We are proudly a Ukrainian website. Our country was attacked by Russian Armed Forces on Feb. 24, 2022.
You can support the Ukrainian Army by following the link: https://u24.gov.ua/.
Even the smallest donation is hugely appreciated.
Весняні знижки на "Grafiati": -30% на всі преміум-плани до кінця березня!
Оформте джерело за APA, MLA, Chicago, Harvard та іншими стилями
Оберіть тип джерела:
Ознайомтеся зі списками актуальних статей, книг, дисертацій, тез та інших наукових джерел на тему "Sewage Environmental aspects Vietnam".
Біля кожної праці в переліку літератури доступна кнопка «Додати до бібліографії». Скористайтеся нею – і ми автоматично оформимо бібліографічне посилання на обрану працю в потрібному вам стилі цитування: APA, MLA, «Гарвард», «Чикаго», «Ванкувер» тощо.
Також ви можете завантажити повний текст наукової публікації у форматі «.pdf» та прочитати онлайн анотацію до роботи, якщо відповідні параметри наявні в метаданих.
За допомогою хмари тегів ви можете побачити ще більше пов’язаних тем досліджень, а відповідні кнопки після кожного розділу сторінки дозволяють переглянути розширені списки книг, статей тощо на обрану тему.
Статті в журналах з теми "Sewage Environmental aspects Vietnam":
Jefferies, C., H. K. Young, and I. McGregor. "Microbial Aspects of Sewage and Sewage Sludge in Dundee, Scotland." Water Science and Technology 22, no. 10-11 (October 1, 1990): 47–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.1990.0287.
Studies of the populations of coliforms and faecal streptococci in sewage and sewer sediments have been carried out in Dundee. Samples have been obtained and tested by standard methods from five storm and five dry weather flow events. The temporal variation of bacterial populations and concentrations during both types of flow regimes found are discussed in relation to flow rates and other relevant parameters. Average daily variations of bacterial concentrations are proposed for dry weather flows. No consistent pattern of bacterial population variation was found for storm events. No interpretation of the data for sediments was possible.
Henry, J. G., and D. Prasad. "Microbial Aspects of the Inuvik Sewage Lagoon." Water Science and Technology 18, no. 2 (February 1, 1986): 117–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.1986.0021.
A facultative sewage lagoon in Inuvik, N.W.T. was studied in August (ice free) and November (ice covered) 1984. Emphasis was placed on the microbiological aspects and their relation to lagoon performance. Analyses performed included, pH, total alkalinity, total solids, suspended solids, volatile solids, COD and BOD5 determinations. The microbiological tests included total plate counts (20°C) and psychrotrophic counts (1°C). Results indicated that the Inuvik sewage lagoon system achieved removal efficiencies, ranging from 90% BOD5 removal in summer to about 80% in winter. The total bacterial count was found to decrease in the liquid of the primary cells in the winter, but the bacterial count in the secondary cell was similar under both winter and summer conditions. No significant difference existed in bacterial counts in the sludge samples between primary and secondary cells. The total bacterial number decreased by one order of magnitude in the winter in sludges from all cells. A shift from mesophilic to psychrotrophic bacteria occurred in the winter. The percentage of psychrotrophs increased from less than 1% to over 80% with the change in season. The role of psychrotrophs in lagoon performance is discussed.
Holmes, P. G. "Operational Aspects of Doha South Sewage Treatment Works." Water Science and Technology 21, no. 10-11 (October 1, 1989): 1477–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.1989.0344.
Extensions to Doha South Sewage Treatment Works provided preliminary, primary, secondary and tertiary treatment for a design population of 100,000 persons, producing disinfected effluent for use in restricted municipal irrigation with digested sludge being conditioned and dewatered by plate pressing. Secondary treatment was designed to be non-nitrifying surface aeration activated sludge, and experience was gained in preventing partial nitrification by strict control of dissolved oxygen residuals. The works operated successfully to ensure a high quality of final effluent despite hydraulic overloading of 1.85 times design DWF and disruptions caused by contracts to further extend the plant. Treatment costs reflected the emphasis placed upon the purchase of imported chemicals and spare parts to ensure continued operation. Operating experience confirmed the suitability of the chosen processes to achieve intended effluent and sludge qualities.
