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In the early 1980s advances in marsupial biology could no longer be encapsulated in a single volume such as Hugh Tyndale-Biscoe's "Life of Marsupials" and Cambridge University Press commissioned a series of monographs covering a range of different topics in marsupial biology. As it was, only three of that series were realized and among them was the ptedecessor to this book "Digestive Physiology and Nutrition of Marsupials" published in 1982. "Marsupial Nutrition" is a considerably expanded and comprehensive review of studies of nutrition and digestive physiology of Australasian and South American marsupials. In Australia, many ecologists view the limited nutrient status of our soils and vegetation as a fundamental limit to animal populations. This book explains firstly how Australian marsupials have responded to those limitations and secondly asks whether these responses are common amongst marsupials living in New Guinea and South America.
Hetz, Jennifer A., Brandon R. Menzies, Geoffrey Shaw, and Marilyn B. Renfree. "The tammar wallaby: a non-traditional animal model to study growth axis maturation." Reproduction, Fertility and Development 31, no. 7 (2019): 1276. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/rd18271.
Maturation of the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) axis is a critical developmental event that becomes functional over the peripartum period in precocial eutherian mammals such as sheep. In mice and marsupials that give birth to altricial young, the GH/IGF1 axis matures well after birth, suggesting that functional maturation is associated with developmental stage, not parturition. Recent foster-forward studies in one marsupial, the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii), have corroborated this hypothesis. ‘Fostering’ tammar young not only markedly accelerates their development and growth rates, but also affects the timing of maturation of the growth axis compared with normal growing young, providing a novel non-traditional animal model for nutritional manipulation. This review discusses how nutrition affects the maturation of the growth axis in marsupials compared with traditional eutherian animal models.
HUME, I. D. "Nutrition of marsupials in captivity." International Zoo Yearbook 39, no. 1 (January 2005): 117–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-1090.2005.tb00011.x.
Stannard, Hayley J., Robert D. Miller, and Julie M. Old. "Marsupial and monotreme milk—a review of its nutrient and immune properties." PeerJ 8 (June 23, 2020): e9335. http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.9335.
All mammals are characterized by the ability of females to produce milk. Marsupial (metatherian) and monotreme (prototherian) young are born in a highly altricial state and rely on their mother’s milk for the first part of their life. Here we review the role and importance of milk in marsupial and monotreme development. Milk is the primary source of sustenance for young marsupials and monotremes and its composition varies at different stages of development. We applied nutritional geometry techniques to a limited number of species with values available to analyze changes in macronutrient composition of milk at different stages. Macronutrient energy composition of marsupial milk varies between species and changes concentration during the course of lactation. As well as nourishment, marsupial and monotreme milk supplies growth and immune factors. Neonates are unable to mount a specific immune response shortly after birth and therefore rely on immunoglobulins, immunological cells and other immunologically important molecules transferred through milk. Milk is also essential to the development of the maternal-young bond and is achieved through feedback systems and odor preferences in eutherian mammals. However, we have much to learn about the role of milk in marsupial and monotreme mother-young bonding. Further research is warranted in gaining a better understanding of the role of milk as a source of nutrition, developmental factors and immunity, in a broader range of marsupial species, and monotremes.
Irlbeck, NA, and ID Hume. "The role of Acacia in the diets of Australian marsupials ? A review." Australian Mammalogy 25, no. 2 (2003): 121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/am03121.
