Добірка наукової літератури з теми "Sheep Physiology"

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Статті в журналах з теми "Sheep Physiology":

1

Diven, R. H., R. E. Reed, and W. J. Pistor. "THE PHYSIOLOGY OF NITRITE POISONING IN SHEEP*." Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 111, no. 2 (December 2006): 638–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1964.tb53131.x.

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2

Ahmad Pampori, Zahoor, Aasif Ahmad Sheikh, Ovais Aarif, Dilruba Hasin, and Irfan Ahmad Bhat. "Physiology of reproductive seasonality in sheep – an update." Biological Rhythm Research 51, no. 4 (December 2018): 586–98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09291016.2018.1548112.

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3

Fortune, J. A. "Reproductive physiology of Merino sheep: Concepts and consequences." Animal Reproduction Science 30, no. 4 (January 1993): 335–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-4320(93)90083-4.

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4

Morand, C., C. Yacoub, C. Remesy, and C. Demigne. "Characterization of glucagon and catecholamine effects on isolated sheep hepatocytes." American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 255, no. 4 (October 1988): R539—R546. http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.1988.255.4.r539.

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The purpose of this study was to characterize the glycogenolytic response to catecholamines and glucagon in isolated sheep hepatocytes. In this species, epinephrine appeared to exert its action on hepatic glycogenolysis by altering the cytosolic concentrations of both adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) and Ca2+. In contrast to results obtained in rat hepatocytes, glucagon failed to induce a rise in free cytosolic Ca2+ in sheep liver. Experiments on isolated hepatocytes or on liver plasma membranes showed that in sheep, glucagon was more efficient than epinephrine in promoting the production of cAMP. In the presence of glucagon or epinephrine, the activation of the glycogen phosphorylase a always appeared greater in sheep than in rat liver cells, whereas the variations in cellular cAMP were quite limited in sheep. The alpha 1- and beta-agonists (phenylephrine and isoproterenol) were alone as efficient as epinephrine in promoting phosphorylase a activation in sheep hepatocytes. All these results indicate the existence in sheep liver of a glycogen phosphorylase highly responsive to hormones.
5

Snapper, J. R., and P. L. Lefferts. "Effects of aerosol histamine and carbachol on central and peripheral airflow resistance in sheep." Journal of Applied Physiology 61, no. 2 (August 1986): 760–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1986.61.2.760.

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Sixteen anesthetized artificially ventilated open-chest sheep were prepared with retrograde catheters to allow for measurement of dynamic compliance of the lungs (Cdyn), total airflow resistance of the lungs (RL), and central (Rc) and peripheral (Rp) airflow resistance. Twelve sheep received aerosol histamine and 12 sheep received aerosol carbachol. Eight sheep received and responded to both aerosol histamine and aerosol carbachol. Three sheep received both aerosol histamine and aerosol carbachol but failed to respond to both agents. Under base-line conditions, for the 16 sheep, 69% of total RL was located in the peripheral component, Rp, and 31% in the central component, Rc. Aerosol histamine caused only peripheral small airway changes while aerosol carbachol predominantly effected the central large airways. When aerosol histamine responsiveness, defined using Cdyn or Rp, was compared to aerosol carbachol responsiveness using Rc, a correlation was demonstrable (r = 0.84, n = 8, P less than 0.05). It is possible in sheep to cause relatively pure peripheral small airway and relatively pure central large airway changes by using different bronchoconstrictor agents. Aerosol histamine and aerosol carbachol responsiveness correlated with each other in these artificially ventilated anesthetized sheep.
6

Owens, J. A., J. Falconer, and J. S. Robinson. "Glucose metabolism in pregnant sheep when placental growth is restricted." American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 257, no. 2 (August 1989): R350—R357. http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.1989.257.2.r350.