BALMFORTH, D. J. "The Pollution Aspects of Storm-Sewage Overflows." Water and Environment Journal 4, no. 3 (June 1990): 219–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-6593.1990.tb01382.x.
Van Minh, Hoang, Dao Lan Huong, Kim Bao Giang, and Peter Byass. "Economic aspects of chronic diseases in Vietnam." Global Health Action 2, no. 1 (November 11, 2009): 1965. http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/gha.v2i0.1965.
Elshaeva, I. V., E. V. Voropaeva, and A. S. Pinaeva. "Environmental aspects of the use of sewage sludge as fertilizer materials." IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 613 (December 23, 2020): 012031. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/613/1/012031.
Samela, Daniel, G. M. Tsoumpas, G. K. Welshans, and M. L. Zwillenberg. "Environmental aspects of the combustion of sewage sludge in a utility boiler." Environmental Progress 5, no. 2 (May 1986): 110–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ep.670050212.
Donáth-Jobbágy, A., and J. Holló. "Kinetic Aspects of Planning and Operating Activated Sludge Systems." Water Science and Technology 18, no. 6 (June 1, 1986): 175–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.1986.0068.
A “black-box” substrate removal model for predicting effluent pollution level in activated sludge treatment plants is presented. Reliability of the data acquired from batch and continuously operated systems has been studied. The dependence of the rate of substrate consumption on the quality and concentration of the substrates as well as on the adaptation and concentration of the microflora is shown by using a model sewage containing anion-active detergent as the sole carbon source. Prediction of the continuous operation on the basis of batch experiments is less tedious. The data acquired by the continuous method presented proved to be, however, more reliable and, therefore, preferable in predicting the operation of treatment plants. The method of planning on the basis of the model is illustrated by using an industrial type model sewage: diluted milk containing n-dodecylbenzene sulphonic acid (LAS) as a selectively detectable substrate. The dependence of the aeration tank volume on the biodegradabi1ity and planned effluent level of the different substrates is demonstrated. In the case of poorly biodegradable sewage applied, recycle ratio proved to be a potential control parameter of activated sludge wastewater treatment, extremely useful in overcoming shock loadings .
Karlsson, Ingemar. "Environmental and energy efficiency of different sewage treatment processes." Water Science and Technology 34, no. 3-4 (August 1, 1996): 203–11. http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.1996.0434.
This paper summarises the Scandinavian experience that chemical wastewater treatment gives “value for money” in the sense that such treatment gives a low construction volume per removed unit of Oxygen Consumption Potential (OCP) in the receiving water and a low energy consumption per unit of Oxygen Consumption Potential (OCP) removed. The OCP evaluation takes into consideration both the primary oxygen consumption caused by organic matter and ammonium as well as the secondary oxygen consumption from degradation of algae resulting from the discharge of nutrient. The paper demonstrates that in comparison to conventional biological activated sludge treatment (with pre-settling), chemical treatment plants (primary precipitation) are cheaper in terms of cost per unit of OCP removed and that they require less energy per unit of OCP removed. Chemical treatment is considered to be the most suitable method when discharging municipal sewage to sensitive marine receiving waters and should be categorized as secondary treatment, like biological treatment. It is important when ecological aspects are considered, for instance in terms of energy consumption, that all elements that contribute to the total consumption of energy must be included. For instance, a compact treatment plant, like a chemical one, may require less energy for concrete, while it requires more energy for chemicals. The problem is evaluated in two different ways: (i) an evaluation of energy consumption based on the major energy-associated elements: chemicals, air and biogas; and (ii) an analysis of all ecological aspects based on a model for evaluating the ecological value of the products and processes.
