Дисертації з теми "Water quality management Vietnam"

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1
Courtis, Benjamin John. "Water quality chlorine management." Electronic Thesis or Dissertation, University of Birmingham, 2003. http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.289743.
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2
Courtis, Benjamin John. "Water quality chlorine management." Electronic Thesis or Dissertation, University of Leeds, 2003. http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.289790.
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3
Duong, Thi Thuy, Thi Phuong Quynh Le, Tu Cuong Ho, Thi Nguyet Vu, Thi Thu Hang Hoang, Dinh Kim Dang, and Xixi Lu. "Phytoplankton community structure and water quality of Red River, Vietnam." Doc-type:article, Saechsische Landesbibliothek- Staats- und Universitaetsbibliothek Dresden, 2008. http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bsz:14-qucosa-176893.
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This study aimed to describe the distribution and relative abundance of the phytoplankton obtained during the two seasons (rainy and dry seasons) from the Red river system. The water and phytoplankton samples were monthly collected during the year 2012 at four sampling stations along the Red River (Yen Bai, Vu Quang Hoa Binh,and Ha Noi) . Environmental variables (e.g. temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, suspended solids, conductivity, TDS, NO3­-N, NH4­-N, PO4-P, Total Phosphorus; and DOC) and phytoplankton (e.g. cell density and relative abundant species) were analyzed. Six phytoplankton classes were identified with the Bacillariophyceae dominating in the phytoplankton community. A distinct seasonal variation in phytoplankton structure was observed with high cells density in dry season and low values in rainy season. PCA (Principal Component Analysis) showed that suspended solid factor that governed the temporal and spatial distribution of phytoplankton structure in the Red River system
Nghiên cứu này trình bày sự phân bố và độ phong phú tương đối của quần xã thực vật nổi vào mùa mưa và mùa khô trong hệ thống sông Hồng. Các mẫu nước và thực vật nổi được thu hàng tháng trong năm 2012 tại 4 điểm trên sông Hồng (Yên Bái, Vụ Quang, Hòa Bình và Hà Nội). Các thông số môi trường (nhiệt độ, lượng oxy hòa tan, pH, chất rắn lơ lửng, độ dẫn, TDS, NO3-N, NH4-N, PO4-P, T-P và DOC) và thực vật phù du (mật độ tế bào,độ phong phú tương đối ) đã được phân tích. Sáu lớph tảo được được xác định với tảo silíc chiếm ưu thế trong quần xã thực vật phù du. Sinh khối thực vật đạt giá trị cao vào mùa khô trong khi thấp vào mùa mưa. Phân tích hợp phần chính cho thấy yếu tố chất rắn lơ lửng đóng vai trò quan trọng việc xác định biến động thời gian và không gian cấu trúc quần xã thực vật nổi trong hệ thống sông Hồng
4
Duong, Thi Thuy, Thi Phuong Quynh Le, Tu Cuong Ho, Thi Nguyet Vu, Thi Thu Hang Hoang, Dinh Kim Dang, and Xixi Lu. "Phytoplankton community structure and water quality of Red River, Vietnam." Doc-type:article, Technische Universität Dresden, 2008. https://tud.qucosa.de/id/qucosa%3A28881.
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This study aimed to describe the distribution and relative abundance of the phytoplankton obtained during the two seasons (rainy and dry seasons) from the Red river system. The water and phytoplankton samples were monthly collected during the year 2012 at four sampling stations along the Red River (Yen Bai, Vu Quang Hoa Binh,and Ha Noi) . Environmental variables (e.g. temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, suspended solids, conductivity, TDS, NO3­-N, NH4­-N, PO4-P, Total Phosphorus; and DOC) and phytoplankton (e.g. cell density and relative abundant species) were analyzed. Six phytoplankton classes were identified with the Bacillariophyceae dominating in the phytoplankton community. A distinct seasonal variation in phytoplankton structure was observed with high cells density in dry season and low values in rainy season. PCA (Principal Component Analysis) showed that suspended solid factor that governed the temporal and spatial distribution of phytoplankton structure in the Red River system.
Nghiên cứu này trình bày sự phân bố và độ phong phú tương đối của quần xã thực vật nổi vào mùa mưa và mùa khô trong hệ thống sông Hồng. Các mẫu nước và thực vật nổi được thu hàng tháng trong năm 2012 tại 4 điểm trên sông Hồng (Yên Bái, Vụ Quang, Hòa Bình và Hà Nội). Các thông số môi trường (nhiệt độ, lượng oxy hòa tan, pH, chất rắn lơ lửng, độ dẫn, TDS, NO3-N, NH4-N, PO4-P, T-P và DOC) và thực vật phù du (mật độ tế bào,độ phong phú tương đối ) đã được phân tích. Sáu lớph tảo được được xác định với tảo silíc chiếm ưu thế trong quần xã thực vật phù du. Sinh khối thực vật đạt giá trị cao vào mùa khô trong khi thấp vào mùa mưa. Phân tích hợp phần chính cho thấy yếu tố chất rắn lơ lửng đóng vai trò quan trọng việc xác định biến động thời gian và không gian cấu trúc quần xã thực vật nổi trong hệ thống sông Hồng.
5
Seager, John. "Environmental standards for water quality management." Electronic Thesis or Dissertation, University of East Anglia, 1999. http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.302181.
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6
Tukker, Mary Jean. "Water quality information system for integrated water resource management." Thesis, Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2008. http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/52054.
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Thesis (MEng)--University of Stellenbosch, 2000.
ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The processes of monitoring, modelling and managing the water quality of a catchmerit system including all its unique complexities and interrelationships requires an innovative tool or set of tools to help water managers with their decision making. Numerous methods and tools have been developed to analyse and model the real world. However, many of these tools require a fair degree of technical expertise and training to operate correctly and their output may have to be translated or converted to meaningful information for decision-making using a further set of analytical and graphical display tools. A more appropriate technique for management would be to combine all these functions into a single system. The objective of this research was to develop one such tool, an integrated water quality information system (WQIS). A review of the literature revealed that there has been extensive research and development of tools for the management of individual aspects of water resource distribution, augmentation and quality. However, these tools have rarely been integrated into a comprehensive information system offering decision support to a wide variety of river users and managers. Many of the literature sources also noted that a process of interactive development and integration (i.e. including the intended users in the decision of which components to include, the interface design and the graphical display and output) was vital to ensuring the information system becomes an integral part of the users routine work and decision-making. The WQIS was developed using the recommendations from numerous knowledgeable persons in response to questionnaires, interviews and a prototype demonstration. It includes the results of hydrodynamic river and reservoir simulations and the ability to perform operational river scenario testing. However, the development process is continual and always evolving based on the current or local requirements of water managers. These further developments and research needs are discussed in more detail in the conclusion.
AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die proses om die waterkwaliteit van 'n opvanggebied, met al die unieke kompleksiteite en onderlinge verhoudings van so 'n stelsel te monitor, modelleer en bestuur, vereis 'n innoverende instrument om waterbestuurders te ondersteun in hul besluitnemings. Talle instrumente en metodes vir die ontleding en modellering van die werklikheid is reeds ontwikkel. Die gebruik van hierdie instrumente vereis gewoonlik 'n redelike mate van tegniese kundigheid en opleiding. Dit mag verder nodig wees om die uitvoer van sulke instrumente te vertaal en/of om te skakel na betekenisvolle inligting vir besluitneming deur die gebruik van bykomende analitiese en grafiese vertoon instrumente. 'n Meer toepaslike bestuurstegniek sou wees om al die funksies in 'n enkele stelsel te kombineer. Die doel van hierdie navorsing was om een so 'n instrument, naamlik 'n geïntegreerde waterkwaliteit inligtingstelsel (WQIS), te ontwikkel. 'n Hersiening van bestaande literatuur het getoon dat daar omvattende navorsing en ontwikkeling van instrumente gedoen is vir die bestuur van individuele aspekte van waterbronverspreiding, waterbronaanvulling en waterkwaliteit. Integrasie van hierdie instrumente, in 'n uitgebreide stelsel wat besluitnemingsondersteuning aan 'n verskeidenheid riviergebruikers en bestuurders bied, kom egter selde voor. Verskeie literatuurbronne het ook aangedui dat 'n proses van interaktiewe ontwikkeling en integrasie (m.a.w. in agname van die voorgenome gebruikers se behoeftes in die kense van komponente, die gebruiker raakvlak ontwerp en grafiese vertoon instrumente en uitvoer) noodsaaklik is om te verseker dat die inigtingstelsel 'n integrale deel word van die gebruiker se daaglikse roetine en besluitnemingsproses. Die WQIS is ontwikkel deur gebruikmaking van die insette en aanbevelings van verskeie kenners in reaksie op vraelyste, onderhoude en 'n demonstrasie van 'n prototype. Dit sluit in die resultate van hidro-dinamiese rivier en dam simulasies en die vermoë om operasionele rivier scenario ontledings uit te voer. Die ontwikkeling is egter 'n deurlopende proses, gebaseer op huidige of plaaslike behoeftes van waterbestuurders. Hierdie verdere ontwikkelings- en navorsingsbehoeftes word meer breedvoerig in die gevolgtrekkings bespreek.
7
Hoang, Thi Thu Hang, Trung Kien Nguyen, Thi Phuong Quynh Le, Dinh Kim Dang, and Thi Thuy Duong. "Assessment of the water quality downstream of Red River in 2015 (Vietnam)." PublishedVersion, Technische Universität Dresden, 2001. https://tud.qucosa.de/id/qucosa%3A32613.
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The Red River is strongly affected by climate and human activities, especially in the downstream area concentrating industrial zones, large urbans and powerful agricultural activities. The surface water is progressively susceptible to anthropogenic pollution. The physicochemical variables of surface water were determined at 5 sampling sites (Quyet Chien, Truc Phuong, Ba Lat, Nam Dinh and Gian Khau). At each site, water samples were taken monthly during the period from January to December 2015 to assess the effect of human activities on the surface water quality. The actual survey results showed that almost analyzed variables of the Red River water quality at the downstream were under the permitting limit values of the National technical regulation on surface water quality (QCVN 08:2015, column B1). The quality of water downstream of the Red River reaches the permissible value in surface water for the irrigation purposes, waterway and other purposes with low quality water requirements. The results provide dataset for subsequent studies on the annual variation of physical and chemical variables of Red River downstream water, as well as the scientific basis for the effective protection and management of water resources in Vietnam.