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The effect of restricting placental growth on glucose metabolism in pregnant sheep in late gestation was determined by primed constant infusions of D-[U-14C]- and D-[2-3H]glucose and antipyrine into fetuses of six control sheep and six sheep from which endometrial caruncles had been removed before pregnancy (caruncle sheep). In the latter, placental and fetal weights were reduced, as was the concentration of glucose in fetal arterial blood. Fetal glucose turnover in caruncle sheep was only 52-59% of that in controls, largely because of lower umbilical loss of glucose back to the placenta (38-39% of control) and lower fetal glucose utilization (61-74% of control). However, fetal glucose utilization on a weight-specific basis was similar in control and caruncle sheep. Significant endogenous glucose production occurred in control and caruncle fetal sheep. Maternal glucose production and partition of glucose between the gravid uterus and other maternal tissues were similar in control and caruncle sheep. In conclusion, when placental and fetal growth are restricted, fetal glucose utilization is maintained by reduced loss of glucose back to the placenta and mother and by maintaining endogenous glucose production.
7

Coggeshall, J. W., B. W. Christman, P. L. Lefferts, W. E. Serafin, I. A. Blair, M. J. Butterfield, and J. R. Snapper. "Effect of inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase metabolism of arachidonic acid on response to endotoxemia in sheep." Journal of Applied Physiology 65, no. 3 (September 1988): 1351–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1988.65.3.1351.

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We studied the effects of a 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, L-651,192, on the pulmonary dysfunction caused by endotoxemia in chronically instrumented unanesthetized sheep. The efficacy and selectivity of L-651,392 were tested by measuring in vivo production of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and cyclooxygenase products of arachidonic acid after endotoxemia before and after pretreatment with L-651,392 and ex vivo from granulocytes and whole blood stimulated with calcium ionophore from sheep before and 24 h after pretreatment with L-651,392. A novel assay for LTB4 by high-performance liquid chromatography/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry techniques was developed as a measure of 5-lipoxygenase metabolism of arachidonic acid. L-651,392 proved to be an effective in vivo 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor in sheep. L-651,392 blocked the increase in LTB4 observed in lung lymph after endotoxemia in vivo in sheep as well as inhibited by 80% the ex vivo production of LTB4 by granulocytes removed from sheep treated 24 h earlier with L-651,392. Although L-651,392 blocked the increase in cyclooxygenase products of arachidonic acid observed in lung lymph after endotoxemia in vivo in sheep, the drug probably did not function directly as a cyclooxygenase inhibitor. L-651,392 did not attenuate the ex vivo production of thromboxane B2 by whole blood from sheep treated 24 h earlier with the drug. L-651,392 attenuated the alterations in pulmonary hemodynamics, lung mechanics, oxygenation, and lung fluid and solute exchange observed after endotoxemia in sheep. We speculate that 5-lipoxygenase products are a major stimulus for cyclooxygenase metabolism of arachidonic acid after endotoxemia in sheep.
8

Pearse, D. B., E. M. Wagner, and J. T. Sylvester. "Edema clearance in isolated sheep lungs." Journal of Applied Physiology 74, no. 1 (January 1993): 126–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1993.74.1.126.

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Edema may be cleared from the lung by lymphatic drainage, transudation across the visceral pleural, vascular reabsorption, and movement into the mediastinum. To determine the quantity and mechanisms of edema clearance associated with spontaneous edema formation in isolated sheep lungs, we perfused six lungs for 180 min with blood (100 ml.kg-1.min-1) at subatmospheric left atrial pressure (Pla) from a weighed reservoir. In six other lungs, Pla was increased to 20 mmHg at 30–75 min to further augment edema. Fluid drainage from the lung was fractionated into blood and water components by serial measurements of drainage and perfusate hematocrit. Changes in weight of circulating intravascular blood and extravascular lung water (EVLW) were also directly measured by dye dilution and standard gravimetric techniques, respectively. From these measurements, we calculated that 3.04 +/- 0.53 g/g blood-free dry lung of water filtered into the extravascular space during perfusion. Of this amount, 42% was reabsorbed into the pulmonary vasculature; 18% drained from the lung via lymphatics, visceral pleura, and mediastinum; and 40% was retained in the lung. Compared with low Pla lungs, transient elevation of Pla increased lung hemorrhage and the final change in reservoir weight, but the quantity and clearance of cumulative filtered water and the final values of EVLW and wet-to-dry weight ratio (WW/DW) were not altered. These results suggest that 1) significant edema clearance occurred in isolated sheep lungs, primarily by vascular reabsorption, and 2) measurements of EVLW and WW/DW under-estimated injury in the presence of lung hemorrhage and significant edema clearance.
9