Many of the 600 species of Acacia found in Australia form part of the diet of several groups of marsupials. Acacia foliage is generally high in tannins but is consumed by several folivorous possums and by some macropods (kangaroos and wallabies), but the macropods eat it mainly as dry leaf litter during times of food shortage (in dry seasons and drought). Acacia gum is an important diet component of two omnivorous possums (Petaurus breviceps, Gymnobelidius leadbeateri) and, to a lesser extent, two rat-kangaroos (Bettongia sp.). Acacia seeds are consumed by marsupials to a limited extent, but are an important seasonal component of the diet of the mountain brushtail possum (Trichosurus cunninghami), and possibly the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) on Kangaroo Island. Likewise, Acacia arils (lipid-rich appendages to the seeds of some species) are an important seasonal component of the diet of the mahogany glider (Petaurus gracilis). Acacia pollen and nectar are consumed by several omnivorous possums (e.g., Petaurus norfolcensis) as well as by at least one species of rock-wallaby (Petrogale sp.), but the quantitative contributions made by these floral products to the protein and energy budgets of the consumers have been difficult to determine. Thus several parts of the Acacia plant are food resources for one or more groups of marsupials, but the contribution of the genus to marsupial nutrition is often overlooked.
Pharo, Elizabeth A. "Marsupial milk: a fluid source of nutrition and immune factors for the developing pouch young." Reproduction, Fertility and Development 31, no. 7 (2019): 1252. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/rd18197.
Marsupials have a very different reproductive strategy to eutherians. An Australian marsupial, the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) has a very short pregnancy of about 26.5 days, with a comparatively long lactation of 300–350 days. The tammar mother gives birth to an altricial, approximately 400 mg young that spends the first 200 days postpartum (p.p.) in its mother’s pouch, permanently (0–100 days p.p.; Phase 2A) and then intermittently (100–200 days p.p.; Phase 2B) attached to the teat. The beginning of Phase 3 marks the first exit from the pouch (akin to the birth of a precocious eutherian neonate) and the supplementation of milk with herbage. The marsupial mother progressively alters milk composition (proteins, fats and carbohydrates) and individual milk constituents throughout the lactation cycle to provide nutrients and immunological factors that are appropriate for the considerable physiological development and growth of her pouch young. This review explores the changes in tammar milk components that occur during the lactation cycle in conjunction with the development of the young.
O’Hara, Patricia J., Peter J. Murray, and Athol V. Klieve. "A review of the nutrition of Australian peramelid marsupials." Australian Mammalogy 34, no. 2 (2012): 133. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/am11008.
European settlement has had a dramatic impact on the distribution and abundance of peramelid (bandicoot and bilby) marsupials. Predation and competition from introduced species and altered habitat have been implicated in their decline or extinction. Bandicoots and bilbies inhabit a broad range of habitats in Australia. Research on the distribution, morphology, gastrointestinal histology, lactation, metabolism and nutritional physiology of extant peramelid species has increased in the last few decades. This paper provides a review that encompasses recent nutritional-based research. Peramelid research is mostly limited to only three species – Isoodon macrourus, Perameles nasuta and Macrotis lagotis – which prevents effective comparisons between species. Peramelids are broadly classified as omnivores and possess relatively uncomplicated gastrointestinal tracts. The caecum is the region of greatest diversity among species. The relatively large caecum of Chaeropus ecaudatus supports the theory that this species may have been the only herbivorous peramelid. The caecum of M. lagotis is less pronounced than other species and is continuous with the proximal colon. M. lagotis also has a longer total colon length, which aids water conservation to ensure survival in an arid environment. Temperate-zone species such as I. macrourus, I. obesulus and P. nasuta are more similar to each other with respect to gastrointestinal morphology than either C. ecaudatus or M. lagotis. Additional research on the morphometrics of the gastrointestinal tracts of P. gunnii, P. bougainville, P. eremiana, M. leucura and I. auratus would enable further comparisons to determine whether differences are a result of geographic distribution, habitat preference or variation between genera and/or individual species. Currently, histological information of the gastrointestinal tract is limited to the small intestine of P. nasuta and I. macrourus. The histology of the small intestine of the weaned juvenile I. macrourus more closely resembles that of P. nasuta pouch young than P. nasuta adults. The younger bandicoots possessed villi whereas in the adult P. nasuta and I. macrourus villi were arranged in a zig-zag formation. The reason for the zig-zag formation of the villi and the function it may serve remains unclear. Detailed nutritional research on captive M. lagotis, I. macrourus and P. nasuta indicate that the two temperate-zone species – I. macrourus and P. nasuta – are more similar to each other than to the arid-dwelling M. lagotis. Detailed nutritional studies are required on all species, both free-living and captive. Experimental diets do not always accurately reflect a natural diet, which means that results from captive studies may not reflect the situation for free-living animals. The hindgut of peramelids is the main region for retention of digesta, and presumably where microbial digestion occurs. However, no studies have been undertaken to examine the microflora of the gastrointestinal tract of bandicoots or the bilby. As captive husbandry is an important tool in conservation management, it should also improve their successful maintenance in captivity by the provision of diets that better meet their nutritional requirements.
