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Статті в журналах з теми "Sharka Disease":

1

Slováková, Ľ., and I. Dávidová. "Annual herbs – possible reservoirs of sharka disease?" Plant Protection Science 38, SI 2 - 6th Conf EFPP 2002 (December 31, 2017): 364–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.17221/10492-pps.

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Nineteen annuals – herbaceous indicators – were used for elucidation of Plum pox potyvirus seed transmission possibility after artificial inoculation with 9 different naturally infected PPV M and D strain sources. The seeds of positive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tested herbaceous indicators were collected and planted for germination. Successful seed transmission was detected after ELISA in 3 weeks old plants as follows: Nicotiana benthamiana 3.75% (source of PPV M Prunus domestica L. cv. unknown); N. clevelandii 3.5% (source of PPV M P. armeniaca (L.) Batsch cv. V 66052); N. benthamiana 8.42% and N. acuminata 1.97% (source of PPV D P. domestica L. cv. Althane); N. benthamiana 12.73% (source of PPV M P. domestica L. cv. Bystrická); N. acuminata 1.84% and N. occidentalis 15.1% (source of PPV D Rubus fruticosus Agg.); N. occidentalis 19.23% (source of PPV M Juglans regia L. isolate O 15); N. occidentalis 12.0% (source of PPV M J. regia L. isolate H1). These preliminary results suggest that PPV seed transmission by annual species may serve as a potential source of a virus spreading to the new plantations of the stone fruit trees by aphids transmission.
2

Ilardi, V., E. Di Nicola-Negri, A. Brunetti, A. Gentile, S. Monticelli, and C. Damiano. "RNA INTERFERENCE FOR SHARKA DISEASE RESISTANCE." Acta Horticulturae, no. 738 (March 2007): 593–99. http://dx.doi.org/10.17660/actahortic.2007.738.77.

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Budzanivska, I., L. Usko, A. Gospodaryk, M. Melnyk, and V. Polischuk. "EPIDEMIOLOGY OF SHARKA DISEASE IN UKRAINE." Acta Horticulturae, no. 899 (June 2011): 57–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.17660/actahortic.2011.899.6.

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Labonne, G., and S. Dallot. "Epidemiology of sharka disease in France." EPPO Bulletin 36, no. 2 (August 2006): 267–70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2338.2006.00985.x.

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Cambra, M., N. Capote, M. A. Cambra, G. Llácer, P. Botella, and A. López-Quílez. "Epidemiology of sharka disease in Spain." EPPO Bulletin 36, no. 2 (August 2006): 271–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2338.2006.00986.x.

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Viršček, M., and I. Mavrič. "CURRENT STATUS OF SHARKA DISEASE IN SLOVENIA." Acta Horticulturae, no. 657 (September 2004): 245–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.17660/actahortic.2004.657.36.

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Gottwald, T. R. "Epidemiology of sharka disease in North America." EPPO Bulletin 36, no. 2 (August 2006): 279–86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2338.2006.00988.x.

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Çağlayan, K., C. Ulubaş Serçe, and M. Gazel. "FOURTHY-FIVE YEARS OF SHARKA DISEASE IN TURKEY." Acta Horticulturae, no. 1063 (January 2015): 41–45. http://dx.doi.org/10.17660/actahortic.2015.1063.4.

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Ravelonandro, M., and R. Scorza. "TRANSGENIC PLUMS - FRUIT-TREES RESISTANT TO SHARKA DISEASE." Acta Horticulturae, no. 663 (December 2004): 443–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.17660/actahortic.2004.663.76.

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Llácer, G., and M. Cambra. "THIRTEEN YEARS OF SHARKA DISEASE IN VALENCIA, SPAIN." Acta Horticulturae, no. 472 (November 1998): 379–84. http://dx.doi.org/10.17660/actahortic.1998.472.44.

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Дисертації з теми "Sharka Disease":

1

Espinoza, Christian. "Approche métabolomique non-ciblée pour révéler les réponses métaboliques des prunus à l'infection par le PPV, conduisant au développement d'un outil de détection innovant pour la détection précoce de la maladie de la sharka et la sauvegarde des vergers en Occitanie." Thesis, Perpignan, 2022. http://www.theses.fr/2022PERP0018.