Julien, M., J. M. Hoeffel, and M. R. Flick. "Oleic acid lung injury in sheep." Journal of Applied Physiology 60, no. 2 (February 1986): 433–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1986.60.2.433.

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Intravenous infusion of oleic acid into experimental animals causes acute lung injury resulting in pulmonary edema. We investigated the mechanism of oleic acid lung injury in sheep. In experiments with anesthetized and unanesthetized sheep with lung lymph fistulas, we measured pulmonary arterial and left atrial pressures, cardiac output, lung lymph flow, and lymph and plasma protein concentrations. We injured the lungs with intravenous infusions of oleic acid at doses ranging from 0.015 to 0.120 ml/kg. We found that oleic acid caused reproducible dose-related increases in pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance, arterial hypoxemia, and increased protein-rich lung lymph flow and extravascular lung water. The lung fluid balance changes were characteristic of increased permeability pulmonary edema. Infusion of the esterified fat triolein had no hemodynamic or lung fluid balance effects. Depletion of leukocytes with a nitrogen mustard or platelets with an antiplatelet serum had no effect on oleic acid lung injury. Treatment of sheep before injury with methylprednisolone 30 mg/kg or ibuprofen 12.5–15.0 mg/kg also had no effects. Unlike other well-characterized sheep lung injuries, injury caused by oleic acid does not require participation of leukocytes.
10

Bujok, Jolanta, Tomasz Walski, Albert Czerski, Katarzyna Gałecka, Karolina Grzeszczuk-Kuć, Wojciech Zawadzki, Wojciech Witkiewicz, and Małgorzata Komorowska. "Sheep model of haemodialysis treatment." Laboratory Animals 52, no. 2 (July 2017): 176–85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0023677217718861.

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More than two million patients received haemodialysis (HD) in 2013. Many methods for improving dialysis therapy outcomes have been tested. Nevertheless, patients continue to experience high morbidity and mortality rates. We aimed to develop an animal model of HD treatment to study methods that would prevent the adverse effects of renal replacement therapy. The study was conducted using six male Merino sheep. The animals underwent a two-step bilateral nephrectomy, and a permanent dual-lumen catheter was inserted into the jugular vein. In each animal, 10 short, daily HD treatments were conducted. The dialysis prescription was adjusted individually to each animal. Measures of dialysis adequacy (spKt/V and urea reduction ratio [URR]) were calculated for each HD treatment. All animals remained in a good clinical state during the experiment. However, a sustained decrease in red blood cell count was detected. The average URR was 0.65 ± 0.01, whereas the calculated spKt/V was approximately 1.16 ± 0.03. Neither hyperphosphataemia nor a significant decline in serum albumin concentrations were detected during the study. A sustained increase in serum potassium concentrations was detected on consecutive days of the experiment. All sheep survived the treatment and were euthanized at the end of the experiment. In conclusion, we developed a reproducible sheep model of HD treatment. The gentle nature and specific anatomical features of sheep provided easy blood access and allowed us to perform HD without pharmacological intervention. However, some differences in sheep physiology relative to human physiology must be considered when interpreting the results of the study.

Дисертації з теми "Sheep Physiology":

1

Hopkins, John. "Lymphoid physiology of the sheep." Electronic Thesis or Diss., University of Edinburgh, 2000. http://hdl.handle.net/1842/29805.

