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Journal articles on the topic "Wounds and injuries Microbiology":
Jha, Shilpa, Wasim S. Khan, and Nashat A. Siddiqui. "Mammalian Bite Injuries to the Hand and Their Management." Open Orthopaedics Journal 8, no. 1 (June 27, 2014): 194–98. http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874325001408010194.
Bite wounds are a common form of hand injury with the potential to lead to severe local and systemic sequelae and permanent functional impairment. Mammalian bite wounds may be caused by a variety of animal class and species; injuries resulting from dogs, cats and humans are the most widely discussed and reported in the literature. Bite wounds may be contaminated with aggressive pathogens and the anatomical vulnerability of structures within the hand means that without early recognition and treatment with irrigation and antibiotics, alongside a low index of suspicion for deep structural involvement requiring formal surgical exploration and washout, the consequences of such injuries can be disastrous. We review the literature and discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology and microbiology relating to these injuries, as well as clinical aspects including signs, symptoms, and management.
Langford, Jane H., Phillip Artemi, and Shalom I. Benrimoj. "Topical Antimicrobial Prophylaxis in Minor Wounds." Annals of Pharmacotherapy 31, no. 5 (May 1997): 559–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/106002809703100506.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ability of a novel topical antimicrobial gel containing cetrimide, bacitracin, and polymyxin B sulfate to prevent infections of minor wounds. DESIGN: A clinical trial compared the test preparation with placebo and a povidone iodine antiseptic cream. SETTING: Five primary schools in Sydney, Australia, participated in the study over a 6-week spring/summer school term. SUBJECTS: Children aged 5–12 years with parental consent were eligible for study participation. Accidental injuries occurring at school were treated in a standardized manner by nurses at each site. OUTCOME MEASURES: Wounds were evaluated by the medical practitioner after 3 days of topical treatment. The clinical outcome was classified as resolution or suspected infection. If a clinical infection was suspected, the injury was swabbed for microbiologic evaluation. Growth of a dominant microorganism was classified as a microbiologic infection. RESULTS: Of the 177 injuries treated, there were nine clinical infections. A comparison of these showed a significant difference among treatment groups (p < 0.05). This difference was associated with the test preparation and placebo; the test preparation reduced the incidence of clinical infection from 12.5% to 1.6% (p < 0.05; 95% CI, 0.011 to 0.207). A comparison of microbiologic infections showed no significant differences among treatment groups (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The novel gel preparation containing cetrimide, bacitracin, and polymyxin B sulfate showed therapeutic action and reduced the incidence of clinical infections in minor accidental wounds. It may be a suitable product for first aid prophylaxis.
SAHLI, Z. T., A. R. BIZRI, and G. S. ABU-SITTAH. "Microbiology and risk factors associated with war-related wound infections in the Middle East." Epidemiology and Infection 144, no. 13 (March 2, 2016): 2848–57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0950268816000431.
SUMMARYThe Middle East region is plagued with repeated armed conflicts that affect both civilians and soldiers. Injuries sustained during war are common and frequently associated with multiple life-threatening complications. Wound infections are major consequences of these war injuries. The microbiology of war-related wound infections is variable with predominance of Gram-negative bacteria in later stages. The emergence of antimicrobial resistance among isolates affecting war-related wound injuries is a serious problem with major regional and global implications. Factors responsible for the increase in multidrug-resistant pathogens include timing and type of surgical management, wide use of antimicrobial drugs, and the presence of metallic or organic fragments in the wound. Nosocomial transmission is the most important factor in the spread of multidrug-resistant pathogens. Wound management of war-related injuries merits a multidisciplinary approach. This review aims to describe the microbiology of war-related wound infections and factors affecting their incidence from conflict areas in Iraq, Syria, Israel, and Lebanon.
Kontogiorgi, Marina, Ioannis Floros, Apostolos Koroneos, Chrysanthi Vamvouka, Olga Paniara, Charis Roussos, and Christina Routsi. "Fatal post-traumatic zygomycosis in an immunocompetent young patient." Journal of Medical Microbiology 56, no. 9 (September 1, 2007): 1243–45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.46993-0.