Sông Hồng bị ảnh hưởng mạnh mẽ bởi khí hậu và các hoạt động của con người, đặc biệt là ở khu vực hạ lưu, nơi tập trung nhiều khu công nghiệp, nhiều đô thị lớn và các hoạt động nông nghiệp. Nước mặt đang dần bị ô nhiễm do con người. Các thông số hóa lý của nước mặt được xác định tại 5 trạm (Quyết Chiến, Trúc Phương, Ba Lạt, Nam Định và Gián Khẩu). Tại mỗi trạm, mẫu nước được lấy hàng tháng trong khoảng thời gian từ tháng 1 đến tháng 12 năm 2015 để đánh giá tác động của các hoạt động của con người đến chất lượng nước mặt. Kết quả khảo sát cho thấy, hầu hết các chỉ tiêu chất lượng nước ở hạ lưu của sông Hồng đều nằm trong giá trị giới hạn cho phép theo quy chuẩn kỹ thuật quốc gia về chất lượng nước mặt (QCVN 08: 2015, cột B1). Chất lượng nước ở hạ lưu của sông Hồng nằm trong giới hạn cho phép đối với mục đích tưới tiêu thủy lợi hoặc các mục đích sử dụng khác có yêu cầu nước chất lượng thấp. Kết quả thu được sẽ là cơ sở dữ liệu cho các nghiên cứu tiếp theo về sự thay đổi hàng năm của chất lượng nước hạ lưu sông Hồng, và cũng sẽ là cơ sở khoa học cho việc bảo vệ và quản lý tài nguyên nước một cách có hiệu quả tại Việt Nam.
8
Stefan, Catalin, Lothar Fuchs, Gunda Röstel, and Peter Werner. "Handbook for sustainable development: Integrated Water Resources Management in Hanoi, Vietnam." Doc-type:article, Saechsische Landesbibliothek- Staats- und Universitaetsbibliothek Dresden, 2011. http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bsz:14-qucosa-88484.
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The handbook presented in this paper summarises the results of the research initiative “International Water Research Alliance Saxony” (IWAS). The subproject “IWAS Vietnam” (Phase I, October 2008 – December 2010) focuses on the model region “South-East Asia” with emphasis on Vietnam. The project started as a joint research initiative between German and Vietnamese organisations and included contributions from academic, private and public sector in both countries. The handbook was compiled by the Technische Universität Dresden (project coordination), the Institute for Technical and Scientific Hydrology and Dresden Drainage and Sewerage Company, with substantial contributions from Vietnamese partners
Sổ tay hướng dẫn trong bài viết này tóm lược các kết quả của sáng kiến nghiên cứu từ “Liên minh Nghiên cứu ngành nước quốc tế bang Saxony” (IWAS). Dự án nhánh “IWAS Việt Nam” (giai đoạn 1, 10/2008 - 12/2010) tập trung vào khu vực Đông Nam Á với trọng tâm là Việt Nam. Dự án khởi động như một sáng kiến liên kết nghiên cứu giữa các tổ chức của CHLB Đức và Việt Nam với sự đóng góp từ các đơn vị tư nhân, nhà nước và trường đại học của cả hai quốc gia. Quyển sổ tay này được biên soạn bởi Đại học Kỹ thuật Dresden (cơ quan điều phối dự án), Viện Công nghệ và Khoa học Thủy văn, và Công ty Thoát nước Dresden, cùng với sự đóng góp quan trọng của các đối tác Việt Nam
9
Leung, Wai-shun Wilson, and 梁威信. "Ecological water quality indices in environmental management." PG_Thesis, The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong), 2006. http://hub.hku.hk/bib/B45013482.
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10
Hamza, Sarah. "State of water quality management in Egypt." Electronic thesis or dissertation, National Library of Canada = Bibliothèque nationale du Canada, 1999. http://www.collectionscanada.ca/obj/s4/f2/dsk1/tape8/PQDD_0008/MQ42329.pdf.
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11
Oertlé, Emmanuel, Duc Toan Vu, Dinh Chuc Nguyen, Laurin Näf, and Sandra Regina Müller. "Potential for water reuse in Vietnam." PublishedVersion, Technische Universität Dresden, 2005. https://tud.qucosa.de/id/qucosa%3A70827.
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Southeast Asian countries and Vietnam in particular are facing water security challenges; water reclamation is increasingly being considered as a favorable solution. Despite the availability of suitable technologies, several constraints often prevent stakeholders and especially decision makers exploiting their potential. In this paper we present the results of applying a decision support tool (DST) to evaluate water reclamation, support pre-feasibility studies and build capacity for water reclamation in Vietnam. The DST and its data are open access, providing information related to local and international water and wastewater quality standards. In this research we identified high potential Vietnamese case studies and conducted a systematic PISTLE analysis considering six dimensions (Political, Institutional, Social, Technical, Legal and Economic) at a multiple local stakeholder workshop. Key barriers and drivers for water reclamation implementation were identified. Measures proposed during the workshop could serve as a starting point for the development of water reclamation projects in Vietnam.
Các nước Đông Nam Á và đặc biệt là Việt Nam nói riêng hiện đang phải đối mặt với những thách thức về đảm bảo an ninh nguồn nước; cải tạo nguồn nước hiện đang được xem là một giải pháp thuận lợi. Mặc dù các công nghệ phù hợp đã có sẵn, nhưng một số hạn chế đã ngăn cản các bên liên quan và đặc biệt là những nhà làm chính sách có thể khai thác các tiềm năng của những công nghệ này. Trong bài báo này, chúng tôi trình bày các kết quả của việc áp dụng một công cụ hỗ trợ quyết định (DST) để đánh giá việc cải tạo nguồn nước, hỗ trợ các nghiên cứu tiền khả thi và xây dựng các khả năng cải tạo nguồn nước ở Việt Nam. DST và dữ liệu của nó là nguồn truy cập mở, cung cấp thông tin liên quan đến những tiêu chuẩn về chất lượng nước và nước thải của địa phương và quốc tế. Trong nghiên cứu này, chúng tôi đã xác định các tình huống điển hình có tiềm năng cao của Việt Nam và tiến hành phân tích PISTLE có hệ thống xem xét sáu khía cạnh (Chính trị, Thể chế, Xã hội, Kỹ thuật, Pháp lý và Kinh tế) tại một hội thảo của các bên liên quan tại địa phương. Những rào cản chính và yếu tố vận hành của việc thực hiện cải tạo nguồn nước cũng đã được xác định. Các giải pháp được đề xuất trong hội thảo này có thể đóng vai trò là điểm khởi đầu để phát triển các dự án cải tạo nguồn nước ở Việt Nam.
12
Nguyen, Thi Phuong Loan. "Legal framework of the water sector in Vietnam: achievements and challenges." Doc-type:article, Saechsische Landesbibliothek- Staats- und Universitaetsbibliothek Dresden, 2011. http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bsz:14-qucosa-88472.
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Since 1986 and especially during the early 90s, environmental protection has become a constitutional principle in Vietnam as regulated by Articles 17 and 29 of the 1992 Constitution. The first Law on Environmental Protection, passed by the National Assembly on December 27, 1993 created a foundation for environmental legislation becoming an important field in Vietnam’s legal system. In the following, Vietnam enacted its very first Law on Water Resources (No. 08/1998/QH10) in January 1999 aiming to provide a foundational framework for managing the water sector in Vietnam. In recent years, the legislative framework on water resources management has further developed. Important water-related regulations on the guidance and implementation of the Law on Water Resources have been issued and often amended to meet the requirements of the country’s development, and its international integration. To date, Vietnam’s legislation on the water sector consists of a complex system of legal documents issued by different state agencies. Though legislation of water sector management in Vietnam has greatly improved during the last decade, it has obviously not yet come to full fruition. Hence, the paper intends to provide an overview of achievements as well as problems and conflicting issues within Vietnam’s current water sector management legislation
Kể từ năm 1986, đặc biệt là những năm đầu của thập kỷ 90, bảo vệ môi trường đã trở thành nguyên tắc hiến định (được quy định tại Điều 17 và 29 Hiến pháp 1992). Luật Bảo vệ môi trường đầu tiên được Quốc hội thông qua ngày 27 tháng 12 năm 1993 đã đặt nền móng cho việc hình thành hệ thống pháp luật về môi trường ở Việt Nam. Tiếp theo đó, ngày 20 tháng 05 năm 1998, Quốc hội nước Cộng hòa xã hội Việt Nam khóa X, kỳ họp thứ 3 đã thông qua văn bản luật đầu tiên về tài nguyên nước - Luật Tài nguyên nước số 08/1998/QH10 hình thành một nền tảng pháp lý cho hệ thống pháp luật bảo vệ nguồn tài nguyên nước ở Việt Nam. Trong những năm gần đây, hầu hết các văn bản dưới luật quan trọng và cần thiết cho việc hướng dẫn thi hành Luật Tài nguyên nước đã được ban hành và không ngừng được sửa đổi, bổ sung nhằm đáp ứng nhu cầu phát triển và hội nhập quốc tế của đất nước trong nhiều lĩnh vực khác nhau. Tuy nhiên, khung pháp lý hiện hành về tài nguyên nước ở Việt Nam bao gồm một hệ thống các văn bản quy phạm pháp luật khá phức tạp, nhiều tầng nấc, được ban hành bởi nhiều cơ quan có thẩm quyền khác nhau. Mặc dù hệ thống pháp luật về tài nguyên nước đã được liên tục sửa đổi, bổ sung và hoàn thiện trong suốt một thập kỷ qua, nhưng rõ ràng vẫn chưa thực sự đi vào cuộc sống. Bài viết dưới đây đề cập chủ yến đến một số các thành tựu cũng như những vấn đề mâu thuẫn hiện tại của pháp luật bảo vệ nguồn tài nguyên nước ở Việt Nam
13
Coltman, Kenna Maria. "Water table management effects on water quality: a soil column study." Text, The Ohio State University / OhioLINK, 1992. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=osu1195165287.
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14
Steele, Kelsi Lynne. "Atrazine best management practices: impact on water quality." Thesis, Kansas State University, 2004. http://hdl.handle.net/2097/660.