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The aim of this thesis is to bring together and summarize the results of twenty-five years of active research into the immunology and physiology of the mammalian lymphoid system using the sheep as the model species. For this work I have exploited the cannulation of peripheral lymphatics, which enables the monitoring of lymph, lymphocytes and dendritic cells that are constantly trafficking from the skin or from lymph nodes. The use of this technique in the sheep permits access to large numbers of lymph-borne cells over extensive periods and in a form far closer to their in vivo non-activated state than from any other species. I have organized the publications into four distinct, but interrelated chapters. Chapter 1 is concerned with the physiology of sheep lymphoid cells and describes the use of the cannulated lymphatic model to answer fundamental questions of lymphoid biology. My earliest work was focused on the non-random migration of lymphocytes and the identification of two lymphocyte populations; one associated with the gastrointestinal tract and other mucosal organs and the other with peripheral lymph nodes and the spleen. Later work identified two separate populations of B cells with distinct recirculation properties and also concentrated on the lymph node response to antigen and the role played by antigen in modulating lymphocyte recirculation. Much of my work in the last few years has been concerned with the biology of dendritic cells (DCs), the cell population uniquely able to induce the primary immune response. The "pseudo-afferent" cannulation system in sheep is, arguably the best system for this study, as the isolation procedure does not lead to aberrant changes in cell phenotype and function. Chapter 2 relates the work to characterize the sheep immune system, in order to exploit further the sheep as a species for immunological study. Much of my efforts involved the production and characterization of anti-sheep MHC and CD1 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). This resulted in the generation of monoclonal reagents that are now the standards used to define the ovine/bovine homologues of MHC class I, and class II and CD1.
2

Falchi, Laura. "Transcervical artificial insemination and physiology of the cervix of the sheep." Electronic Thesis or Diss., Royal Veterinary College (University of London), 2010. http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.558963.

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3

Nicholls, C. D. "Endoscopy, physiology and bacterial flora of sheep infected with abomasal nematodes." Electronic Thesis or Diss., University of Leeds, 1987. http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.377967.

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4

Morrow, Robert James. "Blood flow velocity changes in the umbilical artery of the fetal sheep." Electronic Thesis or Diss., Queen's University Belfast, 1988. http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.356870.

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5

Mamo, John Charles Louis. "Plasma lipoprotein triacylglycerol metabolism in sheep : a thesis submitted to the University of Adelaide in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy." Title page, contents and introduction only, 1986. http://web4.library.adelaide.edu.au/theses/09PH/09phm265.pdf.

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6

Yarney, Thaddeus A. "Sexual maturational changes in the pituitary and testes of ram lambs and predictability of adult reproductive function." Electronic Thesis or Diss., McGill University, 1985. http://digitool.Library.McGill.CA:80/R/?func=dbin-jump-full&object_id=72049.

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Spring-born ram lambs were used to examine: (1) sexual maturational changes in LH, FSH and prolactin (PRL) secretion, testicular gonadotropin receptors, and testicular size and function; (2) predictability of yearling ram reproductive function from juvenile testicular size and reproductive hormone measurements. Despite continuous increases in testis size, serum LH-profile characteristics became greatest between 2 and 4 months and declined thereafter. However, LH-peak frequency increased by about 2-fold between 6 and 7 months; this was associated with marked increases in testosterone (T) secretion and spermatogenic function. Mean FSH and PRL levels were maximum at 2 months and 3 to 5 months, respectively, and decreased thereafter. Increases in steroidogenic and spermatogenic function were due partly to increases in testicular content of LH and FSH receptors. Yearling ram testis size and spermatogenic function were predictable from testis size at 5 to 6 months, neonatal (50 days) secretion of LH and T, and pubertal (150 days) secretion of T. However, combinations of testicular size and reproductive hormone measurements provided greater predictive power.
7

Swinburne, Sarah Jane. "A study of the molecular and biological characteristics of ovine interleukin-12." Title page, contents and summary only, 2000. http://web4.library.adelaide.edu.au/theses/09PH/09phs9777.pdf.

