of both PM10 and SO2 in Curaçao are among the highest reported globally, demonstrating an increasing trend over time and exceed current public health guidelines recommended by local and international agencies. It is plausible that the residents of Curaçao may experience health effects often associated with PM10 and SO2, however the epidemiological evidence is inadequate to infer causality between health effects and long-term exposures. Using the USEPA’s risk analysis methodology the resulting cumulative lifetime cancer risk estimates from PAH inhalation were below the level of concern (1.0 x 10-4). In contrast, by evaluating the potency adjusted concentrations relative to the most toxic compound (benzo[a]pyrene), age class (children and adults) extrapolated and site specific risks indicated levels exceeding the upper bound acceptable risk (1.0 x 10-4) by almost two orders of magnitude suggesting the need for remediation.
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Oladapo, Omonike. "Foreign direct investment in the Nigerian oil sector." Thesis, University of Dundee, 1996. http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.302358.

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10

Enayat, Seyed Ebrahim. "Japan, Iran and the oil business : a case study of the Iran Japan petrochemical company." Thesis, University of Stirling, 1994. http://hdl.handle.net/1893/2167.

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The issue of Japan's heavy dependence on Middle Eastern oil has attracted a lot of attention in the political and academic circles for the reason that Japan is the second biggest consumer and the largest importer of oil in the world. Consequently, any action by Japan would not only have a major impact on petroleum markets, but also on international relations, security and on the Middle East itself. In the late 1960s Japan began negotiations with Iran, her biggest oil supplier at that time, about the establishment of a petrochemical joint venture. These negotiations led to the creation of the Iran Japan Petrochemical Company (UPC) in 1973. This study examines the different reasons why the main partners, Mitsui Bussan of Japan and the National Petrochemical Company of Iran as well as their respective governments, were so interested in the idea of a joint venture. It traces the troubled history of UPC from the preliminary negotiations in 1968, through two decades which saw the Iranian Revolution and the setting up of an Islamic state, the Iran-Iraq War, and two oil crises, until its dissolution in 1990. The research reveals conflicts of interest between Japanese and Iranian motivations behind the venture, between the goals of the privately owned Mitsui Bussan and the state-run National Petrochemical Company as well as their contrasting organisational and managerial styles, which led to the failure of UPC and its eventual dissolution. Using the case of IJPC as an example, the study argues that the setting up of a joint venture of this nature was an inappropriate response to the main purposes of each nation, i.e. the Japanese desire for a stable oil supply and the Iranian desire for rapid industrialisation and transfer of technology. Finally, it suggest alternative policies through which each country could achieve its respective ambitions.

Книги з теми "Oil and petrochemical sector":

1

India. Central Pollution Control Board. Risk assessment in oil refinery and petrochemical complex. Delhi: Central Pollution Control Board, Ministry of Environment & Forests, 2010.

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2

Groysman, Alec. Corrosion Problems and Solutions in Oil Refining and Petrochemical Industry. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-45256-2.

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3

Murray, Tracy. International trade in the petrochemical sector: Implications for developing countries : study. New York: United Nations, 1985.

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4

Thakur, Rajeev. The Indian oil and gas sector. New Delhi: ICRA Limited, 2000.

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5

Thakur, Rajeev. The Indian oil and gas sector. [New Delhi: ICRA Limited, 2003.

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6

Schroders. European oil sector initiation of coverage. London: Schroders, 2000.

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7

Vergara, Walter. The new face of the world petrochemical sector: Implications for developing countries. Washington, D.C: World Bank, 1988.

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8

Odularu, Gbadebo. Nigeria - U.S. Trade Relations in the Non-Oil Sector Nigeria - U.S. Trade Relations in the Non-Oil Sector: Nigeria - U.S. Trade Relations in the Non-Oil Sector. Boca Raton, Florida, USA: BrownWalker Press, 2008.

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9

Odularu, Gbadebo. Nigeria - U.S. Trade Relations in the Non-Oil Sector Nigeria - U.S. Trade Relations in the Non-Oil Sector: Nigeria - U.S. Trade Relations in the Non-Oil Sector. Boca Raton, Florida, USA: BrownWalker Press, 2008.

