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Journal articles on the topic "Lungs Radiation injuries":
Saburova, A. S., M. V. Filimonova, V. V. Yuzhakov, L. I. Shevchenko, N. D. Yakovleva, L. N. Bandurko, A. E. Koretskaya, N. K. Fomina, V. O. Saburov, and A. S. Filimonov. "The influence of nitric oxide synthases inhibitor Т1023 on the development of radiation pneumofibrosis in rats." Radiatsionnaya Gygiena = Radiation Hygiene 13, no. 1 (March 31, 2020): 60–67. http://dx.doi.org/10.21514/1998-426x-2020-13-1-60-67.
The purpose of the work was to study the ability of the NOS inhibitor T1023 to prevent late radiation injuries. Methods: the effects of T1023 (75 mg / kg, once i.p. 30 minutes before the irradiation) on the development of post-radiation pulmonitis and pneumofibrosis in rats with thoracic exposure to g-radiation at a dose of 12.5 Gy were studied histopathologically and morphometrically. The results of the studies showed that there wasn’t a significant objective effect of T1023 on the development of early radiation-induced lung injuries (9 weeks after irradiation). But it prevented late radiation induced lung injuaries (26 weeks after irradiation) – there were a significant lesser pathomorphological manifestations of post-radiation pulmonitis, proliferation of connective tissue and the development of fibrotic changes in the lung parenchyma. At this stage, the action of T1023 clearly contributed to the preservation of the normal histostructure of the lungs, reducing by 40% the content of compaction zones in the parenchyma. The ability of the NOS inhibitor T1023 to significantly limit the development of lungs late radiation reaction confirms the promise of further development of this compound as a means for prevention radiation therapy complications.
DiCarlo, Andrea L. "Scientific research and product development in the United States to address injuries from a radiation public health emergency." Journal of Radiation Research 62, no. 5 (July 24, 2021): 752–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jrr/rrab064.
Abstract The USA has experienced one large-scale nuclear incident in its history. Lessons learned during the Three-Mile Island nuclear accident provided government planners with insight into property damage resulting from a low-level release of radiation, and an awareness concerning how to prepare for future occurrences. However, if there is an incident resulting from detonation of an improvised nuclear device or state-sponsored device/weapon, resulting casualties and the need for medical treatment could overwhelm the nation’s public health system. After the Cold War ended, government investments in radiation preparedness declined; however, the attacks on 9/11 led to re-establishment of research programs to plan for the possibility of a nuclear incident. Funding began in earnest in 2004, to address unmet research needs for radiation biomarkers, devices and products to triage and treat potentially large numbers of injured civilians. There are many biodosimetry approaches and medical countermeasures (MCMs) under study and in advanced development, including those to address radiation-induced injuries to organ systems including bone marrow, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, lungs, skin, vasculature and kidneys. Biomarkers of interest in determining level of radiation exposure and susceptibility of injury include cytogenetic changes, ‘omics’ technologies and other approaches. Four drugs have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of acute radiation syndrome (ARS), with other licensures being sought; however, there are still no cleared devices to identify radiation-exposed individuals in need of treatment. Although many breakthroughs have been made in the efforts to expand availability of medical products, there is still work to be done.
Nudnov, N. V., V. M. Sotnikov, and V. V. Ledenev. "A new Method of Quantitative Estimation of Radiation-Induced Lung Damage in Oncological Patients on the CT in Dynamics." Medical Visualization, no. 5 (October 28, 2017): 56–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.24835/1607-0763-2017-5-56-65.