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La maladie de la sharka, causée par le Plum pox virus (PPV), est responsable d’importantes pertes économiques chez les Prunus. Toutefois, aucun traitement préventif ou curatif n’est à ce jour disponible et peu de sources de résistance naturelle ont été retrouvées. En France, une approche prophylactique, qui repose essentiellement sur la détection et l’élimination rapide des arbres infectés, a été adoptée afin de réduire la propagation du virus. Néanmoins, certaines contraintes technico-économiques ne permettent pas la détection précoce et efficace du PPV à grande échelle par des méthodes conventionnelles. Le département des Pyrénées Orientales (France) est le plus touché par cette maladie (85% des contaminations). Ces enjeux ont motivé la création du projet Antishark, issu d'une collaboration entre AkiNaO, l'Université de Perpignan Via Domitia, la FDGDON66 et les producteurs locaux. L'objectif du projet consiste à développer une méthode innovante de détection précoce, en ciblant les réponses métaboliques de Prunus persica à un stade précoce de l'infection. Par conséquence, deux études en conditions contrôlées utilisant une approche métabolomique non-ciblée (UHPLC-HRMS) ont été réalisées. Cette approche constitue un outil prometteur pour mettre en évidence les interactions métaboliques entre le PPV et son hôte. Dans une première étude, la réponse métabolique globale à l'infection par le PPV (souches Dideron et Marcus), intégrant les feuilles symptomatiques et asymptomatiques, a permis de discriminer les profils métaboliques provenant de feuilles infectées par le PPV et de feuilles saines. Bien qu’il existe une réponse commune aux deux souches, des différences métaboliques ont également été révélées, mettant en évidence des altérations métaboliques souche-dépendante. De fait, cette observation pourrait amener à terme, la possibilité d’identifier la ou les souches virales responsables d’une infection. De plus, il est possible de discriminer les plants infectés par le PPV (feuilles symptomatiques et asymptomatiques) des plants sains et des plants infectés par un autre virus phytopathogène. Ces observations suggèrent l’existence d’une réponse spécifique potentielle à la maladie de la sharka. L’ensemble de nos résultats corroborent l'hypothèse selon laquelle les arbres asymptomatiques mais infectés par le PPV, pourraient être détectés via les altérations métaboliques provoquées le virus. Par ailleurs, les réponses métaboliques observées sur les feuilles asymptomatiques pourraient être considérées comme des réponses précoces, déclenchées avant l’apparition des symptômes. Dans un deuxième temps, des altérations métaboliques précoces, avant l’apparition des symptômes sharka, ont été confirmées par une étude cinétique et ce, malgré des tests moléculaires négatives (RT-qPCR). Nos résultats indiquent que la détection précoce des plantes infectées par le PPV, en ciblant les réponses métaboliques de Prunus persica, est de facto une stratégie prometteuse. Finalement, des corrélations statistiques entre les deux études ont été retrouvées. Bien que les cultivars présentent des profils métaboliques significativement différents, certaines variables discriminantes sont communes entre les différents cultivars testés (GF-305, nectarine jaune, pêche jaune) et également entre les différents stades d’infection du virus (symptomatique et asymptomatique). Cependant, une co-infection PPV et oïdium observée le long de l’étude cinétique en conditions contrôlées, serait susceptible d’altérer l'impact de l'infection par le PPV. Par conséquent, une nouvelle étude cinétique sans co-infection est en cours pour confirmer ou infirmer ces observations. De plus, l'identification de biomarqueurs liés à la maladie, également en cours, permettrait de mieux comprendre les interactions métaboliques entre la pêche et le PPV. Enfin, d'autres expérimentations en conditions naturelles sont en cours afin d'évaluer la robustesse de nos potentiels biomarqueurs
Sharka disease, caused by Plum pox virus (PPV), is responsible for significant economic losses in Prunus. However, no preventive or curative treatments are currently available and only a few sources of natural resistance have been found. In France, a prophylactic approach has been adopted in an attempt to limit the spread of the PPV, which is essentially based on the rapid detection and removal of infected trees. However, certain technical and economic limitations do not allow the early andeffective detection of PPV on a large scale by conventional methods. The department of Pyrénées Orientales (France) is the most affected by this disease (85% of infections). These issues motivated the creation of the Antishark project, which is the result of a collaboration between AkiNaO, the University of Perpignan Via Domitia, FDGDON66 and local producers. The objective of the project was to develop an innovative method of early detection, targeting the metabolic responses of Prunuspersica at an early stage of the infection. Consequently, two studies under monitored conditions using an untargeted metabolomics approach (UHPLC-HRMS) were carried out. This approach is a promising tool to reveal the metabolic interactions between PPV and its host. In a first study, the global metabolic response to PPV-infection (Dideron and Marcus strains), including symptomatic and asymptomatic leaves, allowed the discrimination of metabolic profiles from PPV-infected and healthy leaves. Although there was a common response between the two strains, metabolic differences were also revealed, notably highlighting strain-specific metabolic alterations. In fact, this novel result could eventually lead to the possibility of identifying the viral strain(s) responsible for the infection. Furthermore, it was possible to discriminate PPV-infected plants (symptomatic and asymptomatic leaves) from healthy plants and from plants infected by another plant pathogenic virus. These observations suggest the existence of a potential specific response to the sharka disease. Based on all these findings, the hypothesis that asymptomatic PPVinfected trees could be detected through virus-induced metabolic alterations is supported.Furthermore, the metabolic responses collected from asymptomatic leaves could be considered as early responses to PPV-infection, i.e., before the appearance of symptoms. In a second step, early metabolic alterations, before the appearance of sharka symptoms, were confirmed by a kinetic study, despite negative molecular tests (RT-qPCR). Our results indicate that early detection of PPVinfected plants by targeting metabolic responses in Prunus persica was a promising strategy. Finally,statistical correlations between the two studies were found. Although the cultivars showed significantly different metabolic profiles, some discriminant features were common between the different cultivars tested (GF-305, yellow nectarine, yellow peach) and also between the different stages of the virus infection (symptomatic and asymptomatic). Nevertheless, a co-infection of PPV and powdery mildew observed during the kinetic experiment under monitored conditions could alter the impact of PPV-infection. Consequently, a new kinetic study without co-infection, is ongoing to confirm or refute these first observations. In addition, the identification of biomarkers related to the sharka disease, also in progress, would provide a betterunderstanding of the metabolic interactions between peach and PPV. Finally, other experiments under natural conditions are underway to evaluate the robustness of our potential biomarkers
2

Wang, Lisa Yuan [Verfasser], and Manu [Akademischer Betreuer] Sharma. "Genetic Risk Factors of Parkinson's disease / Lisa Yuan Wang ; Betreuer: Manu Sharma." Tübingen : Universitätsbibliothek Tübingen, 2018. http://d-nb.info/1168634261/34.

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Sharma, Kanishka [Verfasser], Nassir [Akademischer Betreuer] Navab, Nassir [Gutachter] Navab, and Steven [Gutachter] Sourbron. "Machine Learning Methods for Segmentation in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease / Kanishka Sharma ; Gutachter: Nassir Navab, Steven Sourbron ; Betreuer: Nassir Navab." München : Universitätsbibliothek der TU München, 2017. http://d-nb.info/1150399090/34.

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Khatib, R. "Adherence to secondary prevention medicines by coronary heart disease patients : first reported adherence." Thesis, University of Bradford, 2012. http://hdl.handle.net/10454/5484.

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Background Non-adherence to evidence based secondary prevention medicines (SPM) by coronary heart disease (CHD) patients limits their expected benefits and may result in a lack of improvement or significant deterioration in health. This study explored self-reported non-adherence to SPM, barriers to adherence, and the perception that patients in West Yorkshire have about their medicines in order to inform practice and improve adherence. Methods In this cross-sectional study a specially designed postal survey (The Heart Medicines Survey) assessed medicines-taking behaviour using the Morisky Medicines Adherence 8 items Scale (MMAS-8), a modified version of the Single Question Scale (SQ), the Adherence Estimator (AE), Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire(BMQ) and additional questions to explore practical barriers to adherence. Patients were also asked to make any additional comments about their medicines-taking experience. A purposive sample of 696 patients with long established CHD and who were on SPM for at least 3 months was surveyed. Ethical approval was granted by the local ethics committee. Results 503 (72%) patients participated in the survey. 52%, 34% and 11% of patients were prescribed at least four, three and two SPMs respectively. The level of non-adherence to collective SPM was 44%. The AE predicted that 39% of those had an element of intentional non-adherence. The contribution of aspirin, statins, clopidogrel, beta blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) to overall non-adherence as identified by the SQ scale was 62%, 67%, 7%, 30%, 22% and 5%, respectively. A logistic regression model for overall non-adherence revealed that older age and female gender were associated with less non-adherence (OR = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.94, 0.98; OR = 0.56, 95% CI: 0.34, 0.93; respectively). Specific concern about SPM, having issues with repeat prescriptions and aspirin were associated with more non-adherence (OR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.18; OR = 2.48, 95% CI: 1.26, 4.90, OR = 2.22, 95% CI: 1.18, 4.17). Other variables were associated with intentional and non-intentional non-adherence. 221 (44%) patients elaborated on their medicines-taking behaviour by providing additional comments about the need for patient tailored information and better structured medicines reviews. Conclusions The Medicines Heart Survey was successful in revealing the prevalence of self-reported non-adherence and barriers to adherence in our population. Healthcare professionals should examine specific modifiable barriers to adherence in their population before developing interventions to improve adherence. Conducting frequent structured medicines-reviews, which explore and address patients' concerns about their medicines and healthcare services, and enable them to make suggestions, will better inform practice and may improve adherence.
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Lamb, Christopher C. "STILL CROSSING THE QUALITY CHASM: A MIXED-METHODS STUDY OF PHYSICIAN DECISION-MAKING WHEN TREATING CHRONIC DISEASES." Case Western Reserve University School of Graduate Studies / OhioLINK, 2018. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=case1519222095020285.

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Zhang, Hui. "Modeling Multi-level Incentives in Health Care: A Multiscale Decision Theory Approach." Diss., Virginia Tech, 2016. http://hdl.handle.net/10919/79467.