Heninger, I., M. Potin-gautier, M. Astruc, D. Snidaro, V. Vignier, and J. Manem. "Selenium in Sewage Sludge; General Aspects and Analytical Challenge." International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry 67, no. 1-4 (June 1997): 1–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03067319708031389.
Li, Bing, and 李炳. "Occurrence, transformation and fate of antibiotics in municipal wastewater treatment plants." Thesis, The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong), 2011. http://hub.hku.hk/bib/B46591102.
During anaerobic digestion bacteria inside the digester require a carbon source for their growth and metabolism, sewage sludge was used as a carbon source in this study. The COD content was used to measure the disappearance of the substrate. COD content was reduced by 48.3% and 49% in the methanogenic and sulphidogenic bioreactors, respectively, while sulphate concentration was reduced by 40%, producing 70mg/L of hydrogen sulphide as the end product over the first 5-7 days. Sulphate (which is used as a terminal electron acceptor of sulphur reducing bacteria) has little or no effect on the sulphidogenic and methanogenic proteases. Sulphite and sulphide (the intermediate and end product of sulphate reduction) increased protease activity by 20% and 40%-80%, respectively. Maximum protease activity occurred on day 21 in the methanogenic reactor and on day 9 in the sulphidogenic reactor. The absorbance, which indicates the level of amino acid increased to 2 and 9 for methanogenic and sulphidogenic bioreactors, respectively. Proteases that were active during anaerobic digestion were associated with the pellet (organic particulate matter) of the sewage. These enzymes have an optimum activity at pH 10 and at temperature of 50°C. The proteases that were active at pH 5 and 7, had optimum temperatures at 30°C and 60°C, respectively. Due to their association with organic particulate matter, these enzymes were stable at their optimum temperatures for at least five hours at their respective pH. Inhibition by PMSF, TPCK and 1.10-phenanthroline suggested that proteases inside the anaerobic digester are a mixture of cysteine, serine and metalloproteases. At pH 5, however, EDTA appeared to enhance protease activity by 368% (three-fold). Acetic acid decreased protease activity by 21%, while both propionic and butyric acid at 200 mg/L cause total inhibition of protease activity while these acids at higher pH (where they exist as their corresponding salts) exerted little effect. Copper, iron and zinc inhibited protease activity by 85% at pH 5 with concentrations ranging between 200 and 600 mg/L. On the other hand, nickel, showed an increase in protease activity of nearly 250%. At pH 7 and 10, copper had no effect on protease activity while iron, nickel and zinc inhibited these enzymes by 20-40%. Proteases at pH 7 were extracted from the pellet by sonication, releasing 50% of the total enzymes into the solution. The enzymes were precipitated by ammonium sulphate precipitation, and further purified by ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. Ion exchange chromatography revealed that most of the enzymes that hydrolyse proteins are negatively charged while gel filtration showed that their molecular weight is approximately 500 kDa.
MacNicol, Roger. "The forms of combination of Cu, Ni and Zn in anaerobic sewage sludge." Thesis, University of Oxford, 1989. http://ora.ox.ac.uk/objects/uuid:ddd31ded-57f0-415d-9ab7-a390b9c8632a.