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Master of Science
Department of Biological & Agricultural Engineering
Philip L. Barnes
Wichita, Kansas water supply is derived from multiple sources. Unfortunately, these sources are not expected to meet the future needs of the population. This predicted water shortage led to the development of the Equus Beds Recharge Project, to investigate artificial recharge as a solution to meet future water demands. This project focuses on the Little Arkansas River as a source of this recharge water. The Kansas Department of Health and Environment set a daily 3[Mu]g/L standard for the recharged water as opposed to surface waters used directly for drinking water which can't exceed a yearly average atrazine concentration of 3[Mu]g/L. During 2005, five sub-watersheds within the Little Arkansas River watershed were instrumented to collect water quality samples and measure flow rate to calculate daily contaminant loadings. Three of the sub-watersheds used atrazine best management practices (BMPs) applied to grain sorghum while the remaining two sub-watersheds maintained existing farm practices. During 2007, monitoring continued and additional atrazine BMPs were applied to corn grown in the treated sub-watersheds. During both 2006 and 2007, water quality monitoring was used to examine water quality parameters throughout the entire watershed. Watershed-scale monitoring allowed for pollutant transport patterns to emerge both spatially and temporally and indicated potential sources of the pollutants. In this particular study, atrazine and sediment loss were the two most important water quality parameters. Results from this study showed that by using BMPs the concentration of atrazine was decreased by greater than 40% in 2006 when compared to the atrazine concentration from those areas without BMPs. A 5% reduction was seen in 2007, which was due to differences in precipitation and runoff between the two years. There was no reduction in sediment losses between the treated and untreated watersheds during 2006, leading to the conclusion that additional practices would be needed to reduce sediment losses as well as any pollutants associated with sediment loss (ex nutrients absorbed to the sediments). During 2007, sediment, nitrogen, and phosphorus were 66%, 60%, and 55% lower respectively in the treated versus untreated sub-watershed. These 2007 differences were related to rainfall pattern differences in the sub-watersheds.
15
Lessard, Paul. "Operational water quality management : control of stormwater discharges." Electronic Thesis or Dissertation, Imperial College London, 1989. http://hdl.handle.net/10044/1/47538.
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16
Stefan, Catalin, Lothar Fuchs, Gunda Röstel, and Peter Werner. "Handbook for sustainable development: Integrated Water Resources Management in Hanoi, Vietnam: Short communication." Doc-type:article, Technische Universität Dresden, 2011. https://tud.qucosa.de/id/qucosa%3A26015.
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The handbook presented in this paper summarises the results of the research initiative “International Water Research Alliance Saxony” (IWAS). The subproject “IWAS Vietnam” (Phase I, October 2008 – December 2010) focuses on the model region “South-East Asia” with emphasis on Vietnam. The project started as a joint research initiative between German and Vietnamese organisations and included contributions from academic, private and public sector in both countries. The handbook was compiled by the Technische Universität Dresden (project coordination), the Institute for Technical and Scientific Hydrology and Dresden Drainage and Sewerage Company, with substantial contributions from Vietnamese partners.
Sổ tay hướng dẫn trong bài viết này tóm lược các kết quả của sáng kiến nghiên cứu từ “Liên minh Nghiên cứu ngành nước quốc tế bang Saxony” (IWAS). Dự án nhánh “IWAS Việt Nam” (giai đoạn 1, 10/2008 - 12/2010) tập trung vào khu vực Đông Nam Á với trọng tâm là Việt Nam. Dự án khởi động như một sáng kiến liên kết nghiên cứu giữa các tổ chức của CHLB Đức và Việt Nam với sự đóng góp từ các đơn vị tư nhân, nhà nước và trường đại học của cả hai quốc gia. Quyển sổ tay này được biên soạn bởi Đại học Kỹ thuật Dresden (cơ quan điều phối dự án), Viện Công nghệ và Khoa học Thủy văn, và Công ty Thoát nước Dresden, cùng với sự đóng góp quan trọng của các đối tác Việt Nam.
17
Stefan, Catalin, Hoang Mai Phan, Van Bo Pham, and Peter Werner. "Capacity development platform for promoting efficient urban water management." Doc-type:article, Saechsische Landesbibliothek- Staats- und Universitaetsbibliothek Dresden, 2008. http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bsz:14-qucosa-88517.
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The present paper summarizes the results of an application initiated within the framework of 35 years celebration of diplomatic relations between Germany and Vietnam. Within this context, the Technische Universität Dresden (TUD) and the Academy of Managers for Construction and Cities (AMC) jointly organized in 2010 a series of four thematic workshops. The one-day events have had similar structures and focused on main subjects of interest in the water sectors of both countries. In Vietnam, the workshops took place in Ha Noi, Hai Phong, Nha Trang and Vung Tau. Best practice examples about conceptualization, operation and maintenance of municipal water works provided an insight view into the challenges currently faced by the water service providers. TUD and AMC, together with their German and Vietnamese partners, addressed these issues by organizing the consecutive workshops under the umbrella of Vietnamese Water Supply and Sewerage Association (VWSA) and in coordination with the German Water Partnership (GWP)
Bài báo trình bày tóm tắt các kết quả của một đề xuất trong khuôn khổ kỷ niệm 35 năm quan hệ ngoại giao giữa CHLB Đức và Việt Nam. Theo đó, Trường Đại học Tổng hợp Kỹ Thuật Dresden (TUD) và Học viện Quản lý Xây dựng và Đô thị (AMC) đã phối hợp tổ chức một chuỗi bốn hội thảo chuyên đề trong năm 2010. Mỗi hội thảo thực hiện trong một ngày chương trình giống nhau và tập trung vào các chủ đề chính mà cả hai quốc gia đều quan tâm trong lĩnh vực nước. Phía Việt Nam, các hội thảo được tổ chức ở các thành phố Hà Nội, Hải Phòng, Nha Trang và Vũng Tàu. Nhiều bài thuyết trình về khái niệm hóa, vận hành và bảo dưỡng các công trình cấp nước đô thị đã thảo luận sâu về những thách thức mà các dịch vụ cấp nước đang gặp phải. TUD và AMC, kết hợp với các đối tác CHLB Đức và Việt Nam, đã ghi nhận các vấn đề phát sinh thông qua việc tổ chức nhiều hội thảo liên tục dưới sự bảo trợ của Hiệp hội Cấp thoát nước Việt Nam (VWSA) và Hiệp hội nước CHLB Đức (GWP)
18
Penn, Jerrod M. "VALUATION OF RECREATIONAL BEACH QUALITY AND WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES IN OAHU." Text, UKnowledge, 2001. http://uknowledge.uky.edu/agecon_etds/19.
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Hawaii’s pristine ocean and tropical environment is a keystone of Hawaii tourism and the state economy. Water pollution from stormwater and development threatens the beach quality to both residents and tourists. In order to understand the lost nonmarket value, we assess changes in quality of beach characteristics including water and sand quality, swimming safety conditions, and congestion using a Discrete Choice Experiment of recreational beach users. Further, we study willingness to pay (WTP) for water management strategies in Hawaii using another discrete choice experiment, including structural and nonstructural Best Management Practices, testing, monitoring, and educational efforts. Using a mixed logit model, beach quality results suggest similar preferences among resident and tourists. Both groups consistently have higher WTP to avoid poor quality levels versus obtaining excellent levels. Additionally, water quality is the single most important attribute. For the policy discrete choice experiment, both parties exhibit similar ranking of WTP to initiate water quality management strategies, with improved testing methods followed by education having the highest WTP. Lastly, we use Benefit-Cost analysis to find that all significant management strategies may be viable, since WTP is greater than the predicted cost of implementation based on expert opinion of Hawaiian policy leaders.
19
Telci, Ilker Tonguc. "Optimal water quality management in surface water systems and energy recovery in water distribution networks." Dissertation, Georgia Institute of Technology, 2001. http://hdl.handle.net/1853/45861.
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Two of the most important environmental challenges in the 21st century are to protect the quality of fresh water resources and to utilize renewable energy sources to lower greenhouse gas emissions. This study contributes to the solution of the first challenge by providing methodologies for optimal design of real-time water quality monitoring systems and interpretation of data supplied by the monitoring system to identify potential pollution sources in river networks. In this study, the optimal river water quality monitoring network design aspect of the overall monitoring program is addressed by a novel methodology for the analysis of this problem. In this analysis, the locations of sampling sites are determined such that the contaminant detection time is minimized for the river network while achieving maximum reliability for the monitoring system performance. The data collected from these monitoring stations can be used to identify contamination source locations. This study suggests a methodology that utilizes a classification routine which associates the observations on a contaminant spill with one or more of the candidate spill locations in the river network. This approach consists of a training step followed by a sequential elimination of the candidate spill locations which lead to the identification of potential spill locations. In order to contribute the solution of the second environmental challenge, this study suggests utilizing available excess energy in water distribution systems by providing a methodology for optimal design of energy recovery systems. The energy recovery in water distribution systems is possible by using micro hydroelectric turbines to harvest available excess energy inevitably produced to satisfy consumer demands and to maintain adequate pressures. In this study, an optimization approach for the design of energy recovery systems in water distribution networks is proposed. This methodology is based on finding the best locations for micro hydroelectric plants in the network to recover the excess energy. Due to the unsteady nature of flow in water distribution networks, the proposed methodology also determines optimum operation schedules for the micro turbines.
20
Didan, Kamel. "Prototype geographic information system for agricultural water quality management." Dissertation-Reproduction (electronic), The University of Arizona, 1999. http://hdl.handle.net/10150/191244.
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A prototype raster geographic information system (GIS) for agricultural water quality analysis was developed considering the farm as an aggregation of spatial units with homogeneous physical and management characteristics. A crop model that simulates the farm and environment response to different management scenarios was integrated with the GIS. The integrated GIS-model is then run on each homogeneous area. The results of crop yield and chemical leaching are geographically referenced for further display and analysis, and to serve as an input to the decision model. A decision model based on maximization of expected utility (MEU) was also integrated to help assess and evaluate the impacts of fertilizer application on the faun system and the environment. By using utilities for both crop yield and chemical leaching the model circumvents the issue of assigning a monetary value to the environment. Accommodating both the farmers' goals, in terms of higher yield and the well being of the environment, in terms of lower chemical leaching, the model computes the expected utility of each management scenario. The management practice with the maximum expected utility is then recommended. The integrated model was tested with an example of lettuce production in Arizona. Results were compared to published field reports, the model recommendation matched well with the field results. The prototype model was simple to use, and very well integrated, which makes it an alternative to the more complex and expensive coupling of commercial GIS and simulation models.
21
Andrish, Sean David, and Sean David Andrish. "Water quality management in the Quinnipiac River Basin, Connecticut." Thesis-Reproduction (electronic), The University of Arizona, 1997. http://hdl.handle.net/10150/626903.
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The Quinnipiac River Basin, located in South-Central Connecticut, flows 38 miles from its headwaters in New Britain and Plainville, Connecticut to its mouth in New Haven Harbor. The basin is heavily developed, with the majority of the land in the basin classified as residential and urban. The five municipal water pollution control facilities and one large privately-owned water pollution control facility operating in the Quinnipiac Basin are responsible for maintaining acceptable levels of water quality in the Quinnipiac River. While the current water quality management practices within the Quinnipiac River basin are capable of meeting the various water quality standards, changes in the water quality management system may require an adjustment or alteration of the current management practices. The focus of this study is the identification of possible improvements to the current water resources management practices in the Quinnipiac Basin and a discussion of the feasibility of the proposed improvements.