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Financial incentives offered by payers to health care providers and patients have been identified as a key mechanism to lower costs while improving quality of care. How to effectively design incentive programs that can align the varying objectives of health care stakeholders, as well as predict programs' performance and stakeholders' decision response is an unresolved research challenge. The objective of this study is to establish a novel approach based on multiscale decision theory (MSDT) that can effectively model and efficiently analyze such incentive programs, and the complex health care system in general. The MSDT model captures the interdependencies of stakeholders, their decision processes, uncertainties, and how incentives impact decisions and outcomes at the payer, hospital, physician, and patient level. In the first part of this thesis, we study the decision processes of agents pertaining to the investment and utilization of imaging technologies. We analyze the payer-hospital-physician relationships and later extend the model to include radiologist and patient as major stakeholders in the second part of this thesis. We focus on a specific incentive program, the Medicare Shared Savings Program (MSSP) for Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs). The multi-level interactions between agents are mathematically formulated as a sequential non-cooperative game. We derive the equilibrium solutions using the subgame perfect Nash equilibrium (SPNE) concept and the backward induction principle, and determine the conditions under which the MSSP incentive leads to the desired outcomes of cost reduction and quality of care improvements. In the third part of this thesis, we study the multi-level decision making in chronic disease management. We model and analyze patients' and physicians' decision processes as a general-sum stochastic game with perfect information and switching control structure. We incorporate the Health Belief Model (HBM) as the theoretical foundation to capture the behavioral aspect of agents. We analyze how incentives and interdependencies affect patients' engagement in health-promoting activities and physicians' delivery of primary care services. We show that a re-alignment of incentives can improve the effectiveness of chronic disease management.
Ph. D.
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Brown, Leanne. "A Randomised controlled trial of a decision support intervention to support decision making for older individuals with advanced kidney disease." Thesis, Queensland University of Technology, 2017. https://eprints.qut.edu.au/107136/1/Leanne_Brown_Thesis.pdf.

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This research evaluated the effectiveness of a decision support intervention to guide older people who have advanced stages of kidney disease in making treatment choices about dialysis or conservative treatment. A pragmatic randomised controlled trial was conducted to determine if the intervention lowered decision conflict and decision regret. The research found that the decision support intervention increased participants’ knowledge of risk, benefits and symptoms of dialysis. There were no observable differences between groups for decision conflict or decision regret. The research raises issues about fully informed patient choice in end of life care and lays the foundation for ongoing research.
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Fuseya, Yoshinori. "Perspectives on End-of-Life Treatment among Patients with COPD: A Multicenter, Cross-sectional Study in Japan." Kyoto University, 2020. http://hdl.handle.net/2433/252978.

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Liley, Albert James. "Statistical co-analysis of high-dimensional association studies." Thesis, University of Cambridge, 2017. https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/270628.

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Modern medical practice and science involve complex phenotypic definitions. Understanding patterns of association across this range of phenotypes requires co-analysis of high-dimensional association studies in order to characterise shared and distinct elements. In this thesis I address several problems in this area, with a general linking aim of making more efficient use of available data. The main application of these methods is in the analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and similar studies. Firstly, I developed methodology for a Bayesian conditional false discovery rate (cFDR) for levering GWAS results using summary statistics from a related disease. I extended an existing method to enable a shared control design, increasing power and applicability, and developed an approximate bound on false-discovery rate (FDR) for the procedure. Using the new method I identified several new variant-disease associations. I then developed a second application of shared control design in the context of study replication, enabling improvement in power at the cost of changing the spectrum of sensitivity to systematic errors in study cohorts. This has application in studies on rare diseases or in between-case analyses. I then developed a method for partially characterising heterogeneity within a disease by modelling the bivariate distribution of case-control and within-case effect sizes. Using an adaptation of a likelihood-ratio test, this allows an assessment to be made of whether disease heterogeneity corresponds to differences in disease pathology. I applied this method to a range of simulated and real datasets, enabling insight into the cause of heterogeneity in autoantibody positivity in type 1 diabetes (T1D). Finally, I investigated the relation of subtypes of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) to adult diseases, using modified genetic risk scores and linear discriminants in a penalised regression framework. The contribution of this thesis is in a range of methodological developments in the analysis of high-dimensional association study comparison. Methods such as these will have wide application in the analysis of GWAS and similar areas, particularly in the development of stratified medicine.
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Lin, Abraham. "Perceived Efficacy in Patient-Physician Interactions among Older Adults with Atrial Fibrillation." eScholarship@UMMS, 2020. https://escholarship.umassmed.edu/gsbs_diss/1080.

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Background: Management of atrial fibrillation (AF) is complex and requires active patient engagement in shared decision making to achieve better clinical outcomes, greater medication adherence, and increased treatment satisfaction. Efficacy in patient-physician interactions is a critical component of patient engagement, but factors associated with efficacy in older AF patients have not been well-characterized. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the ongoing Systematic Assessment of Geriatric Elements in Atrial Fibrillation (SAGE-AF) study, a cohort study of older adults (age ≥ 65) with non-valvular AF and CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥ 2. Participants were classified according to their Perceived Efficacy in Patient-Physician Interactions (PEPPI-5) score (lower: 0-44; higher: 45-50). Logistic regression analysis was used to identify sociodemographic, clinical (AF type, AF treatment, medical comorbidities), and geriatric (cognitive impairment, sensory impairment, frailty, independent functioning) factors associated with lower reported efficacy. Results: Participants (n = 1209; 49% female) had a mean age of 75. A majority (66%) reported higher efficacy in their interactions with physicians. Lower efficacy was associated with persistent AF (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.52; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.13-2.04) and with symptoms of depression (aOR = 1.67; CI = 1.20-2.33) or anxiety (aOR = 1.40; CI = 1.01-1.94). Decreased odds of lower efficacy were observed in participants with chronic kidney disease (aOR = 0.68; CI = 0.50-0.92) and those classified as pre-frail compared to those classified as not frail (aOR = 0.71; CI = 0.53-0.95). Conclusion: Older patients with persistent AF or symptoms of depression or anxiety have decreased efficacy in patient-physician interactions. These individuals merit greater attention from physicians when engaged in shared decision making.

Книги з теми "Sharka Disease":

1

Pugliese, Peter T. Devour disease with shark liver oil: Breakthrough discovery can help boost your immune system. Green Bay, WI: IMPAKT Communications, 1999.

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2

Lane, I. William. Sharks still don't get cancer. Garden City Park, N.Y: Avery Pub. Group, 1996.

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3

Brazeau, Stéphanie, and Nicholas H. Ogden, eds. Earth observation, public health and one health: activities, challenges and opportunities. Wallingford: CABI, 2022. http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/9781800621183.0000.

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Abstract This book contains 4 chapters that discuss in the context of both the One Health concept and the SDG initiative, remote sensing can provide solutions to the priority of assessing and monitoring public health risks, and it can play an important role in supporting decision making to reduce health risks within our shared ecosystems. The growing awareness of complex but causal interactions among these realms has motivated professionals in a wide range of sectors to adopt the One Health approach, which promotes intersectoral collaboration to address health issues at the human-animal-environment interface. In its 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, the United Nations specifically identifies "strengthening the capacity of all countries, in particular developing countries, for early warning, risk reduction and management of national and global health risks" as part of their Good Health and Well-being Sustainable Development Goal (SDG). As examples presented in this book reveal, the risk of infectious disease emergence increases with a wide range of conditions and variables, including those associated with humans, animals, climate, and the environment. This book examines several priority themes to which EO and geomatics can make important contributions: mosquito-borne and tick-borne diseases; water-borne diseases; air quality and extreme heat effects; geospatial indicators of vulnerable human populations.
4

Nurses, International Council of. Reducing the impact of HIV/AIDS on nursing and midwifery personnel. Geneva, Switzerland: ICN, International Council of Nurses, 2006.