Stringer, J. M., G. Shaw, A. Pask, and M. B. Renfree. "137. GENOMIC IMPRINTING IN THE MARSUPIAL MAMMARY GLAND." Reproduction, Fertility and Development 22, no. 9 (2010): 55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/srb10abs137.
Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic mechanism that differentially regulates the expression of certain genes, resulting in expression from only one parental allele. In mammals, genomic imprinting occurs in the placenta of both eutherians and marsupials, and plays an important role in regulating nutrition and growth of the developing fetus. The mammary gland also provides a critical source of nutrition for the neonate in all mammals, but there are few imprinting studies of this organ. Marsupials deliver tiny, altricial young that complete development during an extended lactation. INS (insulin) is paternally expressed in the eutherian and marsupial yolk sac and curiously is the only gene that is solely imprinted in this organ (1, 2). Insulin regulates carbohydrate metabolism, protein synthesis and cell growth. Insulin, (plus cortisol and prolactin) is required for the onset of lactation and the synthesis of milk (3). We characterised INS expression and examined its imprint status in the mammary gland of the tammar wallaby. INS mRNA is expressed in the mammary gland of the tammar from birth and throughout of lactation with highest expression at the initiation of lactation (Phase 1-2a) and around Phase 3 of lactation. Direct sequencing of 7 individuals at various stages of lactation confirmed that INS is imprinted in the mammary gland. Surprisingly, INS may also be imprinted in several other organs in the adult and juvenile wallaby. Preliminary bisulfite sequencing suggests there is a differentially methylated region located upstream of INS which may help to regulate INS expression. This is the first study to identify INS imprinting outside the yolk sac. As INS is critical for lactation, this is also the first indication that genomic imprinting may regulate lactation, suggesting that imprinting in the mammary gland may be as critical for post-natal survival as placental imprinting is for pre-natal development. (1) Deltour LX, et al. (1995). Tissue- and developmental stage-specific imprinting of the mouse proinsulin gene, Ins2. Dev Biol 168(2): 686–688.(2) Ager EI, et al. (2007). Insulin is imprinted in the placenta of the marsupial, Macropus eugenii. Dev Biol 309: 317–328.(3) Bolander FF, et al. (1981). Insulin is essential for accumulation of casein mRNA in mouse mammary epithelial cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 78(9): 5682–5684.
Stringer, J. M., G. Shaw, A. Pask, and M. B. Renfree. "164. THE IMPRINT STATUS AND EXPRESSION OF INS IN THE TAMMAR WALLABY, MACROPUS EUGENII." Reproduction, Fertility and Development 21, no. 9 (2009): 82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/srb09abs164.
Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic mechanism that differentially regulates the expression of certain genes, resulting in expression from only one parental allele. It is presumed to have first evolved after the divergence of therian mammals from the monotremes. One imprinted gene, INS is maternally imprinted (paternally expressed) in the eutherian and marsupial yolk sac1,2. INS encodes the precursor to the hormone insulin, which regulates carbohydrate metabolism and has a role in cell growth and, by regulating amino acid and fatty acid transporters, protein synthesis. In rats, mice and several other mammals insulin, in addition to cortisol and prolactin, is an absolute requirement for the onset of lactation and the synthesis of milk3. As imprinting plays an important role in regulating nutrition and growth the role of imprinted genes in the placenta has been the focus for imprinting research. Since the mammary gland provides a critical source of nutrition for the neonate in all mammals it is possible that genomic imprinting may have developed and been maintained in this organ. Given that marsupials deliver tiny, altricial young, it is in the relatively long and complex lactation phase where the mother has most control of the young's growth. Therefore, there may be greater selection for genomic imprinting in the marsupial mammary gland than in the eutherian mammary gland. This study examined the expression and the imprint status of INS in the mammary gland and neonatal tissues of the tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii. INS expression was detected using PCR and direct sequencing provides evidence of INS imprinting in the mammary gland. This is the first study to identify imprinting in the mammary gland of a marsupial and the first to identify INS imprinting outside of the yolk sac.
Renfree, Marilyn B., Shunsuke Suzuki, and Tomoko Kaneko-Ishino. "The origin and evolution of genomic imprinting and viviparity in mammals." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 368, no. 1609 (January 5, 2013): 20120151. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2012.0151.
Genomic imprinting is widespread in eutherian mammals. Marsupial mammals also have genomic imprinting, but in fewer loci. It has long been thought that genomic imprinting is somehow related to placentation and/or viviparity in mammals, although neither is restricted to mammals. Most imprinted genes are expressed in the placenta. There is no evidence for genomic imprinting in the egg-laying monotreme mammals, despite their short-lived placenta that transfers nutrients from mother to embryo. Post natal genomic imprinting also occurs, especially in the brain. However, little attention has been paid to the primary source of nutrition in the neonate in all mammals, the mammary gland. Differentially methylated regions (DMRs) play an important role as imprinting control centres in each imprinted region which usually comprises both paternally and maternally expressed genes ( PEG s and MEG s). The DMR is established in the male or female germline (the gDMR). Comprehensive comparative genome studies demonstrated that two imprinted regions, PEG10 and IGF2-H19 , are conserved in both marsupials and eutherians and that PEG10 and H19 DMRs emerged in the therian ancestor at least 160 Ma, indicating the ancestral origin of genomic imprinting during therian mammal evolution. Importantly, these regions are known to be deeply involved in placental and embryonic growth. It appears that most maternal gDMRs are always associated with imprinting in eutherian mammals, but emerged at differing times during mammalian evolution. Thus, genomic imprinting could evolve from a defence mechanism against transposable elements that depended on DNA methylation established in germ cells.
Dissertations / Theses on the topic "Marsupials Nutrition":
Hope, Perdita Jane. "Regulation of food intake, body fat stores and energy balance in the marsupial Sminthopsis crassicaudata." Title page, contents and summary only, 2000. http://web4.library.adelaide.edu.au/theses/09PH/09phh7908.pdf.
Bibliography: leaves 363-421. This thesis presents studies relating to the regulation of appetite, body fat stores and energy balance in the marsupial Sminthopsis crassicaudata. All of the studies presented have been published in international journals, accepted for publication, or submitted for publication. These studies have provided novel data on the regulation of food intake, body fat stores and energy balance in the marsupail Sminthopsis crassicaudata, representing fundamental advances in marsupial biology.
Miller, Susan Jane. "The composition of the milk of the quokka (Setonix brachyurus) and its consumption by the joey." University of Western Australia. School of Animal Biology, 2005. http://theses.library.uwa.edu.au/adt-WU2006.0010.