As a first step in understanding the chemistry of toxic elements in sludged soil, this thesis presents a comprehensive model of their chemistry in the digester. A review of the literature had shown that heavy metals were likely to be held in 3 pools: as precipitated and detrital mineral phases 'Particulate'; as complexes with the flocculated biomass 'Biofloc'; and as complexes in solution 'Soluble'. A simple pragmatic fractionation procedure has been offered to separate these 3 pools based on their physical properties in water. A mass-balance between the pools showed that the 'Particulate' fraction held only 5-16% of the heavy metals but contained them in the highest concentration. The 'Biofloc' held 82-94% of the heavy metals. The 'Particulate' material was subdivided by density separation and examined by a combination of analytical SEM and XRD. Thirty-four minerals were identified by XRD, many of which were detrital. Secondary precipitates on the surface of detrital minerals were revealed by the SEM; of these only the sulphides were found to contain detectable levels of heavy metals. Eleven minerals were identified in the 'Biofloc', of which most were clays. The fractionation scheme defined 2 fractions that could hold heavy metals by complexation. The 'Soluble' had a CEC of 8.8 meq/gm and the 'Biofloc' 4 meq/gm. Complexation by the heavy metals and a few other important cations was measured. A thermodynamic model was built which describes the possible solution species, mineral phases and complexation by the biomass in terms of a set of 33 primary components. This model was solved by computer for an 'average' sludge based on published analyses, and considered 313 solution species, 42 exchange reactions and 129 possible minerals. The predicted speciation was broadly in line with observations and suggested that the majority of the heavy metals separating with the 'Biofloc' would have been held as fine enmeshed sulphide precipitates. The model may be used with existing programs such as MINEQL and GEOCHEM. Preliminary studies have shown that with a few additions the model may be used to describe the heavy metals in sludged soil.
Chan, Sai Yen Victor, and 陳世欽. "Potential environmental hazards of wastewater from hospitals and theirmitigation." Thesis, The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong), 2005. http://hub.hku.hk/bib/B41016257.
Nitrogen pollution in marine waters is directly tied to human development – including agricultural runoff, atmospheric deposition, and urban wastewater effluents. After more than a century of urbanization, Hong Kong faces a major challenge in mitigating marine pollution, particularly nitrogen. Indeed, nitrogen pollution may be one of the primary causes of benthic ecosystem decline as evidenced by a contraction in the historical distribution of corals and seagrasses. Such ecosystems provide vital ecosystem services, not limited to nursery grounds for economically important fisheries. While the Hong Kong Government (HK Environmental Protection Department) has established long-term monitoring of marine nitrogen concentrations, the data obtained on the size of the total nitrogen pool does not indicate the proportion of which is derived from human activities. Stable isotope analysis of nitrogen (δ15N) can provide more accurate information on the source of nitrogen not only in the receiving environment but also in the marine and benthic organisms present. This project critically examines Hong Kong’s nitrogen sources from sewage effluents using stable isotope analysis. Objectives were to investigate (1) the δ15N of sewage effluents sampled across Hong Kong, Kowloon, New Territories, Lantau and Outlying Islands (2) the differences in δ15N across sewage treatment type and (3) the differences in δ15N between the wet and dry seasons with the aim of developing a new approach for detecting and mapping sewage impacts in Hong Kong. Through a 6-month sampling effort across 18 sewage treatment facilities, this study shows that 70% of δ15N values obtained from the sewage effluents were characteristically enriched (δ15N values up to 205 ‰) when compared with naturally occurring nitrogen sources in the biosphere (I10‰ < δ15N < 10‰). Overall, δ15N was more variable in plants with preliminary treatment and chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) than in plants with primary, secondary or tertiary treatment. The mean daily flow rate explained 75.7% of the observed variability in δ15N values of preliminary treatment plants and 85% of the variability in primary treatment plants. This was also the case in plants having CEPT with a negative correlation of 46% between mean daily flow rate and sewage effluent δ15N values. This suggests varying models for the quantity and retention time of wastewater versus δ15N signatures for different treatment types that require further study. Microbial activity by aerobic bacteria and protozoa, ammonia volatilization and the amount of nitrogen present in the effluents are possible causes for δ15N enrichment. Enterococcus counts of three sites sampled indicated that that the municipal sewer system and wastewater treatment plant in Stonecutters Island (56,100 CFU 100 mlI1) and preliminary treatment facilities (57,800 CFU 100 mlI1) in Hong Kong Island are insufficient in preventing bacterial contamination in comparison to US EPA standards for recreational use of coastal marine waters (35 CFU 100 mlI1). These findings indicate that enriched δ15N values directly translate to the presence of anthropogenic inputs and that monitoring δ15N of primary producers is a feasible and important tool for monitoring wastewater management in Hong Kong. published_or_final_version Environmental Management Master Master of Science in Environmental Management
Visser, Gunnar Lieb. "Permeable reaction barrier system for the treatment of textile wastewater using cobalt oxide." Thesis, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, 2017. http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11838/2631.