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10

Brown, BT Alex. The oil sector in 1999: Recovery or retrenchment?. London: BT Alex Brown, 1999.

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Частини книг з теми "Oil and petrochemical sector":

1

Johnsen, Stig O., Andreas Aas, and Ying Qian. "Sector-Specific Information Infrastructure Issues in the Oil, Gas, and Petrochemical Sector." In Critical Infrastructure Protection, 235–79. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-28920-0_11.

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2

Hosein, Roger. "The Petrochemical Sector of T&T: With Reference to the Methanol Industry in T&T." In Oil and Gas in Trinidad and Tobago, 115–30. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2021. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-77669-5_6.

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3

Speight, James G. "Other Feedstocks—Coal, Oil Shale, and Biomass." In Handbook of Petrochemical Processes, 79–118. Boca Raton, FL : CRC Press/Taylor & Francis Group, [2019] | Series: Chemical industries: CRC Press, 2019. http://dx.doi.org/10.1201/9780429155611-3.

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4

Markus, Ustina. "The Downstream Sector." In Oil and Gas, 38–66. London: Macmillan Education UK, 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-137-33972-0_4.

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5

Schieke, Sascha, Mark Geisenhoff, and Ke Wang. "NDE in Oil, Gas, and Petrochemical Facilities." In Handbook of Nondestructive Evaluation 4.0, 1–17. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2021. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-48200-8_60-1.

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6

Schieke, Sascha, Mark Geisenhoff, and Ke Wang. "NDE in Oil, Gas, and Petrochemical Facilities." In Handbook of Nondestructive Evaluation 4.0, 1089–105. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2022. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-73206-6_60.

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7

Smith, Ryan C. "Private Sector Takes the Control." In The Real Oil Shock, 99–113. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2022. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-07131-7_6.

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8

Groysman, Alec. "Process Units in Oil Refineries and Petrochemical Plants." In Topics in Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality, 1–7. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-45256-2_1.

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9

Babayev, A. I. "Ecological Cybernetics of Oil Processing and Petrochemical Processes." In Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, 472–78. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2021. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-68004-6_62.

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10

Ionescu, Mihail, Ye Ji, William M. Shirley, and Zoran S. Petrović. "Polyurethanes from Hybrid Vegetable Oil/Petrochemical Polyester Polyols." In ACS Symposium Series, 73–93. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society, 2011. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bk-2011-1063.ch005.

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Тези доповідей конференцій з теми "Oil and petrochemical sector":

1

Ekperusi, Abraham Ogheneruemu, and Anthonia Ejiroghene Gbuvboro. "Developing a Chemical Database for Resolving Enviromental Issues in the Petrochemical Industry in Nigeria." In SPE Nigeria Annual International Conference and Exhibition. SPE, 2022. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/211948-ms.

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Abstract Petrochemical exploration in Nigeria poses a significant threat to the environment, health and livelihoods of local people. The inability to find a holistic solution to address amicably the issues associated with oil and gas exploration and production has resulted in an unending wave of tension, crises and countless legal battles between communities and oil operators. This development is further complicated by the lack of adequate capacity on the part of regulators in the sector. The situation has forced some oil operators to move their operations from land and shallow waters into the deep sea with the hope to reduce hostilities within operational facilities and conflict with local people. Despite efforts to have a better understanding among the stakeholders, particularly oil operators and local communities, environmental issues persist creating mistrust between parties. Developing a chemical database with a comprehensive contaminants profile in the petrochemical industry would improve the management of chemical spills and associated issues and bring some level of fairness to conflict resolution in the sector.
2

Bose, Partha. "In-Line-Inspection (ILI) of a Pipeline in Constrained Condition and Establishing Integrity of the Pipeline." In ASME 2021 India Oil and Gas Pipeline Conference. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2021. http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/iogpc2021-64379.