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Bibliography: leaves 172-214. Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a heterodimeric cytokine composed of two disulphide-linked subunits, p35 and p40, which form biologically active p70. IL-12 is able to induce IFN-y production from T and NK cells, and promote the proliferation of mitogen-activated T cells. It is thought that IL-12 may be an important cytokine in the initiation and progression of allograft destruction. This thesis describes the characterisation of ovine IL-12.
8

Vasquez, Hidalgo Manuel Alexander. "Effects of Nutrient Restriction, Realimentation, and Twinning on Plasma Volume, Umbilical Hemodynamics and Placental Characteristics in the Pregnant Adolescent Ewe." Text/dissertation, North Dakota State University, 2019. https://hdl.handle.net/10365/31573.

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Reproductive physiology in production animals is a key economic component of longevity and profitability of animal farming. There are several components that can benefit or compromise adequate pregnancy periods. Sheep production is not only a very important economic activity for farmers around the United States, but sheep are also an important medical and surgical model to study human diseases. Our findings suggest that estradiol-17 beta could be involved in acute increased plasma volume early in gestation which can benefit overall gestation. We report that umbilical blood flow decreases upon nutrient restriction in adolescent ewes and does not recover upon realimentation. Finally, we suggest that a similar umbilical blood flow, placental development and plasma volume expansion in twins and singleton pregnancies could be enough to obtain similar birthweights in singletons and twins.
9

Schoombee, Cornelius Johan Albertus. "The Damara sheep : an appraisal of its reproductive performance and potential." Thesis, Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 1998. http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/5481.

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10

Ross, Jacob T. "Hypophysial and local mediators of adrenocortical growth and function before birth /." Title page, contents and summary only, 2000. http://web4.library.adelaide.edu.au/theses/09PH/09phr8242.pdf.

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Книги з теми "Sheep Physiology":

1

Butterfield, Rex M. New concepts of sheep growth. Sydney: Published by the Dept. of Veterinary Anatomy, University of Sydney, 1988.

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2

Grist, A. Ovine meat inspection: Anatomy, physiology, and disease conditions. Nottingham, U.K: Nottingham University Press, 2010.

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3

Hewat, Tim. The Florey: The story of the Sheep Hilton. North Ryde, NSW, Australia: Angus & Robertson, 1989.

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4

Mason, B. D. Nutrition guide for B.C. sheep producers. [Victoria, B.C.?]: Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Agriculture and Food, 1985.

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5

Sharpe, Ann. Studies in perinatal lamb mortality in prolific sheep. Dublin: University College Dublin, 1998.

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6

Winter, Agnes C. A handbook for the sheep clinician. 7th ed. Oxfordshire: CAB International, 2012.

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7

Swanson, Janice C. Stress in sheep and goats: January 1979 - August 1990. Beltsville, Md: National Agricultural Library, 1990.

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8

Motyl, Tomasz. Synteza kwasu orotowego w wątrobie oraz jego wydalanie u zwierząt przeżuwających. Warszawa: Wydawn. SGGW-AR, 1987.

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9

Kania, Bogdan Feliks. Modulujący wpływ podwzgórza oraz opioidów na motorykę przedżołądków u owcy. Warszawa: Wydawn. SGGW, 1992.

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10

Tortora, Gerard J. A photographic atlas of the human body: With selected cat, sheep, and cow dissections. 2nd ed. [Hoboken, N.J.]: Wiley, 2004.

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Частини книг з теми "Sheep Physiology":

1

Rousseau, J. P., A. Marie, and M. Falempin. "6. Afferent Vagal Traffic in Conscious Sheep." In Aspects of Digestive Physiology in Ruminants, edited by Marjorie J. Dobson, 123–39. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2019. http://dx.doi.org/10.7591/9781501745713-008.