Objective: to develop a methodology for quantitative assessment of changes in density parameters of pulmonary tissue on the basis of dynamic CT data, which makes it possible to assess the presence of the dependence of changes in lung tissue on the time elapsed after radiation therapy (RT), the dose and volume of irradiated pulmonary tissue.Materials and methods. Using the data collected by 11 patients with malignant lymphomas, we developed a new diagnostic technique for quantitative analysis, which is based on the analysis of the density of pulmonary tissue before and after RT in areas with a selected range of doses throughout the lung volume. All selected patients received LT in the chest region, using 3D-planning, fractions of 2Gy and total focal doses of 13–56 Gy. Also, each patient had at least two CT examinations (a total of 25 studies in the Dicom- format). The first CT scan was performed before LT, repeated – within 2–7 months after the end of RT.Results. In 6 patients, control CT examinations were performed 2.1–2.8 months after RT. As a result, a quantitative increase in the density indices in the range from +12 to +62 HU in regions of the lungs irradiated at a dose of more than 19 Gy was noted, different from the control areas. The volume of these areas of the lungs was from 16% to 30% of the total lung volume, and the volume of regions with the maximum values of density growth – from 7% to 14%. These changes in density are below the “visual” threshold. In control areas, the density change varied from −15 HU (increased airiness) to + 8 HU. According to the data of other CT studies performed later than 3 months after RT, the reverse development of changes characterizing the early radiation reaction was observed.Conclusions. A series of CT studies performed before and at various intervals after RT allows quantitative assessment of the dynamics of the indices of the density of irradiated pulmonary tissue, which is necessary for an objective assessment of the severity of early radiation-induced injuries of pulmonary tissue sites, depending on the dose. A study of the dynamics of these changes in pulmonary tissue density over time with RT and the connection of this indicator with the baseline data may allow one to predict radiation-induced damage to the lungs on the one hand, and on the other, to evaluate individual radiosensitivity.
Khomutova, E. Y., P. V. Novikov, and A. S. Shatalov. "Possibilities of low-dose radiation therapy in the treatment of intrapulmonary injuries caused by COVID-19 infection." Medical Visualization 25, no. 1 (March 24, 2021): 27–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.24835/1607-0763-991.
This paper examines the relevance of the use of a single irradiation of lungs in treatment of pneumonia caused by a new coronavirus infection. Clinical observations are presented that demonstrate perspectives in the treatment of this disease. Patients with severe pneumonia who were prescribed LD-RT (low-dose radiation therapy) at a dose of 0.5–1.5 Gy showed shorter recovery times and no complications. This method of treatment has shown its effectiveness in a number of studies from different countries, predicting success and economic benefits in its further use and study. A literature search containing information on relevant studies was carried out in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and Google Scholar systems. Attention was focused on full-text articles given their general availability in a pandemic.
Eckersley, Martyn, Carla Goncalves, Dalip Kumar, and Saman Perera. "A case of a mobile intrathoracic foreign object." Trauma 22, no. 1 (October 15, 2019): 70–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1460408619880140.
Penetrating chest trauma to children is rare in the UK, making up 0.8% of wounds to children. When it does occur, it often results in damage to mediastinal structures including but not limited to the heart, lungs and great vessels. Rarely foreign objects can be intrapericardial. We present the case of a 14-year-old boy who presented haemodynamically stable following pellet gun wound to the chest. Multi-modality imaging revealed the bullet to be in the pericardium without associated cardiothoracic injuries, confirmed following surgery. Although a multi-modality imaging approach was used in diagnosing the precise location of the gun pellet, including imaging involving ionising radiation, we argue that early localisation can potentially be achieved with initial imaging and basic anatomical correlation, reducing the time to diagnosis. Using all the images available, including CT scout images, can assist in localisation and identifying important negatives.
Li, Bailong, Cheng Li, Mo Zhu, Youjun Zhang, Jicong Du, Yang Xu, Bin Liu, et al. "Hypoxia-Induced Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Exhibit an Enhanced Therapeutic Effect on Radiation-Induced Lung Injury in Mice due to an Increased Proliferation Potential and Enhanced Antioxidant Ability." Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry 44, no. 4 (2017): 1295–310. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000485490.