Thesis (MEng (Chemical Engineering))--Cape Peninsula University of Technology, 2018. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have gained considerable interest in the wastewater treatment industry. Low selectivity to organic pollutants and the high oxidation potentials provided by the free radicals produced from these processes are the root of this interest. Hydroxyl radical based AOPs seemed to dominate the field but recently sulphate radical based AOPs started to become more popular due to their even higher oxidation potential.
The textile industry is known to be a considerable contributor to wastewater production. Many pollutants in this wastewater are organic pollutants which are very persistent to the more traditional treatment processes such as biological treatment and membrane filtration. Numerous studies have shown the potential and success of catalytic AOPs for the degradation of organic pollutants in wastewater. One such process is the use of a cobalt oxide nano-catalyst in conjunction with a peroxymonosulfate (PMS) oxidizer (Co3O4/PMS). The shortcoming with nano-catalysts however are the difficulty of recovering the catalyst in a slurry system or the effective immobilization of the catalyst in a continuous system.
To address the issue of nano-catalyst immobilization, two different methods were used in the study to effectively immobilize the catalyst in a substrate. The methods were compared by utilizing the permeable reaction barriers in a continuous flow reactor. A bench scale reactor of 2.4 L/hr was designed and used to study the effect of PMS, catalyst mass and flow rate on the degradation efficiency and to determine the residence time and catalyst per PRB cross-sectional area ratio. A scale up rationale was formulated based on a constant residence time and the catalyst mass per PRB cross-sectional area ratio. Two design correlations were developed to predict the size of the permeable barrier and the catalyst mass required for the scale up PRB system. These parameters were used to design a reactor 30 times that of the bench scale reactor. In both reactors the optimum degradation occurred within 2 minutes indicating the success for catalyst immobilization and the development of a continuous reactor utilizing the Co3O4/PMS advanced oxidation technology.
Chiu, Chen. "Anaerobic digestion of baker's yeast wastewater using a UASB reactor and a hybrid UASB reactor." Thesis, University of British Columbia, 1990. http://hdl.handle.net/2429/29589.
The start-up and step-up operation of two 16-liter, continuously operated, upflow anaerobic reactors receiving baker's yeast wastewater is presented in this thesis. The two reactors (A and B) were almost identical in construction. Reactor A was a conventional upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, and reactor B was a hybrid reactor. In addition to all the features of a UASB reactor, a fixed-film structure was installed in the mid section of the reactor B. Both reactors were operated at 35 °C and at a constant hydraulic retention time of 7 days. The waste strength, expressed in chemical oxygen demand (COD), was varied from 8 g COD liter⁻¹ (during the start-up) to 58 g COD liter⁻¹. The organic loading rate ranged from 1.1 to 9.4 g COD liter⁻¹ day⁻¹. The start-up lasted for the first 46 days. Towards the end of the start-up, methane production rates of 0.23 and 0.28 liter CH₄ liter⁻¹ day⁻¹ and COD reductions of 62.2% and 67.2% were achieved at organic loading rates of 1.1 and 1.3 g COD liter⁻¹ day⁻¹ for reactors A and B respectively. During the step-up operation, maximum methane production rates were, for reactors A and B respectively, 0.91 and 0.95 liter CH₄ liter⁻¹ day⁻¹ at organic loading rates of 5.8 and 6.4 g COD liter⁻¹ day⁻¹. In addition, reactor profiles for sludge concentration, pH, volatile fatty acids, and COD are also presented. Applied Science, Faculty of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Department of Graduate
DeBruyn, Adrian M. H. "Sewage and the ecology of the St. Lawrence River." Thesis, McGill University, 2001. http://digitool.Library.McGill.CA:80/R/?func=dbin-jump-full&object_id=38176.