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2

McKinley, M. J., D. A. Denton, M. Leventer, R. R. Miselis, R. G. Park, E. Tarjan, J. B. Simpsom, and R. S. Weisinger. "Adipsia in Sheep Caused by Cerebral Lesions." In The Physiology of Thirst and Sodium Appetite, 321–26. Boston, MA: Springer US, 1986. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4757-0366-5_41.

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3

Sutherland, T. M. "3. Particle Separation in the Forestomachs of Sheep." In Aspects of Digestive Physiology in Ruminants, edited by Marjorie J. Dobson, 43–73. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2019. http://dx.doi.org/10.7591/9781501745713-005.

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4

Weisinger, R. S., D. A. Denton, M. J. McKinley, J. B. Simpson, and E. Tarjan. "Cerebral Na Sensors and Na Appetite of Sheep." In The Physiology of Thirst and Sodium Appetite, 485–90. Boston, MA: Springer US, 1986. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4757-0366-5_64.

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5

Sheldrick, E. L., and A. P. F. Flint. "Secretion of Oxytocin by the Corpus Luteum and its Role in Luteolysis in the Sheep." In Endocrinology and Physiology of Reproduction, 211–19. Boston, MA: Springer US, 1987. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4899-1971-7_17.

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6

Sumar, Julio. "Reproductive physiology in South American Camelids." In Genetics of Reproduction in Sheep, 81–95. Elsevier, 1985. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-407-00302-6.50012-x.

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7

FOSTER, D., and L. JACKSON. "Puberty in the Sheep." In Knobil and Neill's Physiology of Reproduction, 2127–76. Elsevier, 2006. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/b978-012515400-0/50044-0.

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8

Foster, Douglas L., and Stanley M. Hileman. "Puberty in the Sheep." In Knobil and Neill's Physiology of Reproduction, 1441–85. Elsevier, 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-397175-3.00031-4.

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9

RAJKOVIC, A., S. PANGAS, and M. MATZUK. "Follicular DevelopmentMouse, Sheep, and Human Models." In Knobil and Neill's Physiology of Reproduction, 383–423. Elsevier, 2006. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/b978-012515400-0/50015-4.

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10

Medjekal, Samir, and Mouloud Ghadbane. "Sheep Digestive Physiology and Constituents of Feeds." In Sheep Farming - An Approach to Feed, Growth and Health. IntechOpen, 2021. http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.92054.

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Sheep have a gastrointestinal tract similar to that of other ruminants. Their stomach is made up of four digestive organs: the rumen, the reticulum, the omasum and the abomasum. The rumen plays a role in storing ingested foods, which are fermented by a complex anaerobic rumen microbiota population with different types of interactions, positive or negative, that can occur between their microbial populations. Sheep feeding is largely based on the use of natural or cultivated fodder, which is exploited in green by grazing during the growth period of the grass and in the form of fodder preserved during the winter period. Ruminant foods are essentially of plant origin, and their constituents belong to two types of structures: intracellular constituents and cell wall components. Cellular carbohydrates play a role of metabolites or energy reserves; soluble carbohydrates account for less than 10% dry matter (DM) of foods. The plant cell wall is multi-layered and consists of primary wall and secondary wall. Fundamentally, the walls are deposited at an early stage of growth. A central blade forms the common boundary layer between two adjacent cells and occupies the location of the cell plate. Most of the plant cell walls consist of polysaccharides (cellulose, hemicellulose and pectic substances) and lignin, these constituents being highly polymerized, as well as proteins and tannins.

Тези доповідей конференцій з теми "Sheep Physiology":

1

Filippi, J. F., D. Arnoux, N. Tubiana, B. Boutière, F. Le Caär, J. Sampol, Lab Hématol, Pr J. Sampol, and Pr Y. Carcassonne. "PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR ACTIVITY OF NORMAL AND MALIGNANT MONONUCLEAR HUMAN CELLS." In XIth International Congress on Thrombosis and Haemostasis. Schattauer GmbH, 1987. http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0038-1643167.