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Abstract One 24” Diameter and around 40 km length Natural Gas pipeline caters as energy life line for Mumbai city; supplying app 4.5 MMSCMD Gas for Auto Sectors (CNG), House Hold (PNG), Power, Fertiliser, Petrochemical Sectors. Though line is equipped with Launcher & Receiver; but onward became challenging one for executing pigging for many constraints: - Presence of One SR bend - Presence of 1.5 D bends - Presence of 1.5 D bends with Back to Back configuration - Three (3) no Thermal Expansion Loops, in 2 Km stretch passing as above ground pipeline through bridge (above Creek) section The pipe line is passing through High Consequence areas, including its interim stretch of 2km passing as above ground section through bridge structure. Intelligent pigging is an obvious first preference for online precise integrity assessment for any pipeline. Site Specific Assessment, Detail Engineering & Committed approach resulted in Feasibility & Development of ILI Tool, Practical Testing in fore hand before actual pigging & onward Integrity Assessment of the pipeline conducted by accomplishing Successful ILI run.
3

Scrivani, A., S. Ianelli, R. Groppetti, S. Bertini, O. Lacorix, G. Rizzi, and F. Casadei. "A Contribution to the Production and Characterization of HVOF Coatings for Application in the Petrochemical Field." In ITSC2001, edited by Christopher C. Berndt, Khiam A. Khor, and Erich F. Lugscheider. ASM International, 2001. http://dx.doi.org/10.31399/asm.cp.itsc2001p0141.

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Abstract The appropriate selection of bulk materials and coatings of valve components, is an important factor for the economic success of oil and gas production activities in petrochemical field. Materials and coatings are important because particle erosion and surface wear is associated to corrosion by hydrogen sulphide during oil and gas flow. The wear of high pressure valves of gas system will lead to pollution, safety problem and cost increases. The most popular solution of these problems is the deposition of hard material like tungsten carbide or chromium carbide by thermal spray. Particularly these coatings are deposed by HVOF (High Velocity Oxygen Fuel) to obtain a very high hardness with excellent cohesion and adhesion. Tungsten carbide cobalt-chromium based coating, chromium carbide nickel-chromium coating as well as Inconel 625 are adopted actually in the specifications of the industrial petrochemical companies and their behavior and wear, erosion and corrosion properties are reported in literature. This paper addresses the study and surface analysis and characterization of alternative coatings such as NiAl and composite material WC / intermetallic compounds containing mainly Ni, Cr, Co and Mo. The best parameters to produce these coatings has been found by implementing a DOE and the obtained coatings have been systematically submitted to corrosion and functional tests based on the determination of the behaviour of the thermal spray coatings in an atmosphere of H2S and CO2 [1] and to wear and erosion test according to ASTM G75-95; removed material weight and usured surface damages have been determined. Furthermore the coatings have been completely characterized before and after the tests from the point of view of the structure (porosity, coating cohesion and adhesion, hardness, wear) and of the surface properties by means of a prototype 3- dimensional stylus micro-topography surface analysis system. Their corrosion and functional behaviour have been finally compared with the behaviour of the above mentioned coatings applied at present as standard in the petrochemical sector. The results state that WC/intermetallic compound could be a good substitute of IN625 for certain kind of application where good antierosion behaviour is requested.
4

Alsuwailem, Majed. "The Road to Zero Routine Gas Flaring: A Case Study from Saudi Arabia." In International Petroleum Technology Conference. IPTC, 2021. http://dx.doi.org/10.2523/iptc-21182-ms.

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Abstract Gas is envisaged as the fuel of choice in the power sector and is ideal for helping to transition toward clean, sustainable, and affordable energy access. As vital as gas is for electricity generation, the petrochemical industry, the transportation sector, and heating, many oil operators either flare or vent associated gas, a by-product of oil extraction, at the wellhead or gathering stations. Gas flaring releases greenhouse gases (GHGs) into the atmosphere. It occurs for various reasons, including infrastructure and financial constraints to capture the gas, inadequate regulatory frameworks, or binding contractual rights. The World Bank estimated the amount of flared natural gas in the oil and gas industry reached 5.1 trillion cubic feet (tcf) in 2018 (World Bank 2018). The amount of energy lost due to flaring or venting this gas is equivalent to more than 770 billion kilowatt-hours (kWh). It releases more than 310 million tonnes of carbon equivalent. Many countries and oil operators have managed to mitigate gas flaring and venting across their oil and gas value chains due to these troubling statistics. One such example is the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Before 1975, the Saudi oil and gas industry flared or vented over 4 billion standard cubic feet (SCF) of associated gas, a by-product of oil extraction. The flaring intensity would have increased had it not been for the construction of Saudi Arabia’s Master Gas System (MGS). The Kingdom’s gas flaring mitigation process is a successful case study of how governments and oil operators can collaborate to eliminate gas flaring by developing a domestic market for gas and enhancing the value of natural gas resources. It also demonstrates the successful transition that the kingdom had in the past five decades to achieve zero flaring through technology deployment and advancing the "reduce" component of the circular carbon economy. This paper discusses Saudi Arabia’s progress in gas flaring, the measures the government has taken thus far, and how operators have adapted to them. It also identifies many lessons learned and technological solutions that could be scaled up on a national or a corporate level to reduce gas flaring towards achieving zero routine flaring targets, especially in cases where the state owns hydrocarbon assets and leases them to private operators.
5