Background/Aims: Radiation therapy is an important treatment for thoracic cancer; however, side effects accompanied with radiotherapy lead to limited tumor control and a decline in patient quality of life. Among these side effects, radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) is the most serious and common. Hence, an effective remedy for RILI is needed. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent adult stem cells that have been demonstrated to be an effective treatment in some disease caused by tissue damage. However, unlike other injuries, RILI received limited therapeutic effects from implanted MSCs due to local hypoxia and extensive reactive oxygen species (ROS) in irradiated lungs. Since the poor survival of MSCs is primarily due to hypoxia and ROS generation, we hypothesize that persistent and adaptive hypoxia treatment induces enhanced resistance to hypoxic stress in implanted MSC. The aim of this study is to investigate whether persistent and adaptive hypoxia treatment of bmMSCs prior to their transplantation in injured mice enhanced survival and improved curative effects in RILI. Methods: Primary bmMSCs were obtained from the marrow of six-week-old male C57BL6/J mice and were cultured either under normoxic conditions (21% O2) or hypoxic conditions (2.5% O2). Mice were injected with normoxia/hypoxia MSCs after thoracic irradiation (20 Gy). The therapeutic effects of MSCs on RILI were assessed by pathological examinations that included H&E staining, Masson staining and α-SMA staining; meanwhile, inflammatory factors were measured using an ELISA. The morphology of MSCs in vitro was recorded using a microscope and identified by flow cytometry, cell viability was measured using the CCK-8 assay, the potential for proliferation was detected by the EdU assay, and ROS levels were measured using a ROS fluorogenic probe. In addition, HIF-1α and several survival pathway proteins (Akt, p-Akt, Caspase-3) were also detected by western blotting. Results: Implanted MSCs alleviated both early radiation-induced pneumonia and late pulmonary fibrosis. However, hypoxia MSCs displayed a more pronounced therapeutic effect compared to normoxia MSCs. Compared to normoxia MSCs, the hypoxia MSCs demonstrated greater cell viability, an enhanced proliferation potential, decreased ROS levels and increased resistance to hypoxia and ROS stress. In addition, hypoxia MSCs achieved higher activation levels of HIF-1α and Akt, and HIF-1α played a critical role in the development of resistance. Conclusion: Hypoxia enhances the therapeutic effect of mesenchymal stromal cells on radiation-induced lung injury by promoting MSC proliferation and improving their antioxidant ability, mediated by HIF-1α.
Davydkin, V. I. "PROFESSOR IVAN NIKIFOROVICH PIKSIN (to the 85th anniversary of the birth)." Grekov's Bulletin of Surgery 178, no. 6 (March 18, 2020): 80–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.24884/0042-4625-2019-178-6-80-82.
The article is dedicated to the 85th birthday of the famous scientist, honored worker of science of the Russian Federation, honored worker of science of the Republic of Mordovia, honored doctor of the Republic of Mordovia, laureate of State prize, head of the scientific-pedagogical surgical school, doctor of medical Sciences professor Piksin Ivan Nikiforovich. I. N. Piksin is the author of fundamental studies of the biomedical effects of quantum radiation at the molecular, cellular and organismal levels in patients with acute destructive diseases of the lungs, purulent-septic diseases, lactational mastitis and other pathologies. The team of the scientific-pedagogical school led by I. N. Piksin explores the problems of diagnosis and treatment of gastroduodenal bleeding, mechanical jaundice, pancreatitis, suppurative diseases of the lung and pleura, surgical diseases of the heart, blood vessels, prevention of complications of limb injuries, diabetes and diabetic foot care, pediatric orthopedics. Under the leadership of I. N. Piksin, new minimally invasive technologies have introduced: transthoracic drainage and rehabilitation therapy of purulent cavities of the lung and pleura, percutaneous and transhepatic cholecystocholangiography, diagnostic and treatment interventions in space-occupying lesions of the abdomen and thyroid gland, ultrasound techniques of diabetes in acute destructive pancreatitis and others. He is considered as one of organizers of higher medical education system in the region. The professor is actively working on improvement in training of medical and scientific personnel for various regions of the Russian Federation.
Vasil’ev, A. Yu, and I. S. Obelchak. "Multidetector computed tomography in the diagnosis of lesions of the main vessels for gunshot injury of the chest." Regional blood circulation and microcirculation 18, no. 1 (May 3, 2019): 31–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.24884/1682-6655-2019-18-1-31-38.
Purpose – examine the possibilities of multislice computed tomangiography (MSCTA) in case of suspected damage to the great vessels in a chest gunshot fghting injury.Material and methods. A radiation survey of 130 wounded with gunshot injuries of the chest to assess the nature, diagnosis of gunshot injuries of the vascular bed.Results. Of the 130 wounded with gunshot wounds to the chest, 41 (31.5 %) of the injured had gunshot wounds to the chest were nonpenetrating, and 89 (68.5 %) had penetrating injuries. In 76 (58.4 %) patients with gunshot chest injuries, the nature of the wound was fragmentation, in 54 (41.6 %), wounds were bullet wounds. In the algorithm of radiation examination of patients with gunshot wounds of the chest to identify the nature of damage to the organs of the mediastinum and vascular structures, the main method of visualization was MSCT with contrast enhancement. Damage to the bone skeleton of the chest (ribs, collarbone, sternum, scapula) by MSCT was observed in 23 (17.6 %) patients. Almost half – 66 (50.1 %) of the wounded with gunshot injuries during MSCT examination, traumatic injury (pulmonitis) of the lung was observed. In 2 (1.5 %) cases, damage to the heart was detected that was not recognized at the stage of skilled surgical care. False posttraumatic aneurysm of the thoracic aorta was diagnosed in two wounded. Accuracy, sensitivity, specifcity of MSCT angiography in imaging of the vascular bed and diagnosis of damage to the great vessels of the chest cavity was 98, 97 and 97 %, respectively.Conclusions. MSCT made it possible to reliably assess the nature of the gunshot injuries of the chest, identify timely damage to the great vessels of the mediastinum, determine the localization of the foreign injuring bodies near the vascular structures, and determine the surgical tactics.