[Truncated abstract] Previous studies suggest that the milk of the quokka (Setonix brachyurus) could change composition coincident with critical stages of development of the young, and that the milk energy provided by the mother and its utilisation by the joey would determine the young’s growth rate. To test this general hypothesis, quokkas (n = 19) were bred in captivity and milk was collected during lactation. The samples were analysed using specific biochemical assays and sensitive analytical techniques to determine the composition of the milk of the quokka. The stable isotope, deuterium oxide, was employed to estimate the volume of milk consumed by the joeys. The adult females and their young were weighed and body measurements taken periodically, in order to calculate the body condition of the adults and monitor the growth rate of the offspring. Marsupial lactation can be divided in three phases. Phase 1 of lactation covers the period during pregnancy. Phase 2a of lactation in the quokka (0 to 70 days post partum), is the period when the young is permanently attached to the teat, while Phase 2b (70 to 180 days post partum) is when the joey suckles intermittently but is still confined to the pouch. Phase 3 of lactation extends from the time when the young initially emerges from the pouch to the end of lactation (180 to 300 days post partum) ... The metabolism of fatty acids in quokkas appears to be a combination of the processes in monogastric and ruminant mammals. The growth rate of the young quokkas was dependent on the volume and energy content of the milk consumed. The crude growth efficiency indicates that quokkas are equally efficient as other marsupials reported in the literature, in converting milk energy to body mass. It seems that female quokkas maintained energy balance during lactation, most probably by increasing their food intake rather than mobilising body fat stores. In addition, it appears that quokkas are capable of producing young of similar mass, irrespective of their own body weight or condition, when they have access to an adequate supply of food and water. This was the first study to provide detailed information about milk composition and lactational energetics in the quokka. While the results supported the unifying hypothesis in relation to the major changes associated with the transition through the phases of lactation, wide variations were detected between the quokka and other marsupial species in the changes in the detailed composition of milk and milk production.
Menzies, Brandon. "Endocrine control of growth in the developing marsupial, Macropus eugenii." 2009. http://repository.unimelb.edu.au/10187/6733.
Predators with Pouches provides a unique synthesis of current knowledge of the world’s carnivorous marsupials—from Patagonia to New Guinea and North America to Tasmania. Written by 63 experts in each field, the book covers a comprehensive range of disciplines including evolution and systematics, reproductive biology, physiology, ecology, behaviour and conservation.
Predators with Pouches reveals the relationships between the American didelphids and the Australian dasyurids, and explores the role of the marsupial fauna in the mammal community. It introduces the geologically oldest marsupials, from the Americas, and examines the fall from former diversity of the larger marsupial carnivores and their convergent evolution with placental forms.
The book covers all aspects of carnivorous marsupials, including interesting features of life history, their unique reproduction, the physiological basis for early senescence in semelparous dasyurids, sex ratio variation and juvenile dispersal. It looks at gradients in nutrition—from omnivory to insectivory to carnivory—as well as distributional ecology, social structure and conservation dilemmas.
Cosgrove, Richard, and Jillian Garvey. Behavioural inferences from Late Pleistocene Aboriginal Australia. Edited by Umberto Albarella, Mauro Rizzetto, Hannah Russ, Kim Vickers, and Sarah Viner-Daniels. Oxford University Press, 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199686476.013.49.
Detailed research into marsupial behavioural ecology and modelling of past Aboriginal exploitation of terrestrial fauna has been scarce. Poor bone preservation is one limiting factor in Australian archaeological sites, but so has been the lack of research concerning the ecology and physiology of Australia’s endemic fauna. Much research has focused on marine and fresh-water shell-fish found in coastal and inland midden sites. Detailed studies into areas such as seasonality of past human occupation and nutritional returns from terrestrial prey species have not had the same attention. This chapter reviews the current level of published Australian research into two aspects of faunal studies, seasonality and nutrition. It describes the patterns from well-researched faunal data excavated from the Ice Age sites in southwest Tasmania. Concentration is on the vertebrate fauna found in seven limestone cave sites to examine any temporal changes to seasonal butchery and identify any differences between seasonally occupied sites.
Vogelnest, Larry, and Rupert Woods, eds. Medicine of Australian Mammals. CSIRO Publishing, 2008. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/9780643097971.
In Medicine of Australian Mammals, more than 30 experts present the most current information available on the medical management of all taxa of Australian native mammals.