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5

Nurses, International Council of. Reducing the impact of HIV/AIDS on nursing and midwifery personnel. Geneva, Switzerland: ICN, International Council of Nurses, 2000.

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6

Cummings, Jeffrey L., and Jagan A. Pillai. Neurodegenerative Diseases. Oxford University Press, 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/med/9780190233563.003.0001.

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Neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) are growing in frequency and represent a major threat to public health. Advances in scientific progress have made it clear that NDDs share many underlying processes, including shared intracellular mechanisms such as protein misfolding and aggregation, cell-to-cell prion-like spread, growth factor signaling abnormalities, RNA and DNA disturbances, glial cell changes, and neuronal loss. Transmitter deficits are shared across many types of disorders. Means of studying NDDs with human iPS cells and transgenic models are similar. The progression of NDDs through asymptomatic, prodromal, and manifest stages is shared across disorders. Clinical features of NDDs, including cognitive impairment, disease progression, age-related effects, terminal stages, neuropsychiatric manifestations, and functional disorders and disability, have many common elements. Clinical trials, biomarkers, brain imaging, and regulatory aspects of NDD can share information across NDDs. Disease-modifying and transmitter-based therapeutic interventions, clinical trials, and regulatory approaches to treatments for NDDs are also similar.
7

Lane, William I., and Linda Comac. Sharks Still Don't Get Cancer: The Continuing Story of Shark Cartilage Therapy. Avery, 1996.

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8

Pinkfong. Baby Shark: The Shark Tooth Fairy. HarperCollins Publishers Limited, 2020.

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Hamilton, Sue L. Eaten by a Shark. ABDO Publishing Company, 2021.

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Pinkfong. Baby Shark: Baby Shark and the Balloons. HarperCollins Publishers, 2019.

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Частини книг з теми "Sharka Disease":

1

Borucinska, Joanna, and Gregory Skomal. "Stress Responses, Health, and Diseases of Elasmobranchs." In Biology of Sharks and Their Relatives, 401–19. 3rd ed. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2022. http://dx.doi.org/10.1201/9781003262190-13.

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Safran, Marilyn, Naomi Rosen, Michal Twik, Ruth BarShir, Tsippi Iny Stein, Dvir Dahary, Simon Fishilevich, and Doron Lancet. "The GeneCards Suite." In Practical Guide to Life Science Databases, 27–56. Singapore: Springer Singapore, 2021. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-16-5812-9_2.

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AbstractThe GeneCards® database of human genes was launched in 1997 and has expanded since then to encompass gene-centric, disease-centric, and pathway-centric entities and relationships within the GeneCards Suite, effectively navigating the universe of human biological data—genes, proteins, cells, regulatory elements, biological pathways, and diseases—and the connections among them. The knowledgebase amalgamates information from >150 selected sources related to genes, proteins, ncRNAs, regulatory elements, chemical compounds, drugs, splice variants, SNPs, signaling molecules, differentiation protocols, biological pathways, stem cells, genetic tests, clinical trials, diseases, publications, and more and empowers the suite’s Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), gene set, shared descriptors, and batch query analysis tools.
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Ali, Rania Alhaj, Hussein Halabi, and Hani Almoallim. "Cardiovascular Diseases and Rheumatology." In Skills in Rheumatology, 353–81. Singapore: Springer Singapore, 2021. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-8323-0_16.

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AbstractThe prevalence of various cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in the different rheumatologic disorders is a very important topic. Each disease has a number of unique manifestations despite the fact that an overlap is present due to shared common risk factors, which may be related to the longer life expectancy of the recent therapeutic advances. A growing understanding of the role of inflammation and immune system in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis as well as the early detection of cardiovascular manifestations is due to the availability and use of sophisticated noninvasive cardiac and vascular diagnostic technology. Such discipline results in the detection of cardiac manifestation unique to each rheumatologic disorder. This was not possible previously due to short life expectancy, limited therapeutic interventions, vague understanding of pathological process for each disease, and the limited diagnostic resources.
4

Cohen, Craig R., Rachel L. Steinfeld, Elly Weke, Elizabeth A. Bukusi, Abigail M. Hatcher, Stephen Shiboski, Richard Rheingans, et al. "Chapter 8 Shamba Maisha: Pilot Agricultural Intervention for Food Security and HIV Health Outcomes in Kenya: Design, Methods, Baseline Results and Process Evaluation of a Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial." In Food Insecurity and Disease, 125–58. 3333 Mistwell Crescent, Oakville, ON L6L 0A2, Canada: Apple Academic Press, 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1201/9781315365763-9.

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Guo, Shenghao, Yanni Gu, Jiayin Qu, and Anne Le. "Bridging the Metabolic Parallels Between Neurological Diseases and Cancer." In The Heterogeneity of Cancer Metabolism, 229–48. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2021. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-65768-0_17.

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AbstractDespite the many recent breakthroughs in cancer research, oncology has traditionally been seen as a distinct field from other diseases. Recently, more attention has been paid to repurposing established therapeutic strategies and targets of other diseases towards cancer treatment, with some of these attempts generating promising outcomes [1, 2]. Recent studies using advanced metabolomics technologies [3] have shown evidence of close metabolic similarities between cancer and neurological diseases. These studies have unveiled several metabolic characteristics shared by these two categories of diseases, including metabolism of glutamine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG) [4–6]. The striking metabolic overlap between cancer and neurological diseases sheds light on novel therapeutic strategies for cancer treatment. For example, 2-(phosphonomethyl) pentanedioic acid (2-PMPA), one of the glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCP II) inhibitors that prevent the conversion of NAAG to glutamate, has been shown to suppress cancer growth [6, 7]. These promising results have led to an increased interest in integrating this metabolic overlap between cancer and neurological diseases into the study of cancer metabolism. The advantages of studying this metabolic overlap include not only drug repurposing but also translating existing knowledge from neurological diseases to the field of cancer research. This chapter discusses the specific overlapping metabolic features between cancer and neurological diseases, focusing on glutamine, GABA, and NAAG metabolisms. Understanding the interconnections between cancer and neurological diseases will guide researchers and clinicians to find more effective cancer treatments.
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Fredman, Pam. "To Cohere and Act as One: IAU—The Global Voice of Higher Education." In The Promise of Higher Education, 11–16. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2021. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-67245-4_2.