22
Maeda, Shigeya. "Optimization of wasteload allocation for river water quality management." DFAM, Kyoto University, 2002. http://hdl.handle.net/2433/78139.
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Kyoto University (京都大学)
0048
新制・課程博士
博士(農学)
甲第9623号
農博第1251号
新制||農||843(附属図書館)
学位論文||H14||N3655(農学部図書室)
UT51-2002-G381
京都大学大学院農学研究科地域環境科学専攻
(主査)教授 河地 利彦, 教授 青山 咸康, 教授 高橋 強
学位規則第4条第1項該当
23
Nguyen, Thi Phuong Loan. "Legal framework of the water sector in Vietnam: achievements and challenges: Policy paper." Doc-type:article, Technische Universität Dresden, 2011. https://tud.qucosa.de/id/qucosa%3A26014.
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Since 1986 and especially during the early 90s, environmental protection has become a constitutional principle in Vietnam as regulated by Articles 17 and 29 of the 1992 Constitution. The first Law on Environmental Protection, passed by the National Assembly on December 27, 1993 created a foundation for environmental legislation becoming an important field in Vietnam’s legal system. In the following, Vietnam enacted its very first Law on Water Resources (No. 08/1998/QH10) in January 1999 aiming to provide a foundational framework for managing the water sector in Vietnam. In recent years, the legislative framework on water resources management has further developed. Important water-related regulations on the guidance and implementation of the Law on Water Resources have been issued and often amended to meet the requirements of the country’s development, and its international integration. To date, Vietnam’s legislation on the water sector consists of a complex system of legal documents issued by different state agencies. Though legislation of water sector management in Vietnam has greatly improved during the last decade, it has obviously not yet come to full fruition. Hence, the paper intends to provide an overview of achievements as well as problems and conflicting issues within Vietnam’s current water sector management legislation.
Kể từ năm 1986, đặc biệt là những năm đầu của thập kỷ 90, bảo vệ môi trường đã trở thành nguyên tắc hiến định (được quy định tại Điều 17 và 29 Hiến pháp 1992). Luật Bảo vệ môi trường đầu tiên được Quốc hội thông qua ngày 27 tháng 12 năm 1993 đã đặt nền móng cho việc hình thành hệ thống pháp luật về môi trường ở Việt Nam. Tiếp theo đó, ngày 20 tháng 05 năm 1998, Quốc hội nước Cộng hòa xã hội Việt Nam khóa X, kỳ họp thứ 3 đã thông qua văn bản luật đầu tiên về tài nguyên nước - Luật Tài nguyên nước số 08/1998/QH10 hình thành một nền tảng pháp lý cho hệ thống pháp luật bảo vệ nguồn tài nguyên nước ở Việt Nam. Trong những năm gần đây, hầu hết các văn bản dưới luật quan trọng và cần thiết cho việc hướng dẫn thi hành Luật Tài nguyên nước đã được ban hành và không ngừng được sửa đổi, bổ sung nhằm đáp ứng nhu cầu phát triển và hội nhập quốc tế của đất nước trong nhiều lĩnh vực khác nhau. Tuy nhiên, khung pháp lý hiện hành về tài nguyên nước ở Việt Nam bao gồm một hệ thống các văn bản quy phạm pháp luật khá phức tạp, nhiều tầng nấc, được ban hành bởi nhiều cơ quan có thẩm quyền khác nhau. Mặc dù hệ thống pháp luật về tài nguyên nước đã được liên tục sửa đổi, bổ sung và hoàn thiện trong suốt một thập kỷ qua, nhưng rõ ràng vẫn chưa thực sự đi vào cuộc sống. Bài viết dưới đây đề cập chủ yến đến một số các thành tựu cũng như những vấn đề mâu thuẫn hiện tại của pháp luật bảo vệ nguồn tài nguyên nước ở Việt Nam.
24
Le, Thi Phuong Quynh, Tu Cuong Ho, Thi Thuy Duong, Thi Bich Ngoc Nguyen, Duy An Vu, Quoc Long Pham, and Christina Seidler. "Water quality of the Red River system in the period 2012 - 2013." Doc-type:article, Saechsische Landesbibliothek- Staats- und Universitaetsbibliothek Dresden, 2012. http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bsz:14-qucosa-190649.
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Few data are available on the quality of Red river water that is used for multi-purposes, including for domestic water demand in some rural areas. This paper presents the observation results of the Red River water quality in two years 2012 and 2013. The monitoring results showed that the average concentrations of nutrients (N, P) were still far lower than the allowed value of the Vietnamese standard limits for surface water quality (QCVN 08:2008/BTNMT, column A2). Due to the impoundment of two big dams in the Da tributary, the suspended solids contents in river water decreased remarkably. The dissolved heavy metal (DHM) concentrations varied in a high range: Cu: 10 – 80 μg.l-1; Zn: 2 – 88 μg.l-1; Cr: 0.2 – 5.1 μg.l-1; Pb: 2 - 107 μg.l-1; Cd: 2 – 12 μg.l-1; Mn: 2 - 35 μg.l-1; and Fe: 160 – 2370 μg.l-1. Most of the mean values of DHM were lower than the allowed values of the QCVN 08:2008/BTNMT, but at several points of time, several DHM (e.g. Fe, Cd, Pb) contents exceeded the allowed values. The Total Coliform (TC) and Fecal Coliform (FC) densities varied in a high range: TC: 23 to 13,000MPN.100ml-1 and FC: 0 to 1,600MPN.100ml-1 and they exceeded the allowed values QCVN 08:2008/BTNMT at several points observed. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) contents were in low level and the particulate organic carbon (POC) content mainly derived from soil organic leaching and erosion in the basin. The results underlined the need for regularly monitoring the river water quality, and there should be some effective solutions to manage and treat the waste sources in order to provide safe water for different actual purposes use in the Red River basin
Rất ít số liệu sẵn có về chất lượng nước sông Hồng, dòng sông được sử dụng cho nhiều mục đích, bao gồm cả cung cấp nước sinh hoạt ở một số vùng nông thôn. Bài báo trình bày các kết quả quan trắc chất lượng nước sông Hồng trong hai năm 2012 và 2013. Kết quả quan trắc cho thấy chất dinh dưỡng (N, P) thấp xa so với giới hạn cho phép của tiêu chuẩn Việt Nam về chất lượng nước mặt (QCVN 08: 2008/BTNMT cột A2). Do có hai hồ chứa trên sông Đà, hàm lượng chất rắn lơ lửng trong nước sông giảm đáng kể. Các kim loại nặng hòa tan (DHM) có hàm lượng dao động trong khoảng rộng: Cu: 10-80 μg.l-1; Zn: 2-88 μg.l-1; Cr: 0,2-5,1 μg.l-1; Pb: 2-107 μg.l-1; Cd: 2-12 μg.l-1; Mn: 2-35 μg.l-1; và Fe: 160 - 2370 μg.l-1. Hầu hết các giá trị trung bình của DHM thấp hơn giá trị cho phép của quy chuẩn QCVN 08: 2008/BTNMT, tuy nhiên, tại một số thời điểm, một số DHM (ví dụ Fe, Cd, Pb) có hàm lượng vượt quá giới hạn cho phép. Mật độ tổng coliform (TC) và coliform phân (FC) dao động trong khoảng rộng: TC: 23 đến 13,000MPN.100ml-1 và FC: 0 đến 1,600MPN.100ml-1 và tại một số thời điểm mật độ TC và FC vượt giá trị cho phép của Quy chuẩn QCVN 08:2008/BTNMT. Hàm lượng cabon hữu cơ hòa tan (DOC) ở mức thấp, và hàm lượng cacbon hữu cơ dạng không tan (POC) chủ yếu có nguồn gốc từ đất rửa trôi và xói mòn trong lưu vực. Kết quả quan trắc nhấn mạnh nhu cầu giám sát thường xuyên chất lượng nước sông, và nên có các giải pháp hiệu quả để quản lý và xử lý các nguồn gây ô nhiễm trong lưu vực nhằm cung cấp nước sạch cho các mục đích sử dụng nước sông Hồng như hiện nay
25
Mejía, Manuel. "Effects of water table management on water quality and strip cropped corn-soybean yields." Electronic Thesis or Dissertation, McGill University, 1997. http://digitool.Library.McGill.CA:80/R/?func=dbin-jump-full&object_id=27378.
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A two-year field study was carried out in eastern Ontario to investigate the effects of water table management (WTM) on water quality and crop yields. Corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max Merr.) were planted in alternate strips across the three treatments of 50 cm controlled water table (CWT), 75 cm CWT and free drainage (FD). Drainflow volume and nitrate-N concentration of the drainage water were measured. Soil samples were collected and analysed for total N, P, K, available N, soil moisture and organic matter levels. Chlorophyll-meter readings and plant harvest parameters were also measured. Rainfall, soil and air temperatures were recorded throughout the growing seasons.
The obtained data show that in 1995, the CWT plots significantly increased total drainflow, as compared to FD. In 1996, overall drainflow and nitrate concentrations were significantly reduced. Both the corn and soybean yields were higher with WTM than with FD for both years. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)
26
Mejia, Manuel Armando. "Effects of water table management on water quality and strip-cropped corn-soybean yields." Electronic thesis or dissertation, National Library of Canada = Bibliothèque nationale du Canada, 1997. http://www.collectionscanada.ca/obj/s4/f2/dsk2/ftp01/MQ29753.pdf.
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27
Momoh, Jinnah Samuel. "Decision support system for river water quality forecasting and management." Electronic Thesis or Dissertation, University of Newcastle Upon Tyne, 2002. http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.246651.
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28
Norreys, Richard. "Water quality river impact model (RIM) for river basin management." Electronic Thesis or Dissertation, University of Salford, 1991. http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.305863.
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29
Wu, Shaoming. "Multiobjective water quality management planning for the Lake Erhai Watershed." Electronic thesis or dissertation, National Library of Canada = Bibliothèque nationale du Canada, 1997. http://www.collectionscanada.ca/obj/s4/f2/dsk3/ftp04/mq30573.pdf.
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30
Coulibaly, Housseini. "Drinking water quality and management strategies in small Quebec utilities." Electronic Thesis or Dissertation, Université Laval, 2012. http://www.theses.ulaval.ca/2003/21382/21382.pdf.