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Plasminogen activators (PA) are thought to play a role in the invasive and metastatic properties of many types of cancer cells. Though, discrepancies in correlations between fibrinolytic activity and metastatic potential of malignant cells have been described.In this study, we evaluated both tissue type (tPA) and urokinase type (UK) cellular PA activities in different mononuclear cell types : normal T and B human peripheral lymphocytes, B cells from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), human blood monocytes, alveolar macrophages, U 937, RAJI and JM cell 1ines.Mononuclear cells were isolated by Ficoll-hypaque gradients and monocytes by plastic adhesion. T and B cells were separated by a rosetting technique using sheep red blood cells. Cellular extracts were prepared by 0.5 % Triton X 100 buffer treatment followed by sonication and centrifugation 10 ' at 2000 g. PA assays were performed on the supernatants.UK-type PA was evaluated by a liquid-phase assay in presence of human plasminogen (Kabi) and chromogenic substrate S 2251 (Kabi).tPA was determinated using a solid-phase fibrin activity assay which involves an affinity separation step and thus allows selective detection of tPA.In both cases, results were reported in international units by reference to standard curves of UK (Choay) or tPA (Kabi).In all cell types tested, PA detected was essentially urokinase-type. Highest PA activity was found in U 937 cells (0.7 IU/5×l06 cells). In normal blood lymphocytes, mean PA activity was 0.08 IU/5×l06 cells. Examination of lymphocytes from patients with CLL revealed a marked decrease in UK activity as compared to normals (< 0.01 IU/5×106 cells in more than 50 % cases).The function of PA in normal lymphocyte physiology and the potential pathogenic role of diminished PA in CLL lymphocytes remains to be investigated.
2

Yu, Jing, Yichen Ding, Arash Abiri, Parinaz Abiri, Juhyun Lee, Chih-Chiang Chang, Kyung In Baek, Rene Packard, and Tzung Hsiai. "Integrating 4-d light-sheet imaging with interactive virtual reality to recapitulate developmental cardiac mechanics and physiology." In Advanced Biomedical and Clinical Diagnostic and Surgical Guidance Systems XVI, edited by Tuan Vo-Dinh, Anita Mahadevan-Jansen, and Warren S. Grundfest. SPIE, 2018. http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2286296.

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3

de Vito, Giuseppe, Lapo Turrini, Chiara Fornetto, Pietro Ricci, Caroline Müllenbroich, Giuseppe Sancataldo, Elena Trabalzini, et al. "Two-photon light-sheet microscopy for high-speed whole-brain functional imaging of zebrafish neuronal physiology and pathology." In Neurophotonics, edited by Thomas Kuner, Francesco Saverio Pavone, and Laurent Cognet. SPIE, 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2560341.

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4

Sukhova, E. M., and V. S. Sukhov. "Optical model of the distribution of non-photochemical quenching in a sheet." In IX Congress of society physiologists of plants of Russia "Plant physiology is the basis for creating plants of the future. Kazan University Press, 2019. http://dx.doi.org/10.26907/978-5-00130-204-9-2019-421.

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5

Wolfson, M. R., P. Enkhbaatar, S. Fukuda, C. L. Nelson, R. O. Williams, III, S. Hengsawas, S. Sahakijpijarn, et al. "Perfluorochemical-Facilitated Fibrinolysin Delivery: Sustained Improvement in Physiologic Outcomes in Inhalational Smoke Induced Acute Lung Injury (ISALI) in Sheep." In American Thoracic Society 2019 International Conference, May 17-22, 2019 - Dallas, TX. American Thoracic Society, 2019. http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/ajrccm-conference.2019.199.1_meetingabstracts.a1696.

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6

Rambitan, Vandalita MM, Evie Palenewen, and Rachmawati. "Implementation of Student Sheet Activities Through the Usage of Mantangan (Merremia peltata (L.) Merr.) Extract as Organic Fertilizer to Increase Student Concept Understanding on Plant Physiology." In 2nd Educational Sciences International Conference (ESIC 2019). Paris, France: Atlantis Press, 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.2991/assehr.k.200417.013.

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