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AbstractKnowledge and knowledge development have always been essential for the survival and continuing development of humankind. As part of the human condition, people have always adapted to the particularities of local environments which in turn are influenced by global conditions and changes, such as climate change, disease, and armed conflict, among others. Knowledge has, throughout human history, been shared and transferred, and with time ever more extensively across regions and national borders. The basic idea that knowledge has no borders has always been and needs to continue to be a guiding light for higher education (HE). International mobility is part of this knowledge transfer and exchange as it augments our understanding of cultural, structural, and financial differences in the world, which must be considered collectively as our shared global responsibility for sustainable social development. These, as well as other perspectives, will be addressed in the following lines.
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Pires de Campos, Rodrigo, and Saori Kawai. "Japan’s ODA to Developing Countries in the Health Sector: Overall Trend and Future Prospects." In Brazil—Japan Cooperation: From Complementarity to Shared Value, 43–83. Singapore: Springer Nature Singapore, 2022. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-19-4029-3_3.

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AbstractThis chapter identifies the overall trends in Japan’s official development assistance (ODA) policies for the health sector in developing countries from 1990 to 2020 and its future post-COVID-19 prospects. Since the end of the Cold War, watershed events have repeatedly changed the landscape of international cooperation in the health sector. Like other international aid donors, Japan has devised priorities and strategies for ODA based on a set of international and domestic factors in a constantly changing world. Numerous studies on Japan’s ODA have examined international and domestic factors that impact the formulation of the country’s aid policy. This chapter aims to add to those studies by combining recent debates on international cooperation and foreign aid, the right to health, and world health system reforms to explore and analyze Japan’s ODA for health in developing countries. The guiding research questions were as follows: What were the major trends in Japan’s ODA policies in the health sector from 1990 to 2020? Which international health debates and international cooperation factors exerted influence on those trends? What are the prospects of Japan’s ODA given the COVID-19 pandemic and its impacts? The research relied on primary sources, specifically Japan’s ODA official documents and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development’s (OECD) ODA quantitative databases, as well as secondary sources, such as academic literature on international cooperation and foreign aid for health. Our preliminary findings revealed that Japan’s ODA in the health sector from 1990 to 2020 centered on two main axes: infectious diseases and maternal and child health, both of which are oriented toward strengthening the healthcare system. Given this goal, it seems relevant to consider that Japan’s health system is based on the assumption of the need to provide universal health coverage, a concept currently supported by the World Health Organization (WHO), in contrast to the universal health system, and that the implications of this choice on Japan’s ODA and developing countries’ health policies are yet to be fully understood. The COVID-19 pandemic has put substantial pressure on health systems globally and international cooperation for health; thus, it has the potential to affect and even change Japan’s ODA for the health sector in developing countries.
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Loiseau, Claire, Rafael Gutiérrez-López, Bruno Mathieu, Boris K. Makanga, Christophe Paupy, Nil Rahola, and Anthony J. Cornel. "Diversity and Distribution of the Arthropod Vectors of the Gulf of Guinea Oceanic Islands." In Biodiversity of the Gulf of Guinea Oceanic Islands, 383–405. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2022. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-06153-0_15.

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AbstractThe known arthropod vector species on the Gulf of Guinea islands belong to orders Diptera and Ixodida. Among the Diptera, the family Culicidae (mosquitoes) has the most species, 34 (6 endemic), Ceratopogonidae has 13 (all in the genus Culicoides), Tabanidae has 6, and Simuliidae has 3 (1 endemic). Ixodida has only 4 species. Most vector species and associated diseases are shared with mainland Africa. Some of these include (1) the human malaria vector Anopheles coluzzii, (2) yellow fever and dengue vector Aedes aegypti, and (3) the spotted fever group rickettsiae and Q fever vector Amblyomma spp. However, there is a considerable lack of information on the natural cycles of many vector-borne diseases that might impact local fauna, for which there may be some endemic pathogen lineages. Increased trade by air and sea should compel authorities to remain vigilant, to keep unwanted vectors and diseases at bay. Entomological diversity data remains scarce for Annobón and for the forested interior of the islands, where future sampling efforts may uncover new endemic species.
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Stoev, Antoniy. "Plum Pox (Sharka Disease)." In Plant Viruses, 81–96. CRC Press, 2018. http://dx.doi.org/10.1201/b22221-5.

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De Mori, Gloria, Federica Savazzini, and Filippo Geuna. "Molecular tools to investigate Sharka disease in Prunus species." In Applied Plant Biotechnology for Improving Resistance to Biotic Stress, 203–23. Elsevier, 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-816030-5.00010-0.

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Тези доповідей конференцій з теми "Sharka Disease":

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"Functional characterization of drought resistance in peach (Prunus petsica (L.) Batsch) cultivars damaged with Sharka disease." In Current Challenges in Plant Genetics, Genomics, Bioinformatics, and Biotechnology. Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences Novosibirsk State University, 2019. http://dx.doi.org/10.18699/icg-plantgen2019-30.

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Tareq HAMMOODI, Zeyad. "CORONA EPIDEMIC (COVD 19) BETWEEN SHARIA AND MEDICINE." In International Research Congress of Contemporary Studies in Social Sciences (Rimar Congress 2). Rimar Academy, 2021. http://dx.doi.org/10.47832/rimarcongress2-7.

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The Corona epidemic is a wide group of viruses that include viruses that can cause a group of illnesses in humans, ranging from the common cold to severe acute respiratory syndrome, as there is no definitive and specific treatment for the epidemic. The medicines used are helpful and supportive, and they mostly aim to reduce the patient’s temperature with the use of pulmonary resuscitation devices, as the body’s resistance depends on autoimmunity, as it is the main factor in preventing this epidemic, and here we must know the role of medical and forensic scholars in preventing and treating With what appears from this epidemic and other epidemics, we do not know when and how they will appear to the world. The emergence of this disease is an extension of several diseases before it and the so-called (contemporary diseases), which are contagious communicable diseases, including bird flonza disease, swine flonza, sass and AIDS, mad cow disease, Ebola, human papillomavirus, herpes simplex virus, yellow fever, and many others These diseases are epidemic.
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Collar, Giovanna Carello, Marco Antônio De Bastiani, and Eduardo R. Zimmer. "HUNTINGTON’S DISEASE AND EARLYONSET ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE SHARE A TRANSCRIPTOMIC SIGNATURE." In XIII Meeting of Researchers on Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders. Zeppelini Editorial e Comunicação, 2021. http://dx.doi.org/10.5327/1980-5764.rpda082.

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Background: Neurodegenerative diseases share progressive loss of neurons and protein misfolding, which ultimately culminates in dementia; many diseases have been identified as causes of early-onset dementia (< 65 years of age) such as Huntington’s disease (HD) and early-onset Alzheimer’s disease (EOAD). Importantly, disease-specific genetic mutations have already been identified for HD and EOAD. Thus, one could suggest that the molecular link between these diseases may arise from alterations at the transcriptomic level, which is yet to be determined. Objective: We aimed at identifying transcriptome similarities between HD and EOAD. Methods: We collected data of the postmortem cerebral cortex from 1 HD and 6 AD microarray studies in the Gene Expression Omnibus. Of note, only subjects with age at death under 65 were selected (HD: n = 158, controls: n = 158; EOAD: n = 65, controls: n = 266). Differential expression and functional enrichment analyses were performed. Results: We identified 1,260 differentially expressed genes and 675 enriched gene ontology terms between HD and EOAD. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate a transcriptomic signature shared by HD and EOAD. Unveiling the similarities between these diseases at the transcriptomic level could advance our knowledge about pathogenesis and may help to develop therapeutic strategies targeting early-onset dementias.
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Acosta-Herrera, M., M. Kerick, D. Gonzalez-Serna, C. Wijmenga, A. Franke, L. Padyukov, T. Vyse, et al. "OP0283 Cross-disease meta-analysis in four systemic autoimmune diseases to identify shared genetic etiologies." In Annual European Congress of Rheumatology, EULAR 2018, Amsterdam, 13–16 June 2018. BMJ Publishing Group Ltd and European League Against Rheumatism, 2018. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2018-eular.2876.