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La présente thèse porte sur une étude des petits systèmes municipaux du Québec (en l’occurrence, ceux desservant 10 000 personnes ou moins) et comporte trois volets. Le premier volet se focalise sur un portrait historique de la qualité de l’eau distribuée et sur les stratégies de gestion. Parallèlement, il met l'historique de la qualité et les stratégies de gestion en relation avec certains paramètres importants de la qualité de l’eau. Les résultats de ce volet montrent que pour les systèmes s’approvisionnant en eau de surface et pratiquant uniquement une chloration, la différence entre le nombre annuel moyen de rinçages des systèmes ayant connu des problèmes de qualité et ceux n’ayant pas connu de tels problèmes s’est avérée statistiquement significative. En plus, certains indicateurs de la pression agricole sur le territoire des municipalités concernées apparurent significativement corrélés avec les épisodes de coliformes. Le deuxième volet porte sur une étude de la variation spatio-temporelle de la qualité de l’eau dans dix petits systèmes. Ces systèmes furent répartis en deux groupes : quatre systèmes qui n’ont jamais ou ont rarement distribué de l’eau dérogeant aux normes microbiologiques provinciales relatives à l’eau potable et six systèmes qui ont très souvent dérogé auxdites normes. Les résultats montrent que les différences entre les deux groupes de systèmes sont essentiellement imputables aux teneurs en chlore résiduel libre et au nombre de colonies de bactéries hétérotrophes aérobies et anaérobies facultatives (BHAA) dans les réseaux de distribution correspondants et, dans une moindre mesure, aux doses de chlore appliquées. Le troisième volet inclut trois parties : la première est un portait des caractéristiques d’opération, de l’infrastructure et de la maintenance ; la deuxième est consacrée au développement d’indicateurs de performance pour les petits systèmes ; alors que la troisième traite des facteurs humains et organisationnels. Le portrait a révélé des tendances intéressantes qui ont presque toutes été confirmées par les indicateurs de performance des systèmes de distribution. Les facteurs humains et organisationnels dégagèrent des aspects tels que les antécédents scolaires, la formation complémentaire, l’expérience, la bonne conscience des nouveaux défis, le niveau de préparation pour y faire face, et l’appui des autorités locales. Dans son ensemble, cette recherche aura permis de procéder à une étude exhaustive des stratégies de gestion de la qualité de l’eau potable généralement mises de l’avant par les gestionnaires de petits systèmes et de développer des outils explicatifs pouvant guider utilement leur action, de même que celle des gestionnaires relevant des divers paliers gouvernementaux.
This thesis presents a study of small Quebec municipal utilities (i.e., serving 10,000 people or fewer) and includes three chapters. The first chapter focuses on a portrait of historical quality of distributed water and on management strategies. Concurrently, it puts historical quality and management strategies in relation to certain important water quality parameters. Results show that for surface water utilities using chlorination alone, the mean difference of annual system flushings between utilities that have experienced difficulties with historical quality and those not having experienced such difficulties proved statistically significant. In addition, some agricultural land-use indicators within the municipal territory appeared significantly correlated with coliform occurrences. The second chapter studies the spatial and temporal variation of drinking water quality in ten small utilities. These utilities were divided into two groups: four utilities that had never or rarely served water violating the provincial drinking water microbiological standards and six utilities that very often infringed upon said standards. Results show that the differences between the two groups of utilities are associated essentially with maintained chlorine residuals and heterotrophic plate count bacteria populations in corresponding distribution systems and, to a lesser extent, to the applied chlorine doses. The study includes three distinctive parts: the first one is a portrait of studied utilities’ operational, infrastructure, and maintenance characteristics; the second part is devoted to development of indicators of performance for the same utilities, whereas the last part deals with human and organisational factors. The portrait revealed interesting trends, most of which had been confirmed by utility performance indicators. As for human and organizational factors, they allowed highlighting such issues like educational background, supplementary training, experience, awareness of and preparedness to take up new challenges, and support from local authorities. Overall, this research enabled a thorough investigation of management strategies the most popular with small drinking water utilities and the development of explanatory tools that may usefully guide action from local managers and government bodies.
31
Basahi, Ilham A. "Management of water quality of the Marib Lake in Yemen." Electronic Thesis or Dissertation, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, 2003. https://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.289214.
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32
Dyck, Amber. "Ditch Management in Agroecosystems: From Water Quality to Frog Health." Thesis, Université d'Ottawa / University of Ottawa, 2009. http://hdl.handle.net/10393/40969.
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Agriculture ditch management (i.e. removal of vegetation and/or sediments) may disturb native wildlife, such as amphibian bioindicator species. The objective of this thesis was to determine whether ditch management affected northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens). Twelve embryo and tadpole health endpoints were compared in vegetated and managed (treeless or dredged) ditches using in situ cages in 2018 and 2019, while water quality was monitored. The managed treatment did not negatively affect frog health compared to the vegetated treatment. The significantly faster development and larger body size due to warmer water temperatures at the managed treatment were likely advantageous. The water quality was typical of the region regardless of the ditch treatment and the pesticide mixture detected had limited toxicity. The main effects of the studied ditch managements on resident L. pipiens (and potentially other amphibians) appeared sub-lethal, likely beneficial, and mainly the result of temperature differences. Although poorer embryo health was observed at the vegetated treatment, it was likely unrelated to ditch management and possibly due to high specific conductivity causing premature hatching and mortality. Ditch management may be less important for frog health than the surrounding land use, and efforts should be directed at increasing suitable habitat for amphibians in agroecosystems. La gestion des fossés agricoles (plus spécifiquement l'élimination de la végétation des bandes riveraines et /ou le dragage des sédiments) peut perturber la faune indigène, comme les espèces bio-indicateurs d'amphibiens. L'objectif de cette thèse était de déterminer si la gestion des fossés affectait la grenouille léopard du Nord (Lithobates pipiens). Douze paramètres d'évaluation de la santé des embryons et des têtards ont été comparés dans des fossés végétalisés et gérés (sans arbres ou dragués) à l'aide de cages expérimentales in situ en 2018 et 2019, pendant que la qualité de l'eau a été suivie. Le traitement géré n'a pas eu d'effets négatifs sur la santé des grenouilles par rapport au traitement végétalisé. Le développement beaucoup plus rapide et la taille corporelle plus grande en raison des températures plus chaudes de l'eau lors du traitement géré étaient probablement avantageux. La qualité de l'eau était typique de la région quel que soit le traitement du fossé et le mélange de pesticides détecté avait une toxicité limitée. Les principaux effets de la gestion des fossés étudiés sur L. pipiens résidents (et potentiellement d'autres amphibiens) semblaient sublétaux, probablement bénéfiques, et résultaient principalement de différences de température. Bien que la santé des embryons ait été moins bonne lors du traitement végétalisé, elle n'était probablement pas liée à la gestion des fossés et pourrait être due à une conductivité spécifique élevée entraînant une éclosion prématurée et la mortalité. La gestion des fossés peut être moins importante pour la santé des grenouilles que l'utilisation des terres environnantes, et les efforts de protection devraient être dirigés vers une augmentation générale de l'habitat approprié pour les amphibiens dans les agroécosystèmes.
33
Xu, Yuelu. "Essays on Water Quality Management for the Chesapeake Bay Watershed." Dissertation, Virginia Tech, 2002. http://hdl.handle.net/10919/96943.
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Water quality management for agricultural production is a complicated and interesting problem. Hydrological and economic factors must be considered when designing strategies to reduce nutrient runoff from agricultural activities. This dissertation is composed of three chapters that investigate cost-effective ways to mitigate water pollution from agricultural nonpoint pollution sources and explore farmers' incentives when participating in water quality trading programs. Chapter 1 investigates landscape targeting of best management practices (BMPs) based on topographic index (TI) to determine how targeting would affect costs of meeting nitrogen (N) loading goals for Mahantango watershed, Pennsylvania. We use the results from two climate models and the mean of the ensemble of seven climate models to estimate expected climate changes and the Soil and Water Assessment Tool-Variable Source Area (SWAT-VSA) model to predict crop yields and N export. Costs of targeting and uniform placement of BMPs across the entire study area (4.23 km2) are compared under historical and future climate scenarios. We find that with a goal of reducing N loadings by 25%, spatial targeting methods could reduce costs by an average of 30% compared with uniform BMP placement under three historical climate scenarios. Cost savings from targeting are 38% under three future climate scenarios. Chapter 2 scales up the study area to the Susquehanna watershed (71,000 km2). We examine the effects of targeting the required reductions in N runoff within counties, across counties, and both within and across counties for the Susquehanna watershed. We set the required N reduction to 35%. Using the uniform strategy to meet the required N reduction as the baseline, results show that costs of achieving a regional 35% N reduction goal can be reduced by 13%, 31% and 36% with cross-county targeting, within-county targeting and within and across county targeting, respectively. Results from Chapters 1 and 2 suggest that cost effectiveness of government subsidy programs for water quality improvement in agriculture can be increased by targeting them to areas with lower N abatement costs. In addition, targeting benefits are likely to be even larger under climate change. Chapter 3 investigates the landowner's nutrient credit trading behavior when facing the price uncertainty given the credits are allowed to be banked for future use. A two-step decision model is used in this study. For the first step, we determine the landowner's application level of a BMP on working land in the initial time period. The nutrient credits awarded to the landowner depend on the nutrient reduction level at the edge of field generated by the BMP application. For the second step, we use an intertemporal model to examine the landowner's credit trading behavior with stochastic price fluctuations over time and with transaction costs. The theoretical framework is applied with a numerical simulation incorporated with a hydro-economic model and dynamic programming. Nutrient Management (NM) is selected as the BMP on working land to generate N credits. We find that gains to the landowner from credit banking increase with higher price volatility and with higher price drift, but that gains are larger with price volatility. However, for a landowner holding a small amount of nutrient credits, the gains from credit banking are small due to transaction costs.
Doctor of Philosophy
Two considerations are critical for efforts to mitigate nutrient runoff from nonpoint sources: cost effectiveness of strategies to reduce nutrient runoff and landowners' incentives to participate in these programs. This dissertation is composed of three manuscripts, aiming to evaluate the cost effectiveness of government subsidy programs for water quality management in agriculture and investigate the landowner's incentives to participate in water quality trading programs for the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Chapter 1 investigates gains from targeting Best Management Practices (BMPs) under current and future climate conditions based on the soil characteristics relative to uniform BMP application for a small experimental watershed (4.23km2). Chapter 2 scales up the study area to a 71,000 km2 watershed and treats each county within the watershed as a representative farm to explore economic gains from targeting within county and across county based on counties' physical conditions and agricultural patterns. Both Chapters show that cost-effectiveness of government subsidy programs can be improved by spatial targeting BMPs to areas with lower abatement costs. Gains from targeting increase under climate change. In Chapter 3 we shows how a landowner's revenues from nutrient credit selling will be affected if the credits are allowed to be banked for future use when she faces price uncertainty. We find that gains to the landowner from credit banking increase more with higher price volatility than with higher price drift. Gains from banking are largely reduced by transaction costs associated with trading.