Glaude, P. A., O. Mahier, V. Warth, R. Fournet, M. Moliere, and I. Hu. "Gas Turbines in Alternative Fuel Applications: How to Predict the Stability of Olefin-Containing Process Gases." In ASME Turbo Expo 2003, collocated with the 2003 International Joint Power Generation Conference. ASMEDC, 2003. http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/gt2003-38462.

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Throughout the history of combustion engines, the Heavy Duty Gas Turbine stands out as the most fuel-flexible prime mover in the field. This gas turbine (GT) is suited for a rich portfolio of gaseous fuels that include: natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, coal and biomass-derived syngases, and a great variety of process gases with diverse compositions (hydrogen, carbon monoxide, olefins, etc.). Process gas fuels provide a promising array of alternative fuel opportunities in the major sectors of the industry such as the Coal, Oil & Gas, Steel, Chemical and Petrochemical branches. In an increasingly uncertain fuel environment, this significant match between gas turbine capabilities and the energy schemes of industrial plants can lead to further business opportunities.
6

Xia, Li, Yufeng Ye, and Xianggang Wang. "The Application of Ultrasonic Guided Waves in the Furnace Tube Inspection." In ASME 2013 Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/pvp2013-97315.

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According to the problem of the conventional thickness measurement method used to measure the furnace wall thinning in petrochemical industry, proposed a new NDT named guided wave to detect the presence of the wall thickness. Use of the technique for detection of dangerous parts of the refinery furnace tube, take the coker furnace and the furnace of crude oil distillation unit guided wave inspection application for Example, and through analysis of test data and field-proven and found many security risks, and guide the user to process. It concluded that the ultrasonic guided wave technology can effective realization radiation section of the furnace tube wall thickness detection.
7

Jiang, Xiaoli. "Structural Integrity Assessment of Maritime Transport Equipment." In ASME 2018 37th International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2018. http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/omae2018-77220.

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Structural integrity assessment is the study of the safe design and assessment of components and structures under loads, and has become increasingly important in engineering design. The technology and applications of structural integrity widely range from transportation, oil and gas, power generation to petrochemical, nuclear sectors, etc. In this paper, the character of structural integrity assessment in the maritime field is discussed, the latest approach and techniques are classified in three sub-topics, damage diagnosis, damage prognosis & maintenance strategy and then illustrated using a few practical studies. Finally, the future challenges introduced by new material, new exploitation field and new technology, i.e., IOT, big data, etc., are discussed and the potential development of structural integrity assessment in maritime industry is explored.
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Mrakin, A. N., A. A. Selivanov, A. A. Morev, P. A. Batrakov, A. V. Kulbyakina, and D. G. Sotnikov. "Heat conversion alternative petrochemical complexes efficiency." In OIL AND GAS ENGINEERING (OGE-2017). Author(s), 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4998832.

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Majidaie, Saeed, Mushtaq Muhammad, Isa M. Tan, Birol Demiral, and Susan Yun Ching Lee. "Non-Petrochemical Surfactant for Enhanced Oil Recovery." In SPE EOR Conference at Oil and Gas West Asia. Society of Petroleum Engineers, 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/153493-ms.

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Heffron, R., W. Asante, M. Eskijian, G. Johnson, and Jerko Kocijan. "PIANC Guidelines: Oil and Petrochemical Terminal Design." In 14th Triennial International Conference. Reston, VA: American Society of Civil Engineers, 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/9780784479919.009.