Zygomycosis, a relatively uncommon infection, usually occurs among immunocompromised individuals. It has been reported only rarely in trauma patients. A fatal case is reported of pulmonary and rapidly progressive cutaneous zygomycosis in a young, otherwise healthy farmer, with multiple bone fractures, wounds and soft tissue injuries after an accident with an agricultural machine in the field. Rhizopus spp. was isolated from both cultures of bronchial washings and wound samples. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological examination of tissue specimens from a large wound. Despite systemic antifungal therapy and surgical debridement, the patient's condition deteriorated and he died from refractory septic shock.
Warkentien, Tyler E., Faraz Shaikh, Amy C. Weintrob, Carlos J. Rodriguez, Clinton K. Murray, Bradley A. Lloyd, Anuradha Ganesan, Deepak Aggarwal, M. Leigh Carson, and David R. Tribble. "Impact of Mucorales and Other Invasive Molds on Clinical Outcomes of Polymicrobial Traumatic Wound Infections." Journal of Clinical Microbiology 53, no. 7 (May 13, 2015): 2262–70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/jcm.00835-15.
Combat trauma wounds with invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are often polymicrobial with fungal and bacterial growth, but the impact of the wound microbiology on clinical outcomes is uncertain. Our objectives were to compare the microbiological features between IFI and non-IFI wounds and evaluate whether clinical outcomes differed among IFI wounds based upon mold type. Data from U.S. military personnel injured in Afghanistan with IFI wounds were examined. Controls were matched by the pattern/severity of injury, including blood transfusion requirements. Wound closure timing was compared between IFI and non-IFI control wounds (with/without bacterial infections). IFI wound closure was also assessed according to mold species isolation. Eighty-two IFI wounds and 136 non-IFI wounds (63 with skin and soft tissue infections [SSTIs] and 73 without) were examined. The time to wound closure was longer for the IFI wounds (median, 16 days) than for the non-IFI controls with/without SSTIs (medians, 12 and 9 days, respectively;P< 0.001). The growth of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative rods was reported among 35% and 41% of the IFI and non-IFI wounds with SSTIs, respectively. Among the IFI wounds, times to wound closure were significantly longer for wounds withMucoralesgrowth than for wounds with non-Mucoralesgrowth (median, 17 days versus 13 days;P< 0.01). When wounds withMucoralesandAspergillusspp. growth were compared, there was no significant difference in wound closure timing. Trauma wounds with SSTIs were often polymicrobial, yet the presence of invasive molds (predominant types: orderMucorales,Aspergillusspp., andFusariumspp.) significantly prolonged the time to wound closure. Overall, the times to wound closure were longest for the IFI wounds withMucoralesgrowth.
Frank, Erik T., Marten Wehrhahn, and K. Eduard Linsenmair. "Wound treatment and selective help in a termite-hunting ant." Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 285, no. 1872 (February 14, 2018): 20172457. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2017.2457.
Open wounds are a major health risk in animals, with species prone to injuries likely developing means to reduce these risks. We therefore analysed the behavioural response towards open wounds on the social and individual level in the termite group-hunting ant Megaponera analis . During termite raids, some ants get injured by termite soldiers (biting off extremities), after the fight injured ants get carried back to the nest by nest-mates. We observed treatment of the injury by nest-mates inside the nest through intense allogrooming at the wound. Lack of treatment increased mortality from 10% to 80% within 24 h, most likely due to infections. Wound clotting occurred extraordinarily fast in untreated injured individuals, within 10 min. Furthermore, heavily injured ants (loss of five extremities) were not rescued or treated; this was regulated not by the helper but by the unresponsiveness of the injured ant. Interestingly, lightly injured ants behaved ‘more injured’ near nest-mates. We show organized social wound treatment in insects through a multifaceted help system focused on injured individuals. This was not only limited to selective rescuing of lightly injured individuals by carrying them back (thus reducing predation risk), but, moreover, included a differentiated treatment inside the nest.
Okamoto, Shigefumi, Kazuhiro Ogai, Kanae Mukai, and Junko Sugama. "Association of Skin Microbiome with the Onset and Recurrence of Pressure Injury in Bedridden Elderly People." Microorganisms 9, no. 8 (July 27, 2021): 1603. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9081603.
Pressure injuries have been identified as one of the main health hazards among bedridden elderly people. Bedridden elderly people often stay in the same position for a long time, because they cannot switch positions; thus, the blood flow in the part of the body that is being compressed between the bed and their own weight is continuously blocked. As a result, redness and ulcers occur due to lacking oxygen and nutrients in the skin tissues, and these sites are often infected with microorganisms and, thus, become suppurative wounds, a condition commonly determined as pressure injuries. If left untreated, the pressure injury will recur with microbial infections, often resulting in cellulitis, osteomyelitis, and sepsis. The skin microbiome, in which many types of bacteria coexist, is formed on the skin surface. However, it remains unclear what characteristic of the skin microbiome among the bedridden elderly constitutes the development and severity of pressure injuries and the development of post-pressure injury infections. Thus, in this review article, we outlined the changes in the skin microbiome among the bedridden elderly people and their potential involvement in the onset and recurrence of pressure injuries.
Ameling, Jessica, M. Todd Greene, Martha Quinn, and Jennifer Meddings. "Pilot Testing a Bedside Patient Safety Display to Increase Provider Awareness of the ‘Hidden Hazards’ of Catheters and Wounds." Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology 41, S1 (October 2020): s351—s352. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/ice.2020.968.
Background: Urinary catheters, vascular catheters, and wounds, such as pressure injuries are often hidden from view under gowns and sheets (ie, out of sight, out of mind), contributing to prolonged catheter use, infections, delayed interventions, and diagnostic errors for symptoms (eg, fever or delirium) related to catheters and wounds. We developed and pilot tested a digital bedside Patient Safety Display of catheter and wound information to improve awareness by rounding providers (ie, physicians and advanced practice providers, APPs). Methods: The display development was informed by clinical observations of provider rounds and nurse handoffs, interviews, and iterative prototype testing with clinicians in simulated cases using catheterized mannequins with wounds. The display reports the presence and duration of urinary and vascular catheter use, urinary catheter indication, and wound presence and severity, from real-time mandatory nurse documentation in the electronic medical record (Fig. 1). We conducted a pilot study in a tertiary-care medical-surgical step-down unit with 20 private rooms, including a preintervention period and a postintervention period including 10 rooms without the display (control rooms) and 10 rooms with the display (intervention rooms). We surveyed individual providers directly after rounds to assess their awareness of their patients’ catheters and wounds compared to medical record documentation. We also assessed display utility and usability from postintervention clinician interviews and we identified major themes using an adapted grounded theory approach. Results: In total, 787 surveys were completed: 681 medicine service with 89% response rate, 106 surgery service with 47% response rate; 363 preintervention surveys, and 424 postintervention surveys. The surveys involved 176 unique patients and 47 unique providers. Among all 787 patient encounters, 156 (19.8%) had a transurethral indwelling urinary catheter (Foley), 314 (39.9%) had a central venous catheter (including PICCs), and 247 (31.4%) had at least 1 pressure injury. Figure 2 summarizes provider awareness of catheters and pressure injuries when present as assessed for patients in the preintervention and postintervention periods. Moreover, 13 clinician postintervention interviews yielded preliminary themes regarding the display’s benefits and limitations (Fig. 3). Conclusions: In this pilot study of a novel Patient Safety Display, although provider awareness of Foley catheters, CVCs, and pressure injuries appeared higher for patients in the intervention rooms compared to awareness as measured in the preintervention rooms and/or postintervention control rooms, most of these comparisons did not meet statistical significance. Clinicians varied widely in their personal assessments of the display as a useful tool for improving awareness and prompting discussion about catheters and wounds.Funding: This work was funded by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) grant P30HS024385. Dr. Meddings’ effort was initially partially funded by concurrent support from AHRQ (K08 HS19767).Disclosures: Dr. Meddings has reported receiving honoraria for lectures and teaching related to prevention and value-based purchasing policies involving catheter-associated urinary tract infection. The remaining authors report no conflicts of interest.
Spille, Johannes, Juliane Schulz, Dorothee Cäcilia Spille, Hendrik Naujokat, Henning Wieker, Jörg Wiltfang, and Aydin Gülses. "Microbiological Characteristics and Surgical Management of Animal-Bite-Related Oral & Maxillofacial Injuries: A Single Center’s Experience." Antibiotics 10, no. 8 (August 18, 2021): 998. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10080998.
The objective of the current study is to retrospectively evaluate animal-bite injuries and to gain insight into the epidemiology, accident consequences and treatment concept of these accidents in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Data of patients, who were admitted January 2015 and April 2021, were retrospectively evaluated regarding the patients’ characteristics (age, gender), facial distribution of substance defects/partial amputations, duration of hospitalization, operation treatments and antibiotic treatments. Data of 75 patients were included. Patients were bitten by dogs (n = 69.92%), cats (n = 4) and horses (n = 2). Lower eyelid/cheek complex was the most affected region (n = 37, 32.74%). Most of the patients between 0 and 3 years had to be operated on under general anesthesia (p = 0.011), while most of the adults could be operated on under local anesthesia (p = 0.007). In the age group 0–12 years, 30 patients (68%) were operated on under general anesthesia. Ampicillin/Sulbactam (48%) was the antibiotic most used. Antibiotics were adjusted after wound swabs in case of wound infections or critical wound conditions. This means that resistant antibiotics were stopped, and sensitive antibiotics were used. Structured surgical and antibiotic management of animal-bite wounds in the maxillofacial region is the most important factor for medical care to avoid long-term aesthetic consequences. Public health actions and policies under the leadership of an interdisciplinary committee could improve primary wound management, healing outcome and information status in the general population.
Tanner, Michael A., Christine L. Everett, and Douglas C. Youvan. "Molecular Phylogenetic Evidence for Noninvasive Zoonotic Transmission of Staphylococcus intermedius from a Canine Pet to a Human." Journal of Clinical Microbiology 38, no. 4 (2000): 1628–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/jcm.38.4.1628-1631.2000.
rRNA-based molecular phylogenetic techniques were used to identify the bacterial species present in the ear fluid from a female patient with otitis externa. We report the identification ofStaphylococcus intermedius from the patient and a possible route of transmission. Analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms indicated that the dominant species present was S. intermedius. A pet dog owned by the patient also was tested and found to harbor S. intermedius. In humans, the disease is rare and considered a zoonosis. Previously,S. intermedius has been associated with dog bite wounds, catheter-related injuries, and surgery. This study represents the first reported case of a noninvasive infection with S. intermedius.
Dissertations / Theses on the topic "Wounds and injuries Microbiology":
Robertson, James Gray. "Insulin-like growth factors and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins in wounds /." Title page, contents and abstract only, 1999. http://web4.library.adelaide.edu.au/theses/09PH/09phr6509.pdf.
Marshall, Nicholas John. "The influence of insulin-like growth factor 1 and its analogues on fibroblasts and dermal wound healing." Title page, table of contents and synopsis only, 1998. http://web4.library.adelaide.edu.au/theses/09MD/09mdm3685.pdf.
Includes bibliography (leaves 191-219). Examines the levels of insulin-like growth factor and the presence of IGF binding proteins in human wound fluid. Tests the potency of IGF-1 and 2 analogues in in vitro models of fibroblast activity and their effect on healing in normal and diabetic rodent wounds. Shows that IGF-1, IGF-2 and their binding proteins are present in fluid from a partial thickness cutaneous wound; that the binding proteins negatively modulate the activity of insulin-like growth factors in vitro, but that the IGFs do not necessarily show enhanced activity in vivo at the wound site if binding protein affinity is decreased. Discusses possible roles of these binding proteins in wound repair.
Foster, Michele. "A window of opportunity : referral from acute care to rehabilitation following traumatic brain injury /." [St. Lucia, Qld.], 2001. http://www.library.uq.edu.au/pdfserve.php?image=thesisabs/absthe16181.pdf.
Murnyack, Roberta Michelle. "Development of a three-dimensional finite element model of lateral controlled cortical impact injury in the rat with geometry from magnetic resonance imaging." Thesis, Georgia Institute of Technology, 2001. http://hdl.handle.net/1853/17058.
Lin, Htein. "Causes and prevalence of traumatic injuries to the permanent incisors of school children aged 10-14 years in Maseru, Lesotho." Theses and Dissertations, University of the Western Cape, 2006. http://etd.uwc.ac.za/index.php?module=etd&.
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, etiology and types of injuries to permanent incisors among schoolchildren aged 10-14 years from Maseru, Lesotho. Upper and lower permanent incisors were examined for dental injuries.
Margand, Paul Marcus Buchanan. "Ultrastructural changes in electrically damaged x-enopus laevis sciatic nerve." Text, Scholarly Commons, 1991. https://scholarlycommons.pacific.edu/uop_etds/2217.
Electrical injury is known to alter the normal physiological function of nerves. In most cases, the change in function is only minor, but in severe instances the physiological function may be lost entirely. The changes in function involve the ability of the nerve to transmit an impulse, which is a function of the nerve's ability to create and maintain an electrical gradient across its membrane. When the nerve is exposed to an electrical current, the ability to maintain an electrical gradient across the membrane is reduced or lost. This change may be transient or permanent. The changes in the gradient hinder the nerve from propagating the impulse, which is the means of information transfer to and from the CNS (central nervous system). Due to the manner in which human victims are typically exposed to an electric shock, the peripheral axons usually display the greatest change in physiological function.
Ackermann, Tessa Ruth. "Minor "dings" - major effects? a study into the cognitive effects of mild head injuries in high school rugby." Thesis, Rhodes University, 2000. http://hdl.handle.net/10962/d1002429.
The present study is part of a larger and ongoing research initiative investigating the cumulative cognitive effects of mild head injury in rugby union and focused specifically on high school rugby players. A comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests was administered to top team high school rugby players (n = 47), and a non-contact sport control group of top team high school hockey players (n = 34). Direct comparisons of group mean scores and standard deviations across each neuropsychological test were carried out for the Total Rugby group versus the Total Hockey group as well as for the subgroups Rugby Forwards versus Rugby Backs. A correlational analysis was conducted to ascertain whether a relationship exists between the number of mild head injuries reported by the players and their cognitive test performance. Results of the group comparisons of means and variability on WMS Paired Associate Learning Hard Pairs - Delayed Recall provides tentative indications of the initial stages of diffuse damage associated with mild head injury in the rugby group and provides some evidence for impairment of verbal learning and memory in the Rugby Forwards group. The correlational analysis revealed no significant relationship between number of reported mild head injuries and cognitive performance. The findings and possible latent effects of the multiple mild head injuries reported by the rugby players are discussed in terms of brain reserve capacity theory and suggestions for future research are provided.
Scholtz, Hendrik Johannes. "Fatal penetrating injuries of the chest." Master Thesis, University of Cape Town, 1996. http://hdl.handle.net/11427/26781.
In the Republic of South Africa, an autopsy is required in all cases of unnatural death, or in cases where the cause of death is unknown in terms of the Inquest Act of 1959. These are performed at the Salt River Medicolegal Laboratory by Forensic Pathologists and Registrars of the Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology of the University of Cape Town. The Salt River Medicolegal Laboratory serves the greater Cape Town area with a population of approximately 2,5 million, including the magisterial districts of Cape Town, Wynberg, Mitchell's Plain and Simonstown. Cape Town has one of the world's highest homicide rates and in 1986 the incidence was 56, 91 100000 population per annum. In contrast, Singapore has a homicide rate of only 2, 5/100 000, while the United States has an overall homicide rate of 7,7/ 100 000 population. In order to document the true impact of penetrating chest injuries, and to place mortality data in perspective, a retrospective descriptive study of all cases with fatal penetrating chest injuries admitted to the Salt River Medicolegal Laboratory in Cape Town during 1990 was undertaken. In 1990, a total of 5 758 cases was admitted to the Salt River Medicolegal Laboratory of which 1834 cases (39%) were the result of homicide. Of the homicide cases, 408 (22%) were the result of firearm injuries. A total of 2044 (35, 5%) cases admitted was deemed to have died of natural causes. This study identified a total of 841 cases of fatal penetrating injuries of the chest admitted during 1990, which constituted 22,6% of all non-natural cases admitted.
Ottosson, Carin. "Somato-psycho-social aspects of recovery after traffic injuries /." Stockholm, 2006. http://diss.kib.ki.se/2006/91-7140-721-9/.
Book chapters on the topic "Wounds and injuries Microbiology":
Presterl, Elisabeth, Magda Diab-El Schahawi, Luigi Segagni Lusignani, Helga Paula, and Jacqui S. Reilly. "Puncture Wounds and Needle-Related Injuries." In Basic Microbiology and Infection Control for Midwives, 151–53. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2018. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-02026-2_16.
Payne, Christopher, and Andrew Kjos. "Wounds and Injuries." In A Beginner’s Guide to Special Makeup Effects, 89–94. New York : Routledge, 2021.: Routledge, 2021. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9781003093701-19.
Orgill, Dennis P. "Operative Management of Pressure Injuries." In Interventional Treatment of Wounds, 75–84. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2018. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-66990-8_5.
Hanson, R. Reid, and Amelia S. Munsterman. "Treatment of Burn Injuries, Gunshot Wounds, and Dog-Bite Wounds." In Equine Wound Management, 476–89. Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781118999219.ch20.
Hadrill, David. "4. How to prevent wounds and injuries; How to treat wounds." In Horse Healthcare, 86–111. Rugby, Warwickshire, United Kingdom: Practical Action Publishing, 2002. http://dx.doi.org/10.3362/9781780443515.004.
Heegaard, William G., and Gary M. Vilke. "Factitious Conducted Electrical Weapon Wounds: Injuries and Considerations." In Atlas of Conducted Electrical Weapon Wounds and Forensic Analysis, 131–42. New York, NY: Springer New York, 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-3543-3_7.
Badr, Hoda, Trina M. Barker, and Kathrin Milbury. "Couples’ Psychosocial Adaptation to Combat Wounds and Injuries." In Risk and Resilience in U.S. Military Families, 213–34. New York, NY: Springer New York, 2010. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-7064-0_11.
Graham, Michael. "Histopathology of Cutaneous Conducted Electrical Weapon Injuries." In Atlas of Conducted Electrical Weapon Wounds and Forensic Analysis, 79–111. New York, NY: Springer New York, 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-3543-3_5.
Brave, Michael. "Legal Aspects of Conducted Electrical Weapon Injuries, Wounds, and Effects." In Atlas of Conducted Electrical Weapon Wounds and Forensic Analysis, 143–54. New York, NY: Springer New York, 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-3543-3_8.
Conference papers on the topic "Wounds and injuries Microbiology":
Frybarger, Michelle R., and Karim H. Muci-Küchler. "Distribution of Bacterial Contamination in Partial Penetration Surrogate Ballistic Wounds." In ASME 2020 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/imece2020-23897.
Abstract With the rise in use of IEDs during armed conflicts, there has been an increase in the number of injuries to the extremities. Shrapnel and debris ejected during the explosion become high-speed projectiles capable of penetrating soft tissues, bringing bacterial contamination into the wound. If not properly treated, that contamination could lead to infection. Studies aimed at understanding the distribution of bacterial contamination along the permanent cavity could provide useful information to improve treatment protocols for these types of injuries. In this paper, a lower extremity surrogate model was used to investigate bacterial distribution in partial penetration ballistic wounds. The targets used were ballistic gelatin blocks that had an Escherichia coli-laden filter paper placed on their front face. Spherical projectiles were fired into the targets adjusting their speed to obtain three different partial penetration depths. After each shot, a gelatin strip containing the permanent cavity was extracted and segmented. The permanent cavity was removed from each segment, placed in a test tube with buffer solution, and heated in a water bath to melt the gelatin. Standard microbiology protocols were followed to determine the number of colony forming units (CFUs) in each segment. The bacteria distribution was represented by percent of total CFU in the permanent cavity versus segment number. In addition, bacterial contamination as a function of projectile penetration depth was explored. For the cases considered, most of the bacterial contamination occurred in the segments closer to the projectile entry point.
Lamping, Jeffrey W., Stephen K. Bubb, and Terence E. McIff. "Effectiveness of Negative Pressure in Promoting Tissue Growth Into Porous Metal Implants." In ASME 2012 Summer Bioengineering Conference. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/sbc2012-80884.
Extremity War Injuries (EWI) with large open segmental and periarticular defects constitute a high volume and high morbidity challenge for the military trauma management system. Open segmental tibia and elbow fractures caused by Improvised Explosive Device (IED) wounds, are two examples of such injuries. Several problems occur when trying to repair such a wound. The large, gaping wounds make skin closure difficult. Infection is also a prevalent complication typically caused by debris contaminating the wound. Lastly, large amounts of damaged tissue including segmental bone defects make repair difficult.
Zhang, Jiangyue, Narayan Yoganandan, Cheryl A. Muszynski, Frank A. Pintar, and Thomas A. Gennarelli. "Analysis of Penetrating Head Impact." In ASME 2004 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition. ASMEDC, 2004. http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/imece2004-59899.
Impact-induced injuries can be classified into blunt and penetrating types. Penetrating injuries are often the byproduct of gunshot wounds and these injuries to the head result in significant mortality and morbidity. The objective of the study is to determine the probability of fatality as a function of admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and injury volumes (hematoma and edema) in gunshot wounds using computed tomography (CT) scans. Head CT images from 19 patients were analyzed. Hematoma and edema volumes were computed using grayscale equivalents and special computer software. Hematoma and edema volumes were found to be better predictors than GCS. In addition to admission GCS, hematoma and edema volumes may allow more accurate prediction of outcome, and these data should provide informed counseling of relatives and improved guidelines for more efficient resource allocation during the acute care phase.
Fabio, Anthony, Shiyao Gao, Michael Bell, Patrick Kochanek, and Stephen Wisniewski. "97 Gunshot wounds to the head: the epidemiology of severe paediatric firearm-related traumatic brain injuries." In SAVIR 2017. BMJ Publishing Group Ltd, 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2017-042560.97.
Izmailov, Sergey, Julia Perevezentseva, Andrey Rotkov, Vladimir Beschastnov, Evgeniy Popov, and Egor Lukoyanychev. "Mathematical Justification of the Wound suturing by Wound Contractors of new Generation." In International Conference "Computing for Physics and Technology - CPT2020". Bryansk State Technical University, 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.30987/conferencearticle_5fce2772128d09.10616351.
Frequent cases of man-made disasters, terrorist attacks and military conflicts lead to an increase in the number of victims. Significant soft tissue defects are known to result from gunshot wounds. So, as a result of mine-blasting injuries, defects in the skin and underlying tissues more than 10 cm in diameter are formed in 71.1% of cases. The prerequisite for the uncomplicated course of the wound process is to achieve an adequate comparison of the edges of the wound without excessive tension. To close such extensive wounds, various technical means are used: sutures on pads, various types of dermatotension. We have developed various models of wound contractors (RC) for treatment of wounds. With the help of the RC, a complete reposition and good adaptation of the edges of the wound is created. The wound closure method using these RC almost completely eliminates tissue cutting and limits the sawing effect to a minimum. This is explained by the effects of elastic forces reducing to zero when matching soft tissues and suturing. The use of hardware methods for suturing wounds requires the development of mathematical models of various types of wounds and surgical sutures. These models should provide a simulation of living tissues of the wound edges behavior to achieve the best results in the treatment of wounds by RC advanced technologies. The purpose of this study is to mathematically justify RC with the parallel holding of spokes. Another purpose is to develop a mathematical model of the wounds suturing by hardware technology.
Zhang, Jiangyue, and Frank A. Pintar. "A Finite Element Study of Blast Overpressure on the Skull With and Without Helmet." In ASME 2010 Summer Bioengineering Conference. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2010. http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/sbc2010-19083.
The use of advanced personal armor, especially the helmet, during combat has significantly reduced the incidence and severity of life threatening penetrating injuries from gunshot and blast shrapnel to the head and improved the overall survival rate of soldiers in combat . On the other hand, the number of blast related injuries (68%) has increased to more than 4 times that of gunshot wounds (15%) and other injuries (17%), among which blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) has became the signature wound of the U.S. armed forces in Iraq and Afghanistan due to increased use of improvised explosive devices (IED) and rocket-propelled grenades (RPG) by the insurgents [2–4]. It is well known in detonation physics that the presence of a close proximity surface will increase the overpressure on the target due to blast wave reflection [5, 6]. The helmet, which has saved many lives from otherwise fatal penetration and blunt impact injuries, may unfortunately also serve as a reflecting surface and pose increased blast injury threat to the head. Consequently, the current study was designed to compare blast overpressures on the skull with and without helmet using a human head computational model.
Zhang, Jiangyue, Narayan Yoganandan, Frank A. Pintar, Yabo Guan, and Thomas A. Gennarelli. "Experimental Study on Non-Exit Ballistic Induced Traumatic Brain Injury." In ASME 2007 Summer Bioengineering Conference. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2007. http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/sbc2007-176407.
Ballistic-induced traumatic brain injury remains the most severe type of injury with the highest rate of fatality. Yet, its injury biomechanics remains the least understood. Ballistic injury biomechanics studies have been mostly focused on the trunk and extremities using large gelatin blocks with unconstrained boundaries [1, 2]. Results from these investigations are not directly applicable to brain injuries studies because the human head is smaller and the soft brain is enclosed in a relatively rigid cranium. Thali et al. developed a “skin-skull-brain” model to reproduce gunshot wounds to the head for forensic purposes . These studies focused on wound morphology to the skull rather than brain injury. Watkins et al. used human dry skulls filled with gelatin and investigated temporary cavities and pressure change . However, the frame rate of the cine X-ray was too slow to describe the cavity dynamics, and pressures were only quantified at the center of skull. In addition, the ordnance gelatin used in these studies is not the most suitable simulant to model brain material because of differences in dynamic moduli . Sylgard gel (Dow Corning Co., Midland, MI) demonstrates similar behavior as the brain and has been used as a brain surrogate to determine brain deformations under blunt impact loading [6, 7]. Zhang et al. used the simulant for ballistic brain injury and investigated the correlation between temporary cavity pulsation and pressure change [8, 9]. However, the skulls used in these models were not as rigid as the human cranium. The presence of a stronger cranial bone may significantly decrease the projectile velocity and change the kinematics of cavity and pressure distribution in the cranium. In addition, projectiles perforated through the models in these studies. Patients with through-and-through perforating gunshot wounds to the head have a greater fatality rate than patients with non-exit penetrating wounds . Therefore, it is more clinically relevant to investigate non-exit ballistic traumatic brain injuries. Consequently, the current study is designed to investigate the brain injury biomechanics from non-exit penetrating projectile using an appropriately sized and shaped physical head model.
CHIRVA, Y. V., and M. I. BABICH. "TREATMENT OF DEFECTS IN BONES AND SOFT TISSUE WOUNDS IN VICTIMS WITH INJURIES OF THE LOWER EXTREMITIES BY THE METHOD OF SEQUENTIAL OSTEOSYNTHESIS." In Проблемы и вопросы современной науки. Научно-Издательский Центр Международной Объединенной Академии Наук (НИЦ МОАН), 2018. http://dx.doi.org/10.18411/pivsn-18.
Hinz, Brandon J., and Karim H. Muci-Küchler. "Study of Air Flow Into Ballistic Wounds Using Flow Visualization Experiments and Numerical Simulations." In ASME 2012 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/imece2012-88106.
A common type of battlefield injury involves high speed fragments of different sizes and shapes hitting the human body, particularly the extremities. Gaining a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in those injuries can result in better strategies for providing medical care. One aspect that still requires additional research is the contamination of ballistic wounds. Studies published in the open literature have shown that in perforating projectile wounds airborne debris such as skin, cloth, and soil particles are introduced into the wound by either the projectile or by the suction created due to the formation of the temporary wound cavity. These debris can transport bacteria resulting in infection, delayed wound healing, or other complications. The amount of suction and ultimately the bacteria distribution in ballistic wounds can vary depending on parameters such as projectile velocity, caliber, mass, and location of injury. Numerical models can be used to study the influence of various parameters on the suction effect but experimental data is needed to validate the simulation results. This paper presents an experiment developed to provide an initial evaluation of numerical models of the air flow and suction effect in perforating projectile wounds. The experiment used rectangular prism (cuboid) targets made of ballistic gelatin which is a common soft-tissue surrogate material used in ballistic research. These targets were shot with 11.43 mm (0.45 in) caliber round lead projectiles fired from air rifles at approximately 230 m/s. The air flow into the temporary cavity of the tissue surrogate targets was visualized using a vapor curtain placed at the projectile entry location. A high speed digital camera captured the movement of the vapor curtain and the formation of the temporary wound cavity during the tests. To simulate the experiment, a Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian (CEL) model was run using Abaqus/Explicit. In the model, the mechanical behavior of the soft-tissue surrogate target was represented using a hyper-elastic constitutive relation. A small pre-made cylindrical channel was added to the targets to avoid using techniques such as element erosion or considering material failure when modeling the passage of the projectile through the material. Qualitative and limited quantitative results from the model were compared with the results from the laboratory tests.