34
Coulibaly, Housseini Diadié. "Drinking water quality and management strategies in small Quebec utilities." DoctoralThesis, Université Laval, 2003. http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/17867.
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La présente thèse porte sur une étude des petits systèmes municipaux du Québec (en l’occurrence, ceux desservant 10 000 personnes ou moins) et comporte trois volets. Le premier volet se focalise sur un portrait historique de la qualité de l’eau distribuée et sur les stratégies de gestion. Parallèlement, il met l'historique de la qualité et les stratégies de gestion en relation avec certains paramètres importants de la qualité de l’eau. Les résultats de ce volet montrent que pour les systèmes s’approvisionnant en eau de surface et pratiquant uniquement une chloration, la différence entre le nombre annuel moyen de rinçages des systèmes ayant connu des problèmes de qualité et ceux n’ayant pas connu de tels problèmes s’est avérée statistiquement significative. En plus, certains indicateurs de la pression agricole sur le territoire des municipalités concernées apparurent significativement corrélés avec les épisodes de coliformes. Le deuxième volet porte sur une étude de la variation spatio-temporelle de la qualité de l’eau dans dix petits systèmes. Ces systèmes furent répartis en deux groupes : quatre systèmes qui n’ont jamais ou ont rarement distribué de l’eau dérogeant aux normes microbiologiques provinciales relatives à l’eau potable et six systèmes qui ont très souvent dérogé auxdites normes. Les résultats montrent que les différences entre les deux groupes de systèmes sont essentiellement imputables aux teneurs en chlore résiduel libre et au nombre de colonies de bactéries hétérotrophes aérobies et anaérobies facultatives (BHAA) dans les réseaux de distribution correspondants et, dans une moindre mesure, aux doses de chlore appliquées. Le troisième volet inclut trois parties : la première est un portait des caractéristiques d’opération, de l’infrastructure et de la maintenance ; la deuxième est consacrée au développement d’indicateurs de performance pour les petits systèmes ; alors que la troisième traite des facteurs humains et organisationnels. Le portrait a révélé des tendances intéressantes qui ont presque toutes été confirmées par les indicateurs de performance des systèmes de distribution. Les facteurs humains et organisationnels dégagèrent des aspects tels que les antécédents scolaires, la formation complémentaire, l’expérience, la bonne conscience des nouveaux défis, le niveau de préparation pour y faire face, et l’appui des autorités locales. Dans son ensemble, cette recherche aura permis de procéder à une étude exhaustive des stratégies de gestion de la qualité de l’eau potable généralement mises de l’avant par les gestionnaires de petits systèmes et de développer des outils explicatifs pouvant guider utilement leur action, de même que celle des gestionnaires relevant des divers paliers gouvernementaux.
This thesis presents a study of small Quebec municipal utilities (i.e., serving 10,000 people or fewer) and includes three chapters. The first chapter focuses on a portrait of historical quality of distributed water and on management strategies. Concurrently, it puts historical quality and management strategies in relation to certain important water quality parameters. Results show that for surface water utilities using chlorination alone, the mean difference of annual system flushings between utilities that have experienced difficulties with historical quality and those not having experienced such difficulties proved statistically significant. In addition, some agricultural land-use indicators within the municipal territory appeared significantly correlated with coliform occurrences. The second chapter studies the spatial and temporal variation of drinking water quality in ten small utilities. These utilities were divided into two groups: four utilities that had never or rarely served water violating the provincial drinking water microbiological standards and six utilities that very often infringed upon said standards. Results show that the differences between the two groups of utilities are associated essentially with maintained chlorine residuals and heterotrophic plate count bacteria populations in corresponding distribution systems and, to a lesser extent, to the applied chlorine doses. The study includes three distinctive parts: the first one is a portrait of studied utilities’ operational, infrastructure, and maintenance characteristics; the second part is devoted to development of indicators of performance for the same utilities, whereas the last part deals with human and organisational factors. The portrait revealed interesting trends, most of which had been confirmed by utility performance indicators. As for human and organizational factors, they allowed highlighting such issues like educational background, supplementary training, experience, awareness of and preparedness to take up new challenges, and support from local authorities. Overall, this research enabled a thorough investigation of management strategies the most popular with small drinking water utilities and the development of explanatory tools that may usefully guide action from local managers and government bodies.
35
Xu, Yuelu. "Essays on Water Quality Management for the Chesapeake Bay Watershed." Dissertation, Virginia Tech, 2002. http://hdl.handle.net/10919/96943.
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Water quality management for agricultural production is a complicated and interesting problem. Hydrological and economic factors must be considered when designing strategies to reduce nutrient runoff from agricultural activities. This dissertation is composed of three chapters that investigate cost-effective ways to mitigate water pollution from agricultural nonpoint pollution sources and explore farmers' incentives when participating in water quality trading programs. Chapter 1 investigates landscape targeting of best management practices (BMPs) based on topographic index (TI) to determine how targeting would affect costs of meeting nitrogen (N) loading goals for Mahantango watershed, Pennsylvania. We use the results from two climate models and the mean of the ensemble of seven climate models to estimate expected climate changes and the Soil and Water Assessment Tool-Variable Source Area (SWAT-VSA) model to predict crop yields and N export. Costs of targeting and uniform placement of BMPs across the entire study area (4.23 km2) are compared under historical and future climate scenarios. We find that with a goal of reducing N loadings by 25%, spatial targeting methods could reduce costs by an average of 30% compared with uniform BMP placement under three historical climate scenarios. Cost savings from targeting are 38% under three future climate scenarios. Chapter 2 scales up the study area to the Susquehanna watershed (71,000 km2). We examine the effects of targeting the required reductions in N runoff within counties, across counties, and both within and across counties for the Susquehanna watershed. We set the required N reduction to 35%. Using the uniform strategy to meet the required N reduction as the baseline, results show that costs of achieving a regional 35% N reduction goal can be reduced by 13%, 31% and 36% with cross-county targeting, within-county targeting and within and across county targeting, respectively. Results from Chapters 1 and 2 suggest that cost effectiveness of government subsidy programs for water quality improvement in agriculture can be increased by targeting them to areas with lower N abatement costs. In addition, targeting benefits are likely to be even larger under climate change. Chapter 3 investigates the landowner's nutrient credit trading behavior when facing the price uncertainty given the credits are allowed to be banked for future use. A two-step decision model is used in this study. For the first step, we determine the landowner's application level of a BMP on working land in the initial time period. The nutrient credits awarded to the landowner depend on the nutrient reduction level at the edge of field generated by the BMP application. For the second step, we use an intertemporal model to examine the landowner's credit trading behavior with stochastic price fluctuations over time and with transaction costs. The theoretical framework is applied with a numerical simulation incorporated with a hydro-economic model and dynamic programming. Nutrient Management (NM) is selected as the BMP on working land to generate N credits. We find that gains to the landowner from credit banking increase with higher price volatility and with higher price drift, but that gains are larger with price volatility. However, for a landowner holding a small amount of nutrient credits, the gains from credit banking are small due to transaction costs.
Doctor of Philosophy
Two considerations are critical for efforts to mitigate nutrient runoff from nonpoint sources: cost effectiveness of strategies to reduce nutrient runoff and landowners' incentives to participate in these programs. This dissertation is composed of three manuscripts, aiming to evaluate the cost effectiveness of government subsidy programs for water quality management in agriculture and investigate the landowner's incentives to participate in water quality trading programs for the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Chapter 1 investigates gains from targeting Best Management Practices (BMPs) under current and future climate conditions based on the soil characteristics relative to uniform BMP application for a small experimental watershed (4.23km2). Chapter 2 scales up the study area to a 71,000 km2 watershed and treats each county within the watershed as a representative farm to explore economic gains from targeting within county and across county based on counties' physical conditions and agricultural patterns. Both Chapters show that cost-effectiveness of government subsidy programs can be improved by spatial targeting BMPs to areas with lower abatement costs. Gains from targeting increase under climate change. In Chapter 3 we shows how a landowner's revenues from nutrient credit selling will be affected if the credits are allowed to be banked for future use when she faces price uncertainty. We find that gains to the landowner from credit banking increase more with higher price volatility than with higher price drift. Gains from banking are largely reduced by transaction costs associated with trading.
36
Morillo, Sebastian. "Engineering solutions to water quality problems in lakes." University of Western Australia. Centre for Water Research, 2008. http://theses.library.uwa.edu.au/adt-WU2008.0153.
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Lake restoration and management strategies focus on reducing the negative impacts of enriched or polluted inflows. These strategies become of paramount importance when lakes are used for recreational and/or drinking water purposes. Long term control of eutrophication and turbidity problems associated with large inflow loads is usually oriented to catchment management. Although it has been suggested that this is the correct long term approach, public concerns usually require a short term solution. In addition, due to political and economic costs related to changes in catchment management, in-lake restoration technologies have been emerging as a viable pretreatment option, complementary to water treatment plants, both reducing the operational costs of the water treatment plant and ameliorating the water residing in the lakes. This research investigates the effects of two in-lake technologies on the dynamics of inflowing rivers, where basin shape plays a significant role. The three lakes in this study suffer from eutrophication combined with a distinctive water quality problem: from turbidity in Silvan Reservoir (Australia), to heavy metal loads in Coeur d'Alene Lake (USA) and industrial wastes in Lake Como (Italy). Firstly, the influence of basin morphology, wind speed, and wind direction on the fate and transport of two rivers flowing into the L-shaped Coeur d'Alene Lake was examined, and it was shown that transport and mixing patterns in a lake can be greatly influenced by the shape of the lake, leading to important consequences for the plankton ecology in the lake. Secondly, in Silvan Reservoir we investigated the potential to modify the basin shape using vertical barriers, increasing the retention time and hence the barrier capacity to microbial pollution. A final in-lake technology was tested for Lake Como, using a downward pointing impeller to remove polluted water from the coastal margin. Lessons from these three examples indicate that there is significant potential for in-lake remediation at relatively low cost, over relatively short timescales.