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Звіти організацій з теми "Oil and petrochemical sector":

1

Petit, Vincent. Road to a rapid transition to sustainable energy security in Europe. Schneider Electric Sustainability Research Institute, October 2022. http://dx.doi.org/10.58284/se.sri.bcap9655.

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Decarbonization and energy security in Europe are two faces of the same coin. They are both related to the large dependency of the European Union economy on fossil fuels, which today represent around 70% of the total supply of energy. The bulk of these energy resources are imported, with Russia being the largest supplier, accounting for 40% of natural gas and 27% of oil imports. However, fossil fuels are also the primary root cause of greenhouse gas emissions, and the European Union is committed to reduce those by 55% by 2030 (versus 1990). This report is based on the landmark research from the Joint Research Center of the European Commission, the “Integrated Database of the European Energy Sector”, which for the first time mapped actual energy uses for each country within the European Union, across 17 sectors of activity, with data granularity at the level of each process step (or end-use) of each of these sectors. Our approach here has been to systematically review these process steps (or end-uses) and qualify the extent to which they could be electrified, effectively removing the demand for fossil fuels as a result. We have focused only on those process steps where technology was already widely available and for which we evaluated the switch to be relatively easy (or attractive). In other words, we estimated the impact of rapid electrification of “easy to abate” activities. The conclusion of this evaluation is that the share of electricity demand in the final energy mix could jump from around 20% today to 50%, which would drive a reduction in emissions at end-use of around 1,300 MtCO2 /y, as well as a drop in natural gas and oil supply of around 50%. As a result of such transformation, electricity demand would nearly double, with the bulk of that growth materializing in the building sector. Short-term, the challenge of addressing climate targets while providing for energy security is thus intimately connected to buildings. While such transition would certainly require major infrastructure upgrades, which may prove a roadblock to rapid deployment, we find that the combination of energy efficiency measures (notably digital) and distributed generation penetration (rooftop solar) could significantly tame the issue, and hence help accelerate the move away from fossil fuels, with energy spend savings as high as 80% across some building types; a major driver of change. Beyond this, further potential exists for electrification. Other measures on the demand-side will include deeper renovations of the industrial stock (notably in the automotive, machinery, paper, and petrochemical industries for which our current assessment may be underestimated) and further electrification of mobility (trucks). The transition of the power system away from coal (and ultimately natural gas) will then also play a key role, followed ultimately by feedstocks substitution in industry. Some of these transitions are already on the way and will likely bring further improvements. The key message, however, is that a significant opportunity revolves around buildings to both quickly decarbonize and reduce energy dependencies in Europe. Rapid transformation of the energy system may be more feasible than we think. We notably estimate that, by 2030, an ambitious and focused effort could help displace 15% to 25% of natural gas and oil supply and reduce emissions by around 500 MtCO2 /y (note that these savings would come on top of additional measures regarding energy efficiency and flexibility, which are not the object of this study). For this to happen, approximately 100 million buildings will need renovating, and a similar number of electric vehicles would need to hit the road.
2

Olsson, Olle. Industrial decarbonization done right: identifying success factors for well-functioning permitting processes. Stockholm Environment Institute, November 2021. http://dx.doi.org/10.51414/sei2021.034.