Fliss, H., and M. Menard. "Rapid neutrophil accumulation and protein oxidation in irradiated rat lungs." Journal of Applied Physiology 77, no. 6 (December 1, 1994): 2727–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jappl.19188.8.131.5227.
Exposure of lungs to high doses of ionizing radiation can initiate an injurious acute inflammatory response. We show that neutrophil content in the lungs of rats exposed to 10 Gy whole body gamma radiation increased threefold 4.5 h after irradiation and returned to normal by 24 h. Oxidized methionine in the proteins of the lungs, heart, liver, kidney, and jejunum increased significantly in 2 h. Treatment with the antioxidant dithiothreitol immediately after irradiation prevented methionine oxidation. Methionine oxidation was also observed after intrabronchial instillation of phorbol myristate acetate, a model of neutrophil oxidant-mediated pulmonary injury, as well as in isolated lungs perfused with hypochlorous acid, confirming the ability of neutrophil oxidants to cause protein oxidation in lungs. No change in glutathione or protein sulfhydryl content was detected in irradiated lungs 4.5 h after irradiation, possibly as a result of protection by the observed increase in pulmonary glutathione reductase. We therefore show that the acute pulmonary inflammatory response to radiation involves rapid neutrophil accumulation, oxidant production, and protein oxidation.
Redaelli, Paola, Amando Gamba, Antonello Stefano Martino, and Michele Triggiani. "Unexpected Radiation-Induced Aortic Wall Thickening Requiring Composite Graft Technique during Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting." Case Reports in Surgery 2017 (2017): 1–2. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2017/3831749.
Mediastinal radiation is commonly used to treat Hodgkin’s and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, lung and breast cancer. Cardiac complications after radiation therapy are well described, although rare. A large spectrum of injuries can occur, causing long term morbidity among survivors. We describe a case of post-actinic ascending aortic wall thickening that prevented saphenous vein proximal anastomosis and was successfully managed with aortic no-touch off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB), 25 years after radiation therapy for Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
Bibliography: leaves 168-184. The work in this study encompasses oxygen free radical related inflammation in the peripheral lung and in lung cells. Animal and human studies have been used. Methods include cell culture with function studies, protein chemistry, animal and human physiology, and cell and lung structure through histopathology, and various forms of electron microscopy. The work resulting from this thesis has formed an important basis for understanding acute and chronic lung injury.
Scarboro, Sarah Brashear. "The use of a thyroid uptake system for assaying internal contamination following a radioactive dispersal event." Thesis, Atlanta, Ga. : Georgia Institute of Technology, 2008. http://hdl.handle.net/1853/22639.
Scott, B. R. Models for pulmonary lethality and morbidity after irradiation from internal and external sources. Washington, DC: Division of Regulatory Applications, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 1989.
The lungs can be injured by radiation used in cancer treatment, with the rapidly dividing endothelial cells and type II pneumocytes most affected. Immediate injury is followed by an inflammatory response and at a later stage by fibrosis. Chest radiography reveals asymptomatic changes in about 50% of patients after radiotherapy. ...
Bourke, S. J. "Radiation pneumonitis." In Oxford Textbook of Medicine, edited by Pallav L. Shah, 4271–72. Oxford University Press, 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/med/9780198746690.003.0432.
The lungs can be injured by radiation used in the treatment of cancer, with the rapidly dividing endothelial cells and type II pneumocytes most affected. Immediate injury is followed by an inflammatory response and at a later stage by fibrosis. Chest radiography detects asymptomatic changes in about 50% of patients after radiotherapy. Acute radiation pneumonitis presents with cough, breathlessness, and fever about 2 months after exposure; corticosteroids are usually effective in relieving symptoms but do not prevent the subsequent development of fibrosis. Fibrosis typically develops about 6 months later, may progress for 6–24 months, but has usually stabilized by 2 years. Prevention depends on refining techniques for giving radiotherapy.