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龐仲嵐 and Chung-nam Pong. "Water quality of reservoirs in Hong Kong." PG_Thesis, The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong), 2007. http://hub.hku.hk/bib/B45013809.
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38
Willis, Naomi. "The effects of water table drawdown and catchment management on DOC export and water quality." Electronic Thesis or Dissertation, Bangor University, 2009. https://research.bangor.ac.uk/portal/en/theses/the-effects-of-water-table-drawdown-and-catchment-management-on-doc-export-and-water-quality(5aaed6e2-4023-484c-8ccc-a4e98505d795).html.
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The intention of this study was to investigate the two most significant sources of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to drinking water supplies; peatlands and algae. For two drinking water reservoirs in north Wales, Llyn Cefni and Llyn Alaw, markedly different seasonal trends were recorded, and these were linked to contrasting aspects of the lake's catchment and the meteorological conditions experienced during the two surveys. For Llyn Cefni, the DOC signatures for the inflowing streams and lakes correlated significantly, Afon Erddreiniog (R2=0.585, p<0.01) and Afon Cefni (R2=0.784, p<0.001), indicating a strong flux of terrestrial DOC into the lake from a nearby peatland. Much less of a seasonal trend in DOC was recorded at Llyn Alaw, with concentrations averaging 10.7 mg L 1, reflecting the absence of a peaty catchment. DOC derived from autochthonous production was also shown to be influential. Both lakes experienced nitrate depletion during the summer of the surveys, falling from 12.7 mg L-1 in Llyn Cefni and 6.5 mg L"' in L lyn Alaw to undetectable levels, suggesting extreme eutrophy, although the lack of detectable phosphate at Llyn Alaw may be why the growth of algal blooms was much less prevalent than at Llyn Cefni. A new type of floating constructed wetlands (FCW) was shown to Offer a potential solution 'to the production of algal blooms in the reservoirs, whereby over a four-week period, the FCWs were able to reduce algal growth by 80%, through sequestration of the key nutrients nitrate and phosphate and possibly due to the direct inhibitory properties of phenolic compounds on the algae. Furthermore, it was discovered that 8 Phragmites aus/ralis plants is the ideal number to maximise nutrient uptake and minimise algal growth in 70 litres of water. Studies in Finland and Malaysia were undertaken to highlight the importance of peatland management practices, as' vast areas of the world's boreal and tropical peatlands have been drained for agricultural purposes. The study in Finland showed that although there was noconsistent response in DOC export potential with drainage across the sites of contrasting nutrient status, a significant correlation was observed between DOC and the water content of the soil, R2 = 0.59 (p< 0.001), indicating that as the water-table height falls the DOC export potential of the soil increases. It was also considered that the trend in DOC is driven by changes in soil pH and the resulting suppression of the key carbon regulating enzyme phenol oxidase; where acidity has increased following drainage phenol oxidase activity has declined and the concentration of DOC released has increased, conforming the view that phenol oxidase acts as an `enzymic latch' in peatlands. The study in Malaysia recorded a 40% greater export potential of DOC from the oil palm soil and more than twice the DOC concentration in drainage waters compared to the undisturbed peat soil. The activity of the key hydrolytic enzyme ß-glucosidase was 25% higher in the oil palm soil than the undisturbed peat. This may be due to an improved soil organic matter quality at the oil palm site and suggests that increased activity of this enzyme may have been crucial for mobilising DOC from the soil matrix. The repercussions of these studies are discussed with emphasis on the potential impacts of a changing climate.
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Stefan, Catalin, Hoang Mai Phan, Van Bo Pham, and Peter Werner. "Capacity development platform for promoting efficient urban water management: Event Report." Doc-type:article, Technische Universität Dresden, 2008. https://tud.qucosa.de/id/qucosa%3A26018.
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The present paper summarizes the results of an application initiated within the framework of 35 years celebration of diplomatic relations between Germany and Vietnam. Within this context, the Technische Universität Dresden (TUD) and the Academy of Managers for Construction and Cities (AMC) jointly organized in 2010 a series of four thematic workshops. The one-day events have had similar structures and focused on main subjects of interest in the water sectors of both countries. In Vietnam, the workshops took place in Ha Noi, Hai Phong, Nha Trang and Vung Tau. Best practice examples about conceptualization, operation and maintenance of municipal water works provided an insight view into the challenges currently faced by the water service providers. TUD and AMC, together with their German and Vietnamese partners, addressed these issues by organizing the consecutive workshops under the umbrella of Vietnamese Water Supply and Sewerage Association (VWSA) and in coordination with the German Water Partnership (GWP).
Bài báo trình bày tóm tắt các kết quả của một đề xuất trong khuôn khổ kỷ niệm 35 năm quan hệ ngoại giao giữa CHLB Đức và Việt Nam. Theo đó, Trường Đại học Tổng hợp Kỹ Thuật Dresden (TUD) và Học viện Quản lý Xây dựng và Đô thị (AMC) đã phối hợp tổ chức một chuỗi bốn hội thảo chuyên đề trong năm 2010. Mỗi hội thảo thực hiện trong một ngày chương trình giống nhau và tập trung vào các chủ đề chính mà cả hai quốc gia đều quan tâm trong lĩnh vực nước. Phía Việt Nam, các hội thảo được tổ chức ở các thành phố Hà Nội, Hải Phòng, Nha Trang và Vũng Tàu. Nhiều bài thuyết trình về khái niệm hóa, vận hành và bảo dưỡng các công trình cấp nước đô thị đã thảo luận sâu về những thách thức mà các dịch vụ cấp nước đang gặp phải. TUD và AMC, kết hợp với các đối tác CHLB Đức và Việt Nam, đã ghi nhận các vấn đề phát sinh thông qua việc tổ chức nhiều hội thảo liên tục dưới sự bảo trợ của Hiệp hội Cấp thoát nước Việt Nam (VWSA) và Hiệp hội nước CHLB Đức (GWP).
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Fneer, Mohamed K. "Development of fibre optic based ammonia sensor for water quality management." Electronic Thesis or Dissertation, City University London, 1997. http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.363350.
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Onuoha, Anthonia Ezinwanne. "The design of a water quality management system for Nigerian rivers." Electronic Thesis or Dissertation, University of Salford, 1993. http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.357159.
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Shu, Tongxin. "Power management in a sensor network for automated water quality monitoring." Thesis/Dissertation, University of British Columbia, 2004. http://hdl.handle.net/2429/57922.
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Power management is crucial in remote environmental monitoring, especially when long-term monitoring is needed. Renewable energy sources such as solar and wind may be harvested for sustaining a monitoring system. Without proper power management, equipment within the monitoring system may become nonfunctional and as a consequence, the data or events captured during the monitoring process will become inaccurate as well. Based on reinforcement learning, this thesis develops and applies an adaptive sampling algorithm and duty cycling for power management in automated water quality monitoring with energy harvesting. The state of the water quality parameters in a water source such as a lake or river may change in an unpredictable manner (e.g., may remain stable or change abruptly) depending on many factors such as climate or environmental changes or those caused by humans (e.g., waste water discharge from factories, construction, farming, and litter). Ideally, the sampling rate that is used for a sensor signal should depend on the rate at which the signal changes. Hence, adaptive sampling scheme using reinforcement learning is used in the present work, for water quality monitoring. The energy consumption for signal acquisition, processing, and transmission all depend on the sampling frequency, either directly or indirectly. Hence, it is desirable for the sensor nodes to dynamically learn how to determine the best sampling frequency for a sensor signal, depending how the signal changes due to the environmental situations, and adjust the sampling rate accordingly. It is found that by dynamically changing the sampling frequency, the battery state can be maintained at an energy-neutral level. Duty cycling also contributes to achieving the same goal by scheduling the working and sleeping time of a sensor node. It is shown that by switching between the work mode and the sleep mode, a satisfactory battery state can be maintained. These two methods have different degrees of advantage and performance in power management, but it is shown that both methods can achieve the energy neutrality while maintaining a high level of accuracy in the acquired data.
Applied Science, Faculty of
Mechanical Engineering, Department of
Graduate
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Mensah, Paul Kojo. "Environmental water quality management of glyphosate-based herbicides in South Africa." Thesis, Rhodes University, 2013. http://hdl.handle.net/10962/d1001987.
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Although the use of pesticides is necessary to meet the socio-economic needs of many developing countries, especially in Africa, side effects of these bio-active chemicals have contributed to contaminating aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Environmental water quality degradation by pesticides interferes with ecosystem health and poses numerous risks to aquatic life. In South Africa, glyphosate-based herbicides are frequently used to control weeds and invading alien plants, but ultimately end up in freshwater ecosystems. However, there are no South African-based environmental water quality management strategies to regulate these bio-active chemicals. Therefore, this study sought to provide a sound scientific background for the environmental water quality management of glyphosate-based herbicides in South Africa, by conducting both laboratory and field investigations. In the laboratory investigations, aquatic ecotoxicological methods were used to evaluate responses of the freshwater aquatic shrimp Caridina nilotica exposed to Roundup® at different biological system scales, and the responses of multiple South African aquatic species exposed to Roundup® through species sensitivity distribution (SSD). In the field investigations, the effect of Kilo Max WSG on the physicochemical and biological conditions of three selected sites in the Swartkops River before and after a spray episode by Working for Water were evaluated through biomonitoring, using the South African Scoring System version 5 (SASS5) as a sampling protocol. Both Roundup® and Kilo Max WSG are glyphosate-based herbicides. All the data were subjected to relevant statistical analyses. Findings of this study revealed that Roundup® elicited responses at different biological system scales in C. nilotica, while SSD estimates were used to derive proposed water quality guidelines for glyphosate-based herbicides in South Africa. The biomonitoring revealed that using glyphosate-based herbicides to control water hyacinth within the Swartkops River had a negligible impact on the physicochemical and biological conditions. Based on these findings, a conceptual framework that can be used for the integrated environmental water quality management of glyphosate-based herbicides in South Africa was developed as part of integrated water resource management (IWRM). The combined data sets contribute to a sound scientific basis for the environmental water quality management of glyphosate-based herbicides in South Africa.
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Holley, Jonathan Worth. "Water Quality in Headwater Streams: A Test of Best Management Practices." Text, W&M ScholarWorks, 2001. https://scholarworks.wm.edu/etd/1539626889.
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Le, Thi Phuong Quynh, Tu Cuong Ho, Thi Thuy Duong, Thi Bich Ngoc Nguyen, Duy An Vu, Quoc Long Pham, and Christina Seidler. "Water quality of the Red River system in the period 2012 - 2013: Short communication." Doc-type:article, Technische Universität Dresden, 2012. https://tud.qucosa.de/id/qucosa%3A28055.