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5

Ly, Khoi, Aimee Cloutier, and James Yang. "Quantitative Motor Assessment, Detection, and Suppression of Parkinson’s Disease Hand Tremor: A Literature Review." In ASME 2016 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/detc2016-59095.

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Parkinson’s disease (PD) is difficult to detect before the onset of symptoms; further, PD symptoms share characteristics with symptoms of other diseases, making diagnosis of PD a challenging task. Without proper diagnosis and treatment, PD symptoms including tremor, bradykinesia, and cognitive problems deteriorate quickly into patients’ late life. Among them, the most distinguishable manifestations of PD are rest and postural tremor. Tremor is defined as an involuntary shaking or quivering movement of the hands or feet. Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), Hoehn and Yahr (H&Y) scales are the most common rating scales that quantify the severity of PD. Due to the lack of consistency in these diagnostic tests, researchers are looking for devices for quantification and detection that can provide more objective PD motor assessments. Additionally, since there is currently no cure for PD, temporary PD symptom suppression is an active research area for improving patients’ quality of life. In this survey, the current state of research on Parkinson’s disease hand tremor quantification, detection, and suppression is discussed, especially focusing on electromechanical devices. The future direction of research on these devices is also considered.
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Leqi Liu, Jia Tao, Ziyan Yang, and Fadi Towfic. "Shared genetic architecture in autoimmune disease - preliminary analysis." In 2015 IEEE International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedicine (BIBM). IEEE, 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/bibm.2015.7359789.

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7

Teixeira, Lívia, Izabela Conceição, Paulo Caramelli, Marcelo Luizon, and Karina Gomes. "ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE AND TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS: COMMON MIRNAS, GENES AND REGULATORY BIOLOGICAL PATHWAYS." In XIII Meeting of Researchers on Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders. Zeppelini Editorial e Comunicação, 2021. http://dx.doi.org/10.5327/1980-5764.rpda066.

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Background: The increased incidence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) in the 21st century, along with the higher risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in diabetic patients have stimulated the search for pathways that link glycemic disorders to neurodegeneration. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that play key roles in regulating gene expression. Objective: To identify miRNAs, genes and their regulatory pathways in common in AD and T2DM. Methods: Literature search was carried out to find miRNAs commonly expressed in AD and T2DM. MiRTarBase database was used to provide experimentally validated information on the interactions between miRNAs and their target genes. The functional enrichment of molecular pathways differentially regulated by these miRNAs was performed using EnrichR with Reactome gene set annotation. Results: We found six circulating miRNAs commonly expressed in both diseases (hsa-mir-21; hsamir-103a-1; hsa-mir-103a-2; hsa-mir-107; hsa-mir-146a and hsa-mir-144), which regulate 129 target genes. The common pathways between AD and T2DM were related to inflammatory mediators, cell death and axon formation signalling with p-adjust <10-5. Conclusion: Our study provides evidence that AD and T2DM share common pathophysiological mechanisms and regulators miRNAs, and suggests miRNAs as potential markers related to both diseases.
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Schwartz, Michael, Cortnee Stainrod, and Irin Nizam. "Pedestrian Modeling for Mitigation of Disease Transmission in a Simulated University Environment." In 13th International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE 2022). AHFE International, 2022. http://dx.doi.org/10.54941/ahfe1001358.

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Understanding the spread of COVID-19 through mathematical modeling is an effective method of evaluating control interventions and the impact of infectious diseases. It is important to understand how individuals move and gather within indoor spaces as early awareness of specified strategies act as decision-making tools to riskier alternatives. On university campuses, indoor spaces pose unique threats due to high traffic spaces in the building hallways, restrooms and bottleneck points that lead to mass congregation and therefore increased risk of transmission. Evaluation of infectious diseases transmission as a result of pedestrian dynamics (e.g., pedestrian density, crowding, queue and wait times) was used to determine time-varying social distancing during pedestrian interactions/movements. Multiple campus buildings were modeled to demonstrate environments with varying size and complexity. Building models were constructed using the pedestrian features of AnyLogic. The proposed solution makes the following contributions by tracking the control measures of pedestrian dynamics at the microscopic level through temporal and spatial separation. This is done by enforcing social distancing through reducing the number of individual occupants at one time (i.e., segmented student population) and staggering start and end arrival times.The two greatest risk factors in the models were time and space. Entrances and exits to buildings, classrooms, and restrooms, and other queues forced simulated agents to cross the danger threshold as these building features were physical bottlenecks. Model results demonstrated sharp, but brief increases in transmission due to not staggering class arrival and departure times. Results indicated that controlling scheduling or forcing space assignments/social distancing were effective in reducing contacts and risk of spreading disease; however, the greatest reduction in risk of disease transmission occurred when both methods were used in conjunction. When class arrival and departure times are staggered, transmission between people not in the same class is only possible during chance encounters due to restroom visits, late arrivals, or early departures.
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Liu, Feifan, Xiaoyu Zheng, Bo Wang, and Catarina Kiefe. "DeepGeneMD: A Joint Deep Learning Model for Extracting Gene Mutation-Disease Knowledge from PubMed Literature." In Proceedings of The 5th Workshop on BioNLP Open Shared Tasks. Stroudsburg, PA, USA: Association for Computational Linguistics, 2019. http://dx.doi.org/10.18653/v1/d19-5712.

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10

SAM, LEE, YANG LIU, JIANRONG LI, CAROL FRIEDMAN, and YVES A. LUSSIER. "DISCOVERY OF PROTEIN INTERACTION NETWORKS SHARED BY DISEASES." In Proceedings of the Pacific Symposium. WORLD SCIENTIFIC, 2006. http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/9789812772435_0008.

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Звіти організацій з теми "Sharka Disease":

1

Kistler, Harold Corby, and Talma Katan. Identification of DNA Unique to the Tomato Fusarium Wilt and Crown Rot Pathogens. United States Department of Agriculture, September 1995. http://dx.doi.org/10.32747/1995.7571359.bard.

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Wilt and crown rot are two important diseases of tomato caused by different strains ("formae speciales") of the fungus, Fusarium oxysporum. While both pathogens are members of the same fungal species, each differs genetically and resistance to the diseases is controlled by different genes in the plant. Additionally, the formae speciales differ in their ecology (e.g. optimal temperature of disease development) and epidemiology. Nevertheless, the distinction between these diseases based on symptoms alone may be unclear due to overlapping symptomatology. We have found in our research that the ambiguity of the pathogens is further confounded because strains causing tomato wilt or crown rot each may belong to several genetically and phylogenetically distinct lineages of F. oxysporum. Furthermore, individual lineages of the pathogen causing wilt or crown rot may themselves be very closely related. The diseases share the characteristic that the pathogen's inoculum may be aerially dispersed. This work has revealed a complex evolutionary relationship among lineages of the pathogens that makes development of molecular diagnostic methods more difficult than originally anticipated. However, the degree of diversity found in these soil-borne pathogens has allowed study of their population genetics and patterns of dispersal in agricultural settings.
2

Jordan, Ramon L., Abed Gera, Hei-Ti Hsu, Andre Franck, and Gad Loebenstein. Detection and Diagnosis of Virus Diseases of Pelargonium. United States Department of Agriculture, July 1994. http://dx.doi.org/10.32747/1994.7568793.bard.

