Добірка наукової літератури з теми "Customer privacy"

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Статті в журналах з теми "Customer privacy":

1

Blight, Jim. "Customer privacy versus customer service." Information Security Technical Report 2, no. 1 (January 1997): 7–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1363-4127(97)80880-1.

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2

Liu, Rong, Jiawei Yang, and Jifei Wu. "When Big Data Backfires: The Impact of a Perceived Privacy Breach by Pharmaceutical E-Retailers on Customer Boycott Intention in China." International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 8 (April 15, 2022): 4831. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19084831.

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The objective of this study was to explore the impact of a perceived privacy breach by pharmaceutical e-retailers on customer boycott intention, especially the mediating role of emotional violation and the moderating effect of customer previous trust. Data were collected via a questionnaire survey of 335 customers of pharmaceutical e-retailers from China. Our research results showed that a perceived privacy breach by a pharmaceutical e-retailer had no direct effect on customer boycott intention; a perceived privacy breach positively affected emotional violation; emotional violation led to customer boycott intention; emotional violation played a mediating role in the relationship between a perceived privacy breach and customer boycott intention; and customer previous trust positively moderated the mediating effect of emotional violation.
3

Shy, Oz, and Rune Stenbacka. "Customer Privacy and Competition." Journal of Economics & Management Strategy 25, no. 3 (December 18, 2015): 539–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jems.12157.

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4

Mandal, Pratap Chandra. "Public Policy Issues and Technoethics in Marketing Research in the Digital Age." International Journal of Technoethics 12, no. 1 (January 2021): 75–86. http://dx.doi.org/10.4018/ijt.2021010105.

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Companies collect customer information in marketing research to understand customers and generate customer insights. Various public policy and ethical issues are associated with the process. The issues include intrusions on consumer privacy; misuse, misinterpretation, and misrepresentation of research findings; ethical and social dilemma in the collection of customer information; and ethical dilemma in generating customer insights through neuromarketing and its applications. In this digital age, it is easier to invade consumer privacy. Companies abide by the various laws and regulations enforced to protect customers and adopt a number of initiatives to convince their customers. Understanding of the various public policy and ethical issues and addressing such issues by adopting proper initiatives will help companies convince customers, build effective customer relationships, and achieve business excellence. The understanding might also help policymakers to appreciate the customer requirements and devise policies, rules, and regulations accordingly.
5

Wijaya, Petra Surya Mega, and Ety Istriani. "PENGARUH FAKTOR-FAKTOR ANTESEDEN E-CUSTOMER SATISFACTION, E-CUSTOMER TRUST DAN COMPULSIVE BUYING PADA PEMBENTUKKAN E-CUSTOMER LOYALTY." Jurnal Manajemen 19, no. 1 (March 7, 2017): 1. http://dx.doi.org/10.24912/jm.v19i1.101.

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Temuan dari penelitian diharapkan dapat memberikan masukan yang berharga pada pengembangan teori belanja online dan bagi perusahaan yang akan melakukan penjualan secara online. Penelitian ini mencoba untuk menggabungkan penelitian yang dilakukan oleh Wang dan Yang (2008), Eid (2011) dan Campbell (2013). Adapun variabel penelitian yang akan digunakan adalah e-customer loyalty, e- customer satisfaction, e-customer trust, compulsive buying, user interface quality, information quality, perceived security, perceived privacy, dan competent behavior. Rumusan masalah penelitian adalah (1) apakah e-customer loyalty dipengaruhi oleh e- customer satisfaction, e-customer trust, dan compulsive buying, dan (2) apakah e- customer satisfaction dan e-customer trust dipengaruhi user interface quality, information quality, perceived security, perceived privacy, dan competent behavior. Sebanyak 200 kuesioner dibagikan secara purposive kepada masyarakat Yogyakarta yang berusia 15 tahun hingga 30 tahun dan pernah melakukan transaksi online sedikitnya satu kali dalam 6 bulan terakhir. Response rate penelitian ini adalah 100% karena penarikan kuesioner dilakukan saat itu juga sesaat setