Academic literature on the topic 'Plumbing'

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Journal articles on the topic "Plumbing":

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Choi, Yoon-Ho, Yun Ki Chung, and Dongseok Kim. "The complete list of prime knots whose flat plumbing basket numbers are 6 or less." Journal of Knot Theory and Its Ramifications 24, no. 07 (June 2015): 1550042. http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/s021821651550042x.

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Flat plumbing basket surfaces of links were introduced to study the geometry of the complement of the links. These flat plumbing basket surfaces can be presented by a sequential presentation known as flat plumbing basket code first found by Furihata, Hirasawa and Kobayashi. The minimum number of flat plumbings to obtain flat plumbing basket surfaces of a link is defined to be the flat plumbing basket number of the given link. In this paper, we use these sequential presentations to find the complete classification theorem of prime knots whose flat plumbing basket number is 6 or less. As applications, this result improves the work of Hirose and Nakashima which finds the flat plumbing basket number of prime knots up to nine crossings.
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Rosner, David. "Plumbing the Plumbing." American Scientist 95, no. 6 (2007): 541. http://dx.doi.org/10.1511/2007.68.541.

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Yamamoto, Ryosuke. "Stallings Twists Which Can be Realized by Plumbing and Deplumbing Hopf Bands." Journal of Knot Theory and Its Ramifications 12, no. 06 (September 2003): 867–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/s0218216503002779.

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We define a type of Stallings twists, which represents a "complexity" of the twist, and show that the Stallings twists of a certain type on a fiber surface for a fibered link in S3 can be realized by plumbing one Hopf band and deplumbing another Hopf band. Using this technique, we construct stable Hopf plumbings which are not Hopf plumbings with an arbitrary high first Betti number.
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ETGÜ, TOLGA, and BURAK OZBAGCI. "EXPLICIT HORIZONTAL OPEN BOOKS ON SOME PLUMBINGS." International Journal of Mathematics 17, no. 09 (October 2006): 1013–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/s0129167x06003801.

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We describe explicit open books on arbitrary plumbings of oriented circle bundles over closed oriented surfaces. We show that, for a non-positive plumbing, the open book we construct is horizontal and the corresponding compatible contact structure is also horizontal and Stein fillable. In particular, on some Seifert fibered 3-manifolds we describe open books which are horizontal with respect to their plumbing description. As another application we describe horizontal open books isomorphic to Milnor open books for some complex surface singularities. Moreover we give examples of tight contact 3-manifolds supported by planar open books. As a consequence, the Weinstein conjecture holds for these tight contact structures [1].
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Hargreaves, Catherine. "Leaky plumbing." Nursing Standard 19, no. 11 (November 24, 2004): 27. http://dx.doi.org/10.7748/ns.19.11.27.s36.

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Lavery, Charne. "Postcolonial Plumbing." Interventions 24, no. 3 (January 3, 2022): 355–68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1369801x.2021.2015707.

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Moore, Peter D. "Pastoral plumbing." Nature 357, no. 6380 (June 1992): 644. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/357644a0.

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Hanrahan, John W. "Airway plumbing." Journal of Clinical Investigation 105, no. 10 (May 15, 2000): 1343–44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci10088.

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Midgley, Mary. "Philosophical Plumbing." Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 33 (September 1992): 139–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s1358246100002319.

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Is philosophy like plumbing? I have made this comparison a number of times when I have wanted to stress that philosophising is not just grand and elegant and difficult, but is also needed. It is not optional. The idea has caused mild surprise, and has sometimes been thought rather undignified. The question of dignity is a very interesting one, and I shall come back to it at the end of this article. But first, I would like to work the comparison out a bit more fully.
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Leslie, M. "Plumbing Problem." Science of Aging Knowledge Environment 2005, no. 38 (September 21, 2005): nf75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sageke.2005.38.nf75.

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Dissertations / Theses on the topic "Plumbing":

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Rahman, Mohammad Shahedur. "Nitrification in premise plumbing systems." Thesis, Montana State University, 2008. http://etd.lib.montana.edu/etd/2008/rahman/RahmanM0808.pdf.

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Monochloramine is increasingly used instead of free chlorine as a secondary disinfectant. Ammonia is introduced into water for monochloramine formation or by decay. Nitrification can have deleterious effects on water quality that may lead to regulatory violations. In this project water quality and influence of pipe material on the onset of nitrification and consequences of nitrification in premise plumbing were investigated. Also potential control strategies for nitrification were evaluated. Initially two types of copper coupons (new and old, i.e., pre-exposed to 0.1N NaOH solution) were used with water of two different carbon (2~4ppm) and ammonianitrogen (0.36~0.71ppm) concentrations. In the next experiment, pre-aged copper and PVC coupons were used with high carbon (4 ppm) and two ammonia concentrations (0.36 and 0.71 ppm). When all reactors showed complete signs of nitrification the ammonia concentration in low ammonia (0.36 ppm) feed reactors were raised to the high level (0.71 ppm). The PVC reactors were quicker in adjusting to this change. Next, the effect of copper ion, chlorite and chloramine on nitrifying simulated household plumbing systems was investigated. No significant effect of copper on nitrification was observed. Chlorite was not effective on the PVC system but inhibited the copper system at 20 ppm. Nitrification activity was also impacted significantly at a 5:1 ratio of chlorine to ammonia and ultimately stopped. To investigate the effect of nutrient conditions on metal release in a nitrifying system and the consequences of change in microbial population, influent humic and ammonia concentrations of two reactors of each set were raised to 8 ppm and 2.13 ppm respectively. Higher ammonia increased only the autotrophs while higher TOC increased only the heterotrophs. For all reactors alkalinity and pH decreased due to nitrification, with lesser effect on copper reactors. Increased TOC or nitrogen increased the copper concentration in the water. The microbial population was analyzed by PCR and DGGE. The biofilm community composition is influenced by nutrient condition and pipe material and environmental stress (chlorite or monochloramine). The presence of copper in the PVC reactor did not cause any impact on community composition.
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Lee, Juneseok. "Two Issues in Premise Plumbing: Contamination Intrusion at Service Line and Choosing Alternative Plumbing Material." Diss., Virginia Tech, 2008. http://hdl.handle.net/10919/27422.

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Worldwide water distribution infrastructure system is old and deteriorating. A water system with its myriad appurtenances (including pumps and valves and tanks) is susceptible to hydraulic transients resulting in high and low pressure waves alternatively passing through the network. While both low and high pressure events structurally tax the already weak system, there is copious evidence indicating intrusion of contaminants into the drinking water pipes from the pipeâ s exterior environment due to low pressure events associated with water hammer phenomenon. These contaminants enter into the drinking water as the home plumbing system is a passive recipient from the water main. While the major (municipal) system is readily recognized as a vast infrastructure system of nearly 1,409,800 km of piping within the United States, the minor (plumbing) system that is at least 5 to 10 times larger is generally not well analyzed. In this study, an experimental plumbing rig was designed and implemented that replicates the range of pressures encountered in actual minor water distribution systems. This research addresses how a pressure transient triggered within a house and from municipal systems can impact the service line with a possible suction effect. Experimental results on low pressure events and the accompanying numerical modeling showed good agreement. The experiment also enabled visualization of the various pressure transient phenomena. It is demonstrated that hydraulic transients triggered from water mains result in low pressures events (up to -10 psig) in service lines which can allow possible intrusion of microbial and chemical contaminants at the service line. Structural integrity of service line and hydraulic integrity at water mains should be maintained to minimize any public health risks. In the USA, about 90% of residential drinking water plumbing systems use copper pipes. Pinhole leaks in copper plumbing pipes have become a nationwide concern because these leaks cause property damage, lower property values, and result in possibility of adversely affecting homeownersâ insurance coverage. In addition, resulting mold damage may cause health concerns. This research also addresses the concerns of the affected homeowners by enabling them to decide on whether to continue to repair or replace their plumbing system, the factors to be considered in a replacement decision, and the type of material to use for replacement. Plastic pipes such as PEX (cross-linked polyethylene), CPVC (Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride), and copper are considered in present analysis. Other alternatives include an epoxy coating technique on the existing piping systems, without the need to tear into walls. Multiple attributes of a plumbing system including cost (material plus labor charges), taste and odor impacts, potential for corrosion, longevity of the pipe system, fire retardance, convenience of installation or replacement, plumber or general contractorâ s opinions or expertise, and proven record in the market are considered. Attributes and material rankings are formalized within the framework of the preference elicitation tools namely AHP (Analytical Hierarchical Process). Surveys are conducted with selected homeowners in pinhole leak prone area in Southeastern US Community to observe their revealed and stated preferences. Participantsâ overall preference tradeoffs are reported in addition to comparing their revealed and stated preferences. Health effects, taste and odor of water turned out to be the most important factors from the survey. In real life, however, homeowners were not well aware of these safety issues related with plumbing materials. It is recommended that water professionals should work on bridging the gap between public perception and research results related to major and minor systems.
Ph. D.
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Ohnemus, Stephen Patrick. "A locational analysis of plumbing cooperatives." Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1994. http://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/69333.

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Bembnister, Tom. "An analysis of the effectiveness and participants' perceptions of A&K Services class titled: 2004 Plumbing code changes." Menomonie, WI : University of Wisconsin--Stout, 2005. http://www.uwstout.edu/lib/thesis/2005/2005bembnistert.pdf.

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Coogan, Laurance Andrew. "Magma plumbing beneath the Mid-Atlantic Ridge." Thesis, University of Leicester, 1998. http://hdl.handle.net/2381/30468.

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A suite of fresh,~0.75 Ma old, gabbroic samples from ODP Hole 923A on the Mid-Atlantic ridge just south of the Kane Fracture Zone, 23°N, have been studied texturally and by electron probe and ion probe. This hole penetrated ∼70 mbsf recovering 40 m of core from the basal 55 m of the hole. The core is dominated by two interlayed lithologies: poikilitic olivine gabbros and brown-pyroxene gabbros, plus volumetrically minor microgabbros, oxide gabbros and leucocratic veins. Poikilitic olivine gabbros are plagioclase +/- olivine cumulates with relatively primitive mineral composition. Horizons of poikilitic olivine gabbros in the core represent magma chamber replenishment in which the replenishing magma ponded at the base of the chamber and fractionated. Variations in plagioclase trace element compositions (e.g. La/Nd and Ba/K) in part reflect compositional variation in their parental melts derived from the mantle. Calculated equilibrium melt compositions are highly LREE depleted (Lan/Ndn as low as 0.25). Brown-pyroxene gabbros are olivine - plagioclase - clinopyroxene cumulates which have more evolved mineral compositions than poikilitic olivine gabbros. A series of major and trace element characteristics of the rocks, and textural phenomena, indicate that post-cumulus processes were important in their formation. In particular, extreme variations in incompatible element abundances, and fractionation of Zr and Y (and REE's), from the core to rim of clinopyroxene crystals occurs. It is proposed that the fractionation of the interstitial melt was caused by reaction between migration interstitial melt and the crystal assemblage (magmatic metasomatism). This led to the interstitial melt becoming highly evolved in terms of incompatible elements whilst the major elements were efficiently buffered by the crystals.
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Encarnacion, Gem Deangkinay. "Microbial ecology of nitrifying simulated premises plumbing." Diss., Montana State University, 2012. http://etd.lib.montana.edu/etd/2012/encarnacion/EncarnacionG0512.pdf.

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Because of the Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection Rule limiting then concentration of disinfection by products in drinking water, the use of chloramine as an alternative to chlorine has been increasing. However, the ammonia introduced by chloramination can lead to nitrification which results in the production of nitrite and nitrate, leading to regulatory violations. Nitrification in reactors with copper and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) surfaces was established by indigenous organisms from Bozeman tap water and has been stably maintained for more than 6 years. Statistical analyses of polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) profiles determined that the active bacterial populations were different in the two systems. The assemblage of the organisms was also different from the starting population (BAC influent) suggesting both material and ammonia/carbon source affect the population. No known ammonia oxidizing bacteria were detected suggesting the role of different group for ammonia oxidation. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) detected archaea in the biofilm from both reactors. Archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences were found to be phylogenetically affiliated with known archaeal ammonia oxidizers. Two archaeal amoA sequences were amplified from the system as determined by DGGE. We propose to provisionally classify a detected archaeon as Candidatus Nitrosotenuis bozemanii, based on its affinity to Nitrosotenuis uzonensis (Hatzenpichler et al., in preparation). Bacterial abundances were comparable in the two systems but archaeal abundances were higher in the PVC reactor suggesting material effect on the overall microbial population composition and density. Enrichment in modified synthetic Crenarchaeota medium yielded a culture of archaea and bacteria that consistently oxidizes ammonia to nitrate. Attempts to isolate the archaeal component using antibiotics failed, suggesting the disruption of a possible beneficial relationship between the archaea and bacteria. Genes involved in the transformation of nitrogen within the system were also investigated and hao distantly related to that of ammonia oxidizing bacteria was detected but its potential role remains unknown. This study provides evidence of archaea associated with biofilms in drinking water and while further analysis is needed to definitively elucidate their role, results of this study prompts the reevaluation of the current concept of nitrification in drinking water. 'Co-authored by Mark D. Burr, Anne K. Camper and Mohammad Shahedur Rahman.'
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Merceret, Honor. "Our plumbing, ourselves : a public bath house." Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1993. http://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/68754.

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Thesis (M. Arch.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Architecture, 1993.
Includes bibliographical references (p. 230-231).
Cleansing for being well Cleansing for well being. This thesis will consider: --how developments in plumbing and sewage and their related fixtures, kitchens and baths, parallel cultural changes throughout history. Though these relationships are not necessarily causal, they may indicate what (critical) roles rituals in contemporary baths can take within the framework of today's socio-economic systems; -- notions of bathing for hygiene and bathing for rejuvenation. The first might be considered a 'process of elimination' while the latter a 'process of preservation'. The two are not necessarily exclusive, but there are differences between them. One involves the removal of things such as dirt, germs, and wastes while the other involves the revitalization of the spirit and body; and -- issues involving the decline of public space, security, control, and gentrification, particularly in relation to the items mentioned above. These topics are currently the highlight of many discussions and writings in architecture with today's impending conditions of homelessness, urban strife, changing domestic structure, and domestic violence. through written background and discussion as well as the design of a public bath house
by Honor Merceret.
M.Arch.
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Davis, Karen Ann 1979. "Investigation of reverse plumbing in rotary seals." Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2003. http://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/89394.

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Szwetkowski, Kyle John. "Methylobacterium spp.: Emerging Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens." Thesis, Virginia Tech, 2017. http://hdl.handle.net/10919/77659.

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Opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens (OPPPs) are responsible for many infections linked to drinking water. The annual cost of disease caused by these waterborne pathogens is $850 million. Key characteristics of these opportunistic waterborne pathogens include: disinfectant- resistant, biofilm formation, thermal-tolerance, desiccation-resistant, growth in amoebae and growth in low oxygen conditions. Methylobacterium spp. have been recognized as an emerging OPPP, so the purpose of this study was to investigate these waterborne bacteria in more detail to determine whether they have all characteristics of OPPPs. Seven Methylobacterium spp. strains were studied to measure growth in laboratory broth medium and drinking water, measure hydrophobicity on surfaces found in household plumbing, measure adherence and biofilm formation to surfaces found in household plumbing and measure susceptibility to hot water heater temperatures. Methylobacterium spp. were found to aggregate in lab broth medium and drinking water, hydrophobic on different surfaces in household plumbing, adhere readily and form biofilm on different surfaces and thermal-tolerant to water heater temperatures. These results support and identify Methylobacterium spp. as opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens.
Master of Science
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Murray, John William 1972. "Simulation to assess plumbing and fire protection innovations." Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1999. http://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/79988.

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Books on the topic "Plumbing":

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Ferington, Esther. Plumbing. Edited by Sunset Books. Menlo Park, CA: Sunset Pub. Corp., 2010.

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Treloar, Roy. Plumbing. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1994.

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Treloar, Roy. Plumbing. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1994.

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National Center for Construction Education and Research (U.S.), ed. Plumbing. 3rd ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2006.

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Treloar, Roy. Plumbing. 4th ed. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011.

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Wakeford, Alan. Plumbing. London: Octopus, 1987.

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Hall, Ernest. Plumbing. London: Teach Yourself, 1985.

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Stead, Kevin. Plumbing. London: Arnold, 2000.

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National Center for Construction Education and Research (U.S.), ed. Plumbing. 3rd ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2006.

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Books, Time-Life, ed. Plumbing. Alexandria, Va: Time-Life Books, 1995.

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Book chapters on the topic "Plumbing":

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Merritt, Frederick S., and James Ambrose. "Plumbing." In Building Engineering and Systems Design, 331–78. Boston, MA: Springer US, 1990. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4757-0304-7_9.

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Levy, Sidney M. "Plumbing." In The Construction Superintendent’s Handbook, 300–311. Boston, MA: Springer US, 1992. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4684-8494-6_23.

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Mitchell, Charles F., and George A. Mitchell. "Plumbing." In Building Construction and Drawing 1906, 358–81. London: Routledge, 2022. http://dx.doi.org/10.1201/9781003261476-12.

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Chester, D. K., A. M. Duncan, J. E. Guest, and C. R. J. Kilburn. "Internal plumbing." In Mount Etna, 267–93. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 1985. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-4079-6_7.

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Rush, Philip. "Financial Plumbing." In Real Market Economics, 123–35. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/978-1-349-95278-6_7.

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Creswell, R. LeRoy. "Plumbing and Materials." In Aquaculture Desk Reference, 82–101. Boston, MA: Springer US, 1993. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4684-7911-9_5.

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Homer, Alex, and David Sussman. "The Application Plumbing." In Distributed Data Applications with ASP.NET, 143–97. Berkeley, CA: Apress, 2004. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4302-0661-3_4.

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Creswell, R. LeRoy. "Plumbing and Materials." In Aquaculture Desk Reference, 82–101. Boston, MA: Springer US, 1993. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4684-7115-1_5.

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Haq, Syed Azizul. "Hydraulics in plumbing." In Plumbing Principles and Practice, 15–28. 2nd ed. London: Routledge, 2021. http://dx.doi.org/10.1201/9781003172239-2.

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Falkinham, Joseph O. "Factors Selecting for Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens in Premise Plumbing." In Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens, 159–71. New York: Jenny Stanford Publishing, 2023. http://dx.doi.org/10.1201/9781003321002-8.

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Conference papers on the topic "Plumbing":

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Loganathan, G. V., and Juneseok Lee. "Analyzing Copper Plumbing Pipe Failures." In World Water and Environmental Resources Congress 2005. Reston, VA: American Society of Civil Engineers, 2005. http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/40792(173)610.

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Farooqi, Owais E., and G. V. Loganathan. "Criteria for Plumbing System Replacement." In World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2007. Reston, VA: American Society of Civil Engineers, 2007. http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/40927(243)531.

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Jose, James, R. Unnikrishnan, Delmar Marshall, and Rao R. Bhavani. "Haptic simulations for training plumbing skills." In 2014 IEEE International Symposium on Haptic, Audio and Visual Environments and Games (HAVE). IEEE, 2014. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/have.2014.6954333.

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Urban, Rudolf. "THE OPTICAL PLUMBING METHOD USING TOTAL STATION." In 14th SGEM GeoConference on INFORMATICS, GEOINFORMATICS AND REMOTE SENSING. Stef92 Technology, 2014. http://dx.doi.org/10.5593/sgem2014/b22/s9.069.

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Vrolijk, Peter. "Reservoir Connectivity Analysis - Defining Reservoir Connections & Plumbing." In SPE Middle East Oil and Gas Show and Conference. Society of Petroleum Engineers, 2005. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/93577-ms.

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Loganathan, G. V., J. Lee, D. Bosch, S. Dwyer, S. Willis-Walton, and E. Kleczyk. "Preference Trade-Offs in Choosing Domestic Plumbing Materials." In Pipeline Division Specialty Conference 2006. Reston, VA: American Society of Civil Engineers, 2006. http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/40854(211)60.

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Wells, N., R. E. Moon, and D. Nehrig. "Duration of Metal Corrosion: Plumbing and Construction Materials." In Eighth Congress on Forensic Engineering. Reston, VA: American Society of Civil Engineers, 2018. http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/9780784482018.054.

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Crouch, Keith E., and Peter H. Bootsma. "Lightning Current Levels in Aircraft Fuel System Plumbing." In International Conference on Lightning and Static Electricity. 400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA, United States: SAE International, 2001. http://dx.doi.org/10.4271/2001-01-2926.

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Seppänen, Olli, and Christopher Görsch. "Decreasing Waste in Mechanical, Electrical and Plumbing Work." In 30th Annual Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction (IGLC). International Group for Lean Construction, 2022. http://dx.doi.org/10.24928/2022/0111.

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Thomalla, Richard O. "Plumbing Appliance Noise—It Can Now Be Measured." In Architectural Engineering Conference (AEI) 2003. Reston, VA: American Society of Civil Engineers, 2003. http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/40699(2003)5.

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Reports on the topic "Plumbing":

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Persily, Andrew, David Yashar, Natascha Milesi Ferretti, Tania Ullah, and William Healy. Measurement science research needs for premise plumbing systems. Gaithersburg, MD: National Institute of Standards and Technology, May 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/nist.tn.2088.

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Cruickshank, Garry. The Participation of Women Employed in Traditionally Male-Dominated Occupations including Plumbing: 1975 – 2013. Unitec ePress, February 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.34074/ocds.026.

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In 1975 employment in the majority of trades’ areas was dominated by men, and this fact, associated with a significant wage disparity, generated considerable social debate at that time. A number of newspaper articles in New Zealand highlighted the lack of female participation in traditionally male occupations. Using an intensive literature review and statistical analysis of available records, this paper investigates whether the numbers of women employed as plumbers in New Zealand have changed between 1975 and the present day. Having established that the proportion of female plumbers is almost unchanged during this period, this research then compares this information with data gathered from other trades and exposes the widespread nature of this trend across traditionally male dominated industries. This data is also compared to gender-based employment rates in the non-trades professions. The potential causes underlying this tendency are discussed. Finally the paper reflects on what, if anything, could to be done to alter this situation.
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Cruickshank, Garry. The Participation of Women Employed in Traditionally Male-Dominated Occupations including Plumbing: 1975 – 2013. Unitec ePress, February 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.34074/ocds.026.

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In 1975 employment in the majority of trades’ areas was dominated by men, and this fact, associated with a significant wage disparity, generated considerable social debate at that time. A number of newspaper articles in New Zealand highlighted the lack of female participation in traditionally male occupations. Using an intensive literature review and statistical analysis of available records, this paper investigates whether the numbers of women employed as plumbers in New Zealand have changed between 1975 and the present day. Having established that the proportion of female plumbers is almost unchanged during this period, this research then compares this information with data gathered from other trades and exposes the widespread nature of this trend across traditionally male dominated industries. This data is also compared to gender-based employment rates in the non-trades professions. The potential causes underlying this tendency are discussed. Finally the paper reflects on what, if anything, could to be done to alter this situation.
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Buchberger, Steven. Research on Estimating Peak Water Demands and Measuring Pressure Losses in Premise Plumbing Systems. Gaithersburg, MD: National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2022. http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/nist.gcr.22-036.

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Dunham, C., J. D. Lutz, and S. J. Pickle. Promoting plumbing fixture and fitting replacement: Recommendations and review for state and local water resource authorities. Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI), June 1995. http://dx.doi.org/10.2172/212731.

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Song, J., B. D. Wood, and L. J. Ji. Effects of plumbing attachments on heat losses from solar domestic hot water storage tanks. Final report, Part 2. Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI), March 1998. http://dx.doi.org/10.2172/674948.

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Pickering, Robert, Kathleen Onorevole, Rob Greenwood, and Sarah Shadid. Measurement science roadmap workshop for water use efficiency and water quality in premise plumbing systems, August 1-2, 2018:. Gaithersburg, MD: National Institute of Standards and Technology, December 2018. http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/nist.gcr.19-020.

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Ferrie, Joseph, Karen Rolf, and Werner Troesken. Cognitive Disparities, Lead Plumbing, and Water Chemistry: Intelligence Test Scores and Exposure to Water-Borne Lead Among World War Two U.S. Army Enlistees. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, June 2011. http://dx.doi.org/10.3386/w17161.

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Chen, Yuting, Heidi Fuchs, Jonah Schein, Victor Franco, Hannah Stratton, and Camilla Dunham. Calculating Average Hot Water Mixes of Residential Plumbing Fittings Using the ANSI 301-2019 Hot Water Draw Model and National Residential Data to Estimate Hot Water Use in Showerheads and Lavatory Faucets. Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI), June 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.2172/1619186.

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Youth killed while operating a forklift at a plumbing supply company. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, July 2005. http://dx.doi.org/10.26616/nioshsface03ma034.

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