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Pelargonium (Geranium) is the number one pot plant in many areas of the United States and Europe. Israel and the U.S. send to Europe rooted cuttings, foundation stocks and finished plants to supply a certain share of the market. Geraniums are propagated mainly vegetatively from cuttings. Consequently, viral diseases have been and remain a major threat to the production and quality of the crop. Among the viruses isolated from naturally infected geraniums, 11 are not specific to Pelargonium and occur in other crops while 6 other viruses seem to be limited to geranium. However, several of these viruses are not sufficiently characterized to conclude that they are distinct agents and their nomenclature and taxonomy are confusing. The ability to separate, distinguish and detect the different viruses in geranium will overcome obstacles te developing effective detection and certification schemes. Our focus was to further characterize some of these viruses and develop better methods for their detection and control. These viruses include: isolates of pelargonium line pattern virus (PLPV), pelargonium ringspot virus (PelRSV), pelargonium flower break virus (PFBV), pelargonium leaf curl (PLCV), and tomato ringspot virus (TomRSV). Twelve hybridoma cell lines secreting monoclonal antibodies specific to a geranium isolate of TomRSV were produced. These antibodies are currently being characterized and will be tested for the ability to detect TomRSV in infected geraniums. The biological, biochemical and serological properties of four isometric viruses - PLPV, PelRSV, and PFBV (and a PelRSV-like isolate from Italy called GR57) isolated from geraniums exhibiting line and ring pattern or flower break symptoms - and an isolate ol elderbeny latent virus (ELV; which the literature indicates is the same as PelRSV) have been determined Cloned cDNA copies of the genomic RNAs of these viruses were sequenced and the sizes and locations of predicted viral proteins deduced. A portion of the putative replicase genes was also sequenced from cloned RT-PCR fragments. We have shown that, when compared to the published biochemical and serological properties, and sequences and genome organizations of other small isometric plant viruses, all of these viruses should each be considered new, distinct members of the Carmovirus group of the family Tombusviridae. Hybridization assays using recombinant DNA probes also demonstrated that PLPV, PelRSV, and ELV produce only one subgenomic RNA in infected plants. This unusual property of the gene expression of these three viruses suggests that they are unique among the Carmoviruses. The development of new technologies for the detection of these viruses in geranium was also demonstrated. Hybridization probes developed to PFBV (radioactively-labeled cRNA riboprobes) and to PLPV (non-radioactive digoxigenin-labeled cDNAs) were generally shown to be no more sensitive for the detection of virus in infected plants than the standard ELISA serology-based assays. However, a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay was shown to be over 1000 times more sensitive in detecting PFBV in leaf extracts of infected geranium than was ELISA. This research has lead to a better understanding of the identity of the viruses infecting pelargonium and to the development of new tools that can be used in an improved scheme of providing virus-indexed pelargonium plants. The sequence information, and the serological and cloned DNA probes generated from this work, will allow the application of these new tools for virus detection, which will be useful in domestic and international indexing programs which are essential for the production of virus-free germplasm both for domestic markets and the international exchange of plant material.
3

Subramaniam, Ramesh, Alfredo Perdiguero, Jason Rush, and Pamela Asis-Layugan, eds. Policy Actions for COVID-19 Economic Recovery: A Compendium of Policy Briefs. Asian Development Bank, July 2021. http://dx.doi.org/10.22617/spr210233-2.

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The Policy Actions for COVID-19 Economic Recovery (PACER) Dialogues were held from June to September 2020 as the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic accelerated around the world. They shared cutting-edge knowledge and best practices to help countries in Southeast Asia and the People’s Republic of China strengthen cooperation to mitigate the devastating effects of COVID-19 and accelerate their economic recovery. This compendium of 13 policy briefs summarizes the discussions, recommendations, and actionable insights from the PACER Dialogues.
4

Thompson, Joseph. How WASH Programming has Adapted to the COVID-19 Pandemic. Institute of Development Studies (IDS), December 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.19088/slh.2021.001.

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Since first appearing at the end of 2019, the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has spread at a pace and scale not seen before. On 11 March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 a pandemic. A rapid response was called for, and actors across the globe worked quickly to develop sets of preventative measures to contain the disease. One mode of transmission identified early on in the crisis was via surfaces and objects (fomites) (Howard et al. 2020). To combat this, hand hygiene was put forward as a key preventative measure and heralded as ‘the first line of defence against the disease’ (World Bank 2020). What followed was an unprecedented global focus on handwashing with soap. Health messages on how germs spread, the critical times at which hands should be washed, and methods for correct handwashing were shared (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2020). Political leaders around the world promoted handwashing and urged people to adopt the practice to protect against the coronavirus. The primary and secondary impacts of COVID-19 have affected people and industries in a variety of different ways. For the WASH sector, the centring of handwashing in the pandemic response has led to a sudden spike in hygiene activity. This SLH Rapid Topic Review takes stock of some of the cross-cutting challenges the sector has been facing during this period and explores the adaptations that have been made in response. It then looks forwards, thinking through what lies ahead for the sector, and considers the learning priorities for the next steps.
5

Thompson, Joseph. How WASH Programming has Adapted to the COVID-19 Pandemic. The Sanitation Learning Hub, Institute of Development Studies, December 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.19088/slh.2021.0015.

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Since first appearing at the end of 2019, the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has spread at a pace and scale not seen before. On 11 March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 a pandemic. A rapid response was called for, and actors across the globe worked quickly to develop sets of preventative measures to contain the disease. One mode of transmission identified early on in the crisis was via surfaces and objects (fomites) (Howard et al. 2020). To combat this, hand hygiene was put forward as a key preventative measure and heralded as ‘the first line of defence against the disease’ (World Bank 2020). What followed was an unprecedented global focus on handwashing with soap. Health messages on how germs spread, the critical times at which hands should be washed, and methods for correct handwashing were shared (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2020). Political leaders around the world promoted handwashing and urged people to adopt the practice to protect against the coronavirus. The primary and secondary impacts of COVID-19 have affected people and industries in a variety of different ways. For the WASH sector, the centring of handwashing in the pandemic response has led to a sudden spike in hygiene activity. This SLH Rapid Topic Review takes stock of some of the cross-cutting challenges the sector has been facing during this period and explores the adaptations that have been made in response. It then looks forwards, thinking through what lies ahead for the sector, and considers the learning priorities for the next steps.
6

Leather, James, and Noel Chavez. COVID-19 and Transport in Asia and the Pacific: Guidance Note. Asian Development Bank, January 2021. http://dx.doi.org/10.22617/tim200398.