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Few data are available on the quality of Red river water that is used for multi-purposes, including for domestic water demand in some rural areas. This paper presents the observation results of the Red River water quality in two years 2012 and 2013. The monitoring results showed that the average concentrations of nutrients (N, P) were still far lower than the allowed value of the Vietnamese standard limits for surface water quality (QCVN 08:2008/BTNMT, column A2). Due to the impoundment of two big dams in the Da tributary, the suspended solids contents in river water decreased remarkably. The dissolved heavy metal (DHM) concentrations varied in a high range: Cu: 10 – 80 μg.l-1; Zn: 2 – 88 μg.l-1; Cr: 0.2 – 5.1 μg.l-1; Pb: 2 - 107 μg.l-1; Cd: 2 – 12 μg.l-1; Mn: 2 - 35 μg.l-1; and Fe: 160 – 2370 μg.l-1. Most of the mean values of DHM were lower than the allowed values of the QCVN 08:2008/BTNMT, but at several points of time, several DHM (e.g. Fe, Cd, Pb) contents exceeded the allowed values. The Total Coliform (TC) and Fecal Coliform (FC) densities varied in a high range: TC: 23 to 13,000MPN.100ml-1 and FC: 0 to 1,600MPN.100ml-1 and they exceeded the allowed values QCVN 08:2008/BTNMT at several points observed. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) contents were in low level and the particulate organic carbon (POC) content mainly derived from soil organic leaching and erosion in the basin. The results underlined the need for regularly monitoring the river water quality, and there should be some effective solutions to manage and treat the waste sources in order to provide safe water for different actual purposes use in the Red River basin.
Rất ít số liệu sẵn có về chất lượng nước sông Hồng, dòng sông được sử dụng cho nhiều mục đích, bao gồm cả cung cấp nước sinh hoạt ở một số vùng nông thôn. Bài báo trình bày các kết quả quan trắc chất lượng nước sông Hồng trong hai năm 2012 và 2013. Kết quả quan trắc cho thấy chất dinh dưỡng (N, P) thấp xa so với giới hạn cho phép của tiêu chuẩn Việt Nam về chất lượng nước mặt (QCVN 08: 2008/BTNMT cột A2). Do có hai hồ chứa trên sông Đà, hàm lượng chất rắn lơ lửng trong nước sông giảm đáng kể. Các kim loại nặng hòa tan (DHM) có hàm lượng dao động trong khoảng rộng: Cu: 10-80 μg.l-1; Zn: 2-88 μg.l-1; Cr: 0,2-5,1 μg.l-1; Pb: 2-107 μg.l-1; Cd: 2-12 μg.l-1; Mn: 2-35 μg.l-1; và Fe: 160 - 2370 μg.l-1. Hầu hết các giá trị trung bình của DHM thấp hơn giá trị cho phép của quy chuẩn QCVN 08: 2008/BTNMT, tuy nhiên, tại một số thời điểm, một số DHM (ví dụ Fe, Cd, Pb) có hàm lượng vượt quá giới hạn cho phép. Mật độ tổng coliform (TC) và coliform phân (FC) dao động trong khoảng rộng: TC: 23 đến 13,000MPN.100ml-1 và FC: 0 đến 1,600MPN.100ml-1 và tại một số thời điểm mật độ TC và FC vượt giá trị cho phép của Quy chuẩn QCVN 08:2008/BTNMT. Hàm lượng cabon hữu cơ hòa tan (DOC) ở mức thấp, và hàm lượng cacbon hữu cơ dạng không tan (POC) chủ yếu có nguồn gốc từ đất rửa trôi và xói mòn trong lưu vực. Kết quả quan trắc nhấn mạnh nhu cầu giám sát thường xuyên chất lượng nước sông, và nên có các giải pháp hiệu quả để quản lý và xử lý các nguồn gây ô nhiễm trong lưu vực nhằm cung cấp nước sạch cho các mục đích sử dụng nước sông Hồng như hiện nay.
46
Kumpel, Emily. "Water Quality and Quantity in Intermittent and Continuous Piped Water Supplies in Hubli-Dharwad, India." Thesis, University of California, Berkeley, 2005. http://pqdtopen.proquest.com/#viewpdf?dispub=3616477.
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In at least 45 low- and middle-income countries, piped water systems deliver water for limited durations. Few data are available of the impact of intermittent water supply (IWS) on the water quality and quantity delivered to households. This thesis examines the impact of intermittently supplied piped water on the quality and quantity of water delivered to residential taps in Hubli-Dharwad, India, when compared to continuous piped water supply. A framework for understanding the pathways through which IWS can impact water quality is first developed. The extent to which contamination occurs in Hubli-Dharwad is quantified by comparing microbial water quality throughout the distribution system in an intermittent system and a continuous system in the same city. The mechanisms affecting water quality in the IWS network in Hubli-Dharwad are identified by measuring changes in water quality over time using continuous measurements from pressure and physico-chemical sensors paired with grab samples tested for indicator bacteria. In the final chapter, a new method of measuring household water consumption in an IWS when supply durations are limited and few metered data are available is developed. This thesis showed that the intermittent supply was frequently subject to contamination in the distribution system and that households with intermittent supply consumed limited quantities of water. While these results demonstrated that converting to a continuous water supply can improve water quality when compared to intermittent supply, this conversion may not be possible in the near future for resource-constrained towns and cities. This thesis contributes to knowledge of the mechanisms causing contamination and constricting water access in IWS systems, which can help improve systems to ensure that people with piped water receive water that is reliable, safe, and sufficient.

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Rout, Robert Stanley. "Saline intrusion and agricultural water resource management, Sultanate of Oman." Electronic Thesis or Dissertation, Durham University, 2000. http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/1206/.
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48
Vo, Le Phu. "Urban stormwater management in Vietnam." 2000. http://web4.library.adelaide.edu.au/theses/09ENV/09envl595.pdf.
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Liu, Hsuan-Ju, and 劉軒如. "Water quality index for reservoir water quality management." 學位論文 ; thesis, 2014. http://ndltd.ncl.edu.tw/handle/19284994805189077247.
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碩士
淡江大學
水資源及環境工程學系碩士班
102
Various trophic state indices are used to manage water quality in lakes and reservoirs in countries.The Taiwan EPA uses the Carlson trophic State index (CTSI) and its water quality parameter includes chlorophyll-a (Chl-a)、Secchi depth transparency (SD) and total phosphorus. The water quality data of Shimen reservoir and Feitsui reservoirs, which was monitored during 1993 to 2012, was collected from the Taiwan EPA. The purposes of this research were: (1) to review the trophic classification among trophic state indices, (2) to evaluate limiting nutrient of eutrophication in the Shimen reservoir and Feitsui reservoir, (3) to assess the eturophication ratio by various trophic state indices. Moreover, the trophic state indices included CTSI, OECD comprehensive index (OECD), the Canadian single parameter index on total phosphorus (TP), China trophic level index (TLI), Florida trophic state index (TSI), and Kansas trophic state index on Chl-a (TSI(Chl-a)). The result shows that based on water quality parameters and Sub-index function, trophic status of water quality can be grouped into 3-6 classifications. It was easier to be considered as eutrophic status by CTSI because CTSI grouped trophic status only into 3 classifications. The average of total N/P ratio of Shimen reservoir and Feitsui reservoir was 13.67 and 21.88. And, limiting nutrient was TN and TP for Shimen reservoir, whereas it was only TP for Feitsui reservoir. The result from the principal components analysis indicated the main parameters causing eutophication for Shimen reservoir and Feitsui reservoir were TN, Chl-a, TP, and SS, TP, TN, respectively. The correlation between CTSI and TP was better than that between CTSI and Chl-a. The ratio of eutrophic status was 9-14% by CTSI, and there were 1-2% and 0-12%, respectively, for OECD and TSI(Chl-a). It indicated the very lower ratio of eutrophic status by OECD because OECD grouped trophic status into 5 classifications, and the trophic status value for grouping eutrophic by OECD and CTSI was 54.2 and 50. Furthermore, due to being low concentration of Chl-a ranged 0.15-7.05μg/ L (average = 2.42 μg/ L) of Feitsui reservoir, the ratio of eutrophic status was 0%. Therefore, it could conclude that it was easier to be considered as eutrophic status by CTSI because CTSI grouped trophic status only into 3 classifications. It suggests that Taiwan EPA review the suitability of other trophic state indices to evaluate the trophic status of reservoir water quality.
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Chang, Tso-Chen, and 張祚楨. "Evaluation on Water Quality Index for River Water Quality Management." 學位論文 ; thesis, 2013. http://ndltd.ncl.edu.tw/handle/02708301062910863950.
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碩士
淡江大學
水資源及環境工程學系碩士班
101
The water quality index (WQI) can be applied to river water quality management. The Taiwan EPA uses river pollution index (RPI) to evaluate the performance of river pollution control. The RPI’s water quality parameter includes SS, BOD, DO and NH3-N. The purposes of this study were: (1) to investigate the correlation between RPI and water quality parameters, (2) to examine the correlation between RPI and WQI, and (3) to evaluate the replacement of RPI with WQI7 in river water quality management. The data of river water quality, which was monitored during 2007-2011, was collected from Taiwan EPA. The results show that RPI value increased with increasing both concentration of BOD and NH3-N, and the correlation coefficient values (R2) between RPI value and BOD, NH3-N ranged from 0.82 to 0.86. By contrast, the R2 value of 0.04 was very low between RPI and SS, implying that RPI was unsuitable for SS concentration higher than 100 mg/L. WQI4 has the same water quality parameters with RPI, while WQI7 has three additional parameters as pH, total phosphorus (TP) and coliform groups. Both R2 values between RPI and WQI4, WQI7 are 0.91, and statistics F-value test shows that both WQI4 and WQI7 could replace RPI. The amount of 48.6% of river water quality could be classified as excellent and good grade by WQI4 and it became lower as 41.4% by WQI7. This is due to water quality parameters of WQI4 less than that of WQI7. In addition, this study calculated the change of RPI and WQI7 values at Tamsui River Basin’s monitoring stations water quality between 2007 and 2011 to evaluate the improvement ratio of river water quality. The results show the improvement ratio by RPI value was 50-55% higher than that of 10-20% by WQI7 value. This is because that the value range of RPI (1-10) is smaller than that of WQI7 (0-100). It implies that WQI7 was more suitable than RPI for evaluating river water quality improvement ratio. Moreover, WQI7 is based on the surface classification and water quality standards. Therefore, it could conclude that EPA can replace RPI with WQI7 to manage river water quality and evaluate improvement ratio of river water quality.

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