This thesis examines the ecological consequences of sewage disposal in aquatic ecosystems. Sewage simultaneously represents a form of enrichment and a source of stress to a receiving system. Enrichment effects dominate when sewage loading does not exceed the capacity of the system to assimilate waste, as is presently the case in the St. Lawrence River. We developed a method to quantify the assimilation of sewage-derived organic matter by riverine biota, then used this method to examine the pathways by which sewage enhances secondary production in the St. Lawrence. We showed that the relative importance of dissolved nutrients and particulate organic matter to the river food web is to a large degree dictated by the physical and biological characteristics of the local environment. The effects of this enrichment on the receiving water community were also influenced by habitat characteristics. Analysis of body size distributions revealed that only the largest organisms had higher densities at enriched sites, and that the identity of these organisms depended on habitat structure. Densities of smaller organisms were controlled by a combination of habitat characteristics and feeding interactions. This pattern was consistent with food web models of top-down (consumer) control. At each trophic level, relatively invulnerable (large) prey achieved higher densities, whereas densities of more vulnerable (small) prey were controlled by their predators. Finally, we synthesized the ideas outlined above to predict how conditions in the St. Lawrence will change in the future as a result of lower water levels. More extensive macrophyte cover, slower current, and warmer temperatures in a shallower St. Lawrence will all enhance the ability of the system to physically retain and biologically process sewage nutrients, but will also increase the likelihood of negative effects such as anoxia.
Pardieck, Daniel L. "Biodegradation of phenols in aquatic culture by soil-derived microorganisms, with reference to their fate in the subsurface." Diss., The University of Arizona, 1988. http://etd.library.arizona.edu/etd/GetFileServlet?file=file:///data1/pdf/etd/azu_e9791_1988_226_sip1_w.pdf&type=application/pdf.
Книги з теми "Sewage Environmental aspects Vietnam":
Workshop on "Wastewater Reuse in Agriculture in Vietnam: Water Management, Environment and Human Health Aspects" (2001 Hanoi, Vietnam). Wastewater reuse in agriculture in Vietnam: Water management, environment and human health aspects : proceedings of a workshop held in Hanoi, Vietnam, 14 March 2001. Edited by Sally L. (Liqa), Hoek Wim van der, and Ranawake Mala. Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute, 2001.
California. Legislature. Senate. Toxics and Public Safety Management Committee. Russian River sewage release, March 8, 1985 and August 2, 1985, Guerneville, California. Sacramento, CA: The Committee, 1985.
Agency, Ireland Environmental Protection. Urban waste water discharges in Ireland with population equivalents greater than 500 persons: A report of the years 1998 and 1999. Johnstown Castle Estate, Co. Wexford: Environmental Protection Agency, 2000.
Molayem, Benjamin. Dewatering wastewater treatment sludge by clathrate freezing: A bench-scale feasibility study. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Water Engineering Research Laboratory, 1987.
Blanchard, Paul J. Ground-water quality and susceptibility of ground water to effects from domestic wastewater disposal in eastern Bernalillo County, central New Mexico, 1990-91. Albuquerque, N.M: U.S. Dept. of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, 1999.
Частини книг з теми "Sewage Environmental aspects Vietnam":
Awad, F., L. Kahl, and R. Kluge. "Environmental aspects of sewage sludge and evaluation of super absorbent hydrogel under Egyptian conditions." In Iron Nutrition in Soils and Plants, 91–97. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 1995. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-0503-3_13.
BEKER, D., and J. J. van den BERG. "Environmental aspects of landfilling sewage sludge." In Alternative Uses for Sewage Sludge, 243–61. Elsevier, 1991. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-08-040271-0.50022-8.