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The unprecedented impact of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has caused enormous changes to the transport landscape in developing Asia and the Pacific region. This guidance note documents how COVID-19 has affected and is continuing to affect transport operators and users across the region, from personal mobility choices to public transport, to the aviation industry, among many other facets. Insights are also shared on how the transport sector can help deliver greener and more resilient infrastructure as countries around the world plan for recovery and rejuvenation in the post-pandemic future. It is one of a series produced by the Asian Development Bank for key sectors and thematic areas.
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Brayton, Kelly A., Varda Shkap, Guy H. Palmer, Wendy C. Brown, and Thea Molad. Control of Bovine Anaplasmosis: Protective Capacity of the MSP2 Allelic Repertoire. United States Department of Agriculture, January 2014. http://dx.doi.org/10.32747/2014.7699838.bard.

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Anaplasmosis is an arthropod-borne disease of cattle caused by the rickettsia Anaplasmamarginale and is an impediment to efficient production of healthy livestock in both Israel and the United States. Currently, the only effective vaccines are derived from the blood of infected cattle. The risk of widespread transmission of both known and newly emergent pathogens has prevented licensure of live blood-based vaccines in the U.S. and is a major concern for their continued use in Israel. Consequently, development of a safe, effective vaccine is a high priority. Despite its drawbacks as a live, blood-based vaccine, the Israel vaccine strain protects against disease upon challenge with wild-type A. marginale in extensive experimental trials and during 50 years of deployment in Israel. Field studies in Australia and Argentina indicate that this protection is broadly effective. Thus, to identify antigens for development of a safe and effective recombinant vaccine, we have used a comparative genomics approach by sequencing the Israel vaccine strain and searching for shared surface antigens with sequenced wild-type U.S. strains. We have focused on Msp2, the immune-dominant but antigenically variable surface protein, based on shared structure among strains and demonstration that antibody from cattle immunized with the Israel vaccine strain binds Msp2 from the genetically and geographically distinct U.S. St. Maries strain, consistent with the ability to protect against St. Maries challenge. Importantly, we have defined the full repertoire of Msp2 simple variants encoded by the vaccine strain and hypothesize that a recombinant vaccine encoding this full repertoire will induce protection equivalent to that induced by the live vaccine strain. Any escape from immunity by generation of complex Msp2 variants is predicted to carry a severe fitness cost that prevents high-level bacteremia and disease— consistent with the type of protection induced by the live vaccine strain. We tested the hypothesis that the Msp2 simple variant repertoires in wild-type A. marginale strains are recognized by antibody from cattle immunized with the Israel vaccine strain and that immunization with the vaccine strain Msp2 repertoire can recapitulate the protection provided by the vaccine strain upon challenge with Israel and U.S. strains of A. marginale. Our findings demonstrate that a set of conserved outer membrane proteins are recognized by immune serum from A. centrale vaccinated animals but that this set of proteins does not include Msp2. These findings suggest that “subdominant” immunogens are required for vaccine induced protection.
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Walker, Jo, Matthew Martin, Emma Seery, Nabil Abdo, Anthony Kamande, and Max Lawson. The Commitment to Reducing Inequality Index 2022. Development Finance International, Oxfam, October 2022. http://dx.doi.org/10.21201/2022.9325.

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The 2022 Commitment to Reducing Inequality (CRI) Index is the first detailed analysis published looking at governments’ policies and actions to fight inequality during the first two years of the pandemic. This fourth edition of the CRI Index reviews the spending, tax and labour policies and actions of 161 governments during 2020–2022. COVID-19 has increased inequality worldwide, as the poorest people were hit hardest by both the disease and its profound economic impacts. Yet the CRI 2022 Index shows clearly that most of the world’s governments failed to mitigate this dangerous rise in inequality. Despite the biggest global health emergency in a century, half of low-and lower-middle-income countries saw the share of health spending fall during the pandemic, half of the countries tracked by the CRI Index cut the share of social protection spending, 70% cut the share of education spending, while two-thirds of countries failed to increase their minimum wage in line with gross domestic product (GDP). Ninety-five percent of countries failed to increase taxation of the richest people and corporations. At the same time, a small group of governments from across the world bucked this trend, taking clear actions to combat inequality, putting the rest of the world to shame. See also the CRI Index website: www.inequalityindex.org
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Gutnick, David, and David L. Coplin. Role of Exopolysaccharides in the Survival and Pathogenesis of the Fire Blight Bacterium, Erwinia amylovora. United States Department of Agriculture, September 1994. http://dx.doi.org/10.32747/1994.7568788.bard.

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Fireblight, a disease of apples and pears, is caused by Erwinia amylovora. Mutants of E. amylovora that do not produce the extreacellular polysaccharide (EPS), amylovoran, are avirulent. A similar EPS, stewartan, is produced by E. stewartii, which caused Stewart's wilt of corn, and which has also been implicated in the virulence of this strain. Both stewartan and amylovoran are type 1 capsular polysaccharides, typified by the colanic acid slime produced by Escherichia coli. Extracellular polysaccharide slime and capsules are important for the virulence of bacterial pathogens of plants and animals and to enhance their survival and dissemination outside of the host. The goals of this project were to examine the importance of polysaccharide structure on the pathogenicity and survival properties of three pathogenic bacteria: Erwinia amylovora, Erwinia stewartii and Escherichia coli. The project was a collaboration between the laboratories of Dr. Gutnick (PI, E. coli genetics and biochemistry), Dr. Coplin (co-PI, E. stewartii genetics) and Dr. Geider (unfunded collaborator, E. amylovora genetics and EPS analysis). Structural analysis of the EPSs, sequence analysis of the biosynthetic gene clusters and site-directed mutagenesis of individual cps and ams genes revealed that the three gene clusters shared common features for polysaccharide polymerization, translocation, and precursor synthesis as well as in the modes of transcriptional regulation. Early EPS production resulted in decreased virulence, indicating that EPS, although required for pathogenicity, is anot always advantageous and pathogens must regulate its production carefully.
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Rao, Krishna D., Andrés I. Vecino Ortiz, Tim Roberton, Angélica Lopez Hernandez, and Caitlin Noonan. Open configuration options Future Health Spending in Latin America and the Caribbean: Health Expenditure Projections & Scenario Analysis. Inter-American Development Bank, April 2022. http://dx.doi.org/10.18235/0004185.

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Latin American and Caribbean countries will face significant increases in future health expenditures. A variety of factors are responsible - population growth and aging, the epidemiological transition to noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), and economic growth and technology, among others. Increasing health expenditures are particularly concerning to countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) given growing levels of debt, insufficient fiscal revenues, and high out-of-pocket payments. The projected average annual per capita CHE growth rate from 2018-2050 is slightly higher in Latin American countries (3.2%) than in the Caribbean (2.4%). The share of health expenditure in GDP is projected to increase to 2030 in all LAC countries except for Guyana. The effect of demographics and epidemiology on health spending growth are more modest. Among strategies to control NCD risk factors, a focus on hypertension control generally had the strongest effect on restraining CHE growth except in countries where smoking is particularly prevalent. The main driver of health expenditure growth is economic growth and technology, demonstrating the importance of adopting policies such as explicit prioritization systems and benefit plans that establish common rules for payers and providers that encourage cost-effective decisions. The underlying model for making projections and analyzing alternative scenarios is publicly available.

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