This comprehensive text is divided into two parts. The first includes chapters on general topics relevant to the medical management of captive and free-ranging Australian native mammals such as: veterinary considerations for the rescue, treatment, rehabilitation and release of wildlife; veterinary aspects of hand-rearing orphaned marsupials; marine mammal strandings and the role of the veterinarian; and wildlife health investigation and necropsy of Australian mammals. The second part covers the medicine of specific taxa of Australian native mammals. Detailed information on taxonomy, distribution, biology, anatomy, physiology, reproduction, husbandry, nutrition, physical and chemical restraint, clinical pathology, hand-rearing, diseases, zoonoses, therapeutics, reproductive management and surgery is included.
This practical, one-source reference is complemented by detailed photographs and illustrations, as well as tables listing reproductive and physiological data, diets, haematology and biochemistry values, and drug formularies. Appendices include a checklist of the mammals of Australia and its territories and a guide to the identification of common parasites of Australian mammals.
Medicine of Australian Mammals is clinically oriented and is a must-have for veterinary clinicians, no matter how experienced. The book will also be of use to veterinary students, researchers, biologists, zoologists, wildlife carers and other wildlife professionals.
Book chapters on the topic "Marsupials Nutrition":
Janssens, P. A., and M. Messer. "Changes in Nutritional Metabolism During Weaning." In The Developing Marsupial, 162–75. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 1988. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-88402-3_12.
Moore, Ben D., Ian R. Wallis, Karen J. Marsh, and William J. Foley. "The role of nutrition in the conservation of the marsupial folivores of eucalypt forests." In Conservation of Australia's Forest Fauna, 549–75. P.O. Box 20, Mosman NSW 2088: Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, 2004. http://dx.doi.org/10.7882/fs.2004.031.
Compared to a predator’s diet, plant food has two great advantages: it is abundant and it does not run away. ‘Herbivorous mammals’ explains how these advantages are matched by difficulties: plants are generally of low nutritional value and must be eaten in large amounts; leaves with protective abrasive particles can quickly wear down herbivores’ chewing teeth; and mammals cannot make their own cellulase enzymes for breaking down cellulose to sugars. The eating habits and the challenges of small herbivores (e.g. rodents, rabbits, and hyraxes) are considered, as well as those of large ungulates and elephants; marsupial herbivores (e.g. kangaroos, wombats, and koalas); and specialist herbivores (pandas, dugongs, and manatees).
Fernández, Miriam, Antonio Brante, and Simone Baldanzi. "Costs and Benefits of Brooding among Decapod Crustaceans: The Challenges of Incubating in Aquatic Systems." In Reproductive Biology, 86–114. Oxford University Press, 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780190688554.003.0004.
This chapter discusses general patterns of brooding in decapod crustaceans from aquatic to terrestrial environments, addressing behavioral adaptations as well as costs and benefits. Brooding embryos is a common feature among decapods. However, brooding exhibits a wide range of modes that are highly dependent on the environment. Brooding is less common in marine systems, whereas there is a general pattern of extended brooding with terrestrialization. Exceptions are crabs that have invaded land directly via the seashore, i.e. land crabs that have indirect development like their marine ancestors. During terrestrialization, adaption to environmental stressors like desiccation, UV radiation, temperature variability, mechanical support, and osmolality seemed to generally favor decreasing larval development and increasing duration of brood care. Thus, crustaceans developed more complex brooding mechanisms as adaptive responses to the colonization of land (e.g., osmoregulation of the maternal fluids, marsupial fluid, sealed and specialized marsupium, provision of nutritious material, grooming and cleaning, ventilation of the embryo masses). However, clear brooding behaviors are also observed among several marine species (e.g. grooming and cleaning, oxygen provision). The major efforts to characterize general brooding patterns among decapod crustaceans and describe brooding behaviors were not accompanied by comprehensive studies to understand the costs and the benefits of brooding. Several studies have addressed the positive influence of the mother on embryo development, but the efforts to quantify the impact on embryo survival are still limited. This chapter identifies problems that need further consideration to reach a deeper understanding of the evolution of brooding in decapod crustaceans.