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1 Introduction 1.1 The urgency of industrial decarbonization The last few years have seen several of the world’s largest carbon dioxide-emitting countries and leading heavy industry companies committing to mid-century net-zero targets (Buckley 2021; Denyer and Kashiwagi 2020; McCurry 2020; Myers 2020). Consequently, the discussion on economy-wide transition to net-zero is accelerating, with focus shifting from “if” to “when” and “how”, even for heavy industry sectors like steel, cement and chemicals. This makes it increasingly urgent to analyse not just whether it is technologically feasible to decarbonize heavy industry, but also investigate issues more directly related to practical implementation. This includes site-specific planning, infrastructure availability, and consultation with local authorities and other stakeholders. Many of the latter considerations are formalized as part of the permitting processes that are an essential vehicle to ensure that industrial interests are balanced against interests of society at large. However, doing this balancing act can turn out to be very complicated and associated with uncertainties as to their outcome, as well as being demanding in resources and time. At the same time, to ensure broad buy-in and support from society, the investments needed must be implemented in a way that takes a broad spectrum of sustainability concerns into account, not just climate change mitigation. A key question is if and how permitting processes can run more smoothly and efficiently while still ensuring inclusive consultations, fair procedures and adherence to legal certainty. This policy brief discusses this question from the starting point of Swedish conditions, but many of the points raised will be relevant for a broader international discussion on taking industrial decarbonization to implementation. 1.2 Industrial transition and permitting processes in Sweden Decarbonization of the industrial sector in Sweden essentially entails a relatively small number of investment projects in the cement, steel, petrochemical and refinery sectors, where the vast majority of carbon emissions are concentrated (Karltorp et al. 2019; Nykvist et al. 2020). However, while few in number, the size of these investments means that their implementation will by necessity become relevant to many other parts of society. In connection with the increasing focus on how to implement industrial decarbonization in Sweden, discussions about permitting processes have been brought higher up on the agenda. While there has been an active discussion on permitting processes in Sweden for quite some time, it has primarily been focused on aspects related to mining and wind power (Larsen et al. 2017; Raitio et al. 2020). The last few years have, however, focused increasingly on industrial projects, in particular related to a proposed – though eventually cancelled – expansion of an oil refinery in the southwestern part of the country (Blad 2020). In terms of political discussions, both the governmental initiative Fossil-free Sweden (2020) and the Swedish Climate Policy Council (2020) emphasize that permitting processes need to become faster in order for Sweden’s industrial transition to be implemented in line with the time plan set by the 2017 Swedish Climate Act. Business representatives and organizations are also voicing concerns about the slow speed of permitting (Balanskommissionen 2019; Jacke 2018). At the same time, criticism has been raised that much of the environmental damage done in Sweden comes from activities conducted within limits set by environmental permits, which could be a flaw in the system (Malmaeus and Lindblom 2019). Finally, recent public inquiries have also discussed permitting processes.
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R.N., Nkongho, Feintrenie L., and Levang P. The non-industrial palm oil sector in Cameroon. Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), 2014. http://dx.doi.org/10.17528/cifor/004859.

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Al Suwailem, Majed, and Malik Selemankhel. Are Bankruptcies Healthy For The Tight Oil Sector? King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center, February 2021. http://dx.doi.org/10.30573/ks--2021-dp02.

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Between January 2015 and mid-2020, about 69 of the approximately 2,160 small-to-medium independent oil companies operating in the tight oil sector filed for Chapter 11 protection. These filings mostly occurred in 2016 and 2019. A lack of financial discipline and poor financial risk assessment meant that these companies were negatively impacted by the low oil prices in these years. Hence, they declared bankruptcy.
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McCarthy, James, Lauren Acierto, Glen Joy, Jason Kuruvilla, Titilayo Ogunyale, Nikolas Urlaub, John Wiltberger, and Devin Wynne. Energy Sector Asset Management For Electric Utilities, Oil & Gas Industry. National Institute of Standards and Technology, May 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/nist.sp.1800-23.

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Chauhan, Virendra, Maarten van Mourik, and Pedro Florencio. Challenges across Brazil�s oil sector and prospects for future production. Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, October 2014. http://dx.doi.org/10.26889/9781784670139.

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Khadan, Jeetendra. Are Oil and Gas Smothering the Private Sector in Trinidad and Tobago? Inter-American Development Bank, January 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.18235/0000602.

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Wu, K., and S. Pezeshki. Recent hydrocarbon developments in Latin America: Key issues in the downstream oil sector. Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI), March 1995. http://dx.doi.org/10.2172/71281.

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Ruprah, Inder, and Ricardo Sierra. Engine of Growth?: The Caribbean Private Sector Needs More Than an Oil Change. Inter-American Development Bank, December 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.18235/0000545.

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González-Gómez, Andrés, Martha Rosalba López-Piñeros, Norberto Rodríguez-Niño, and Santiago Téllez. Fiscal policy in a small open economy with oil sector and non-ricardian agents. Bogotá, Colombia: Banco de la República, February 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.32468/be.759.

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