Van Lier, Jules B., Anand Vashi, Jeroen Van Der Lubbe, and Barry Heffernan. "Anaerobic Sewage Treatment using UASB Reactors: Engineering and Operational Aspects." In Environmental Anaerobic Technology, 59–89. IMPERIAL COLLEGE PRESS, 2010. http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/9781848165434_0004.
Rorat, Agnieszka, Pauline Courtois, Franck Vandenbulcke, and Sébastien Lemiere. "Sanitary and environmental aspects of sewage sludge management." In Industrial and Municipal Sludge, 155–80. Elsevier, 2019. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-815907-1.00008-8.
This chapter discusses the origins of Rollerball (1975) in the context of science-fiction cinema in the late 1960s and the first half of the 1970s, when the genre began a move to the centre of the commercial film business. It also took a distinctly dark turn as the impact of the Vietnam War, economic recession, the OPEC oil crisis, debates about overpopulation, environmental destruction, and, in the US, urban decay, and the political corruption revealed by the Watergate scandal worked their way into public consciousness. These concerns were all reflected in 1970s science fiction, and particularly percolated up in the decade's dystopian offerings. They also gave rise to the paranoia cycle of Hollywood thrillers that appeared in the late 1960s and early 1970s, in the context of which aspects of Rollerball can be viewed. The chapter then outlines some of the broader cultural debates William Harrison and Norman Jewison found themselves part of during the same period, principally concerns over increasing violence in professional American sport and society more generally, technological change, and growing corporate power.
"COST 68 bis was more extensive in scope than the initial project since it covered both treatment and use of sewage sludge. This meant that the topics included both the engineering and economics aspects of sludge processing at sewage works and the environmental aspects of sludge disposal particularly in regard to its utilisation as a fertilizer in agriculture. The use of sewage sludge in this way is important in most countries and it was recognised that co-ordinated research was desirable into both the possible adverse environmental effects of heavy metals and pathogens in sludges and the beneficial effects of plant nutrients in sludge. The problem of odour nuisance arising from the handling and spreading of sewage sludge was also recognised as an important subject-area for research. Under COST 68 bis, five Working Parties were established to co-ordinate the various areas of research. As a 'Concerted Action1, no direct funding was available from the European Commission to finance research projects on sewage sludge, each country being expected to contribute its own publicly-funded projects to the common ’pool*. COST 68 bis ran from 1977 to 1980(2) and was followed by an extension programme - COST 68 ter - which ran from 1981 to 1983(3). In 1983, it was decided to further extend this Concerted Action but to widen the range of research topics in the scientific programme to include animal manures. The renewed programme was designated COST Project 681 'Treatment and Use of Organic Sludges and Liquid Agricultural Wastes'. It is obvious that sewage sludges and farm manures have many aspects in common particularly with regard to handling and treatment techniques and to the environmental impact (e.g. odour) which can occur from their utilisation on land. On the other hand, from the administrative point of view, sewage sludge and farm manures are in two different 'worlds'. Sewage sludge is the general responsibility of public authorities while responsibility for disposing of animal manures belong mainly to the private farming sector. Funding for research on the two types of waste, even if from Government sources, is usually from different Departments and there is little cross-involvement of research scientists in the two sectors. Nonetheless, the COST 681 activity is attempting to promote some co-ordination of effort between the two research areas and, hopefully, this will result in mutual benefit to both those authorities responsible for sewage sludge treatment and those concerned with farm manures and their disposal. This joint Workshop on 'odours' is a good example of the type of co-operation, and sharing of information on a common problem, which can be of great mutual benefit to both sectors. PARTICIPATING COUNTRIES." In Odour Prevention and Control of Organic Sludge and Livestock Farming, 17. CRC Press, 1986. http://dx.doi.org/10.1201/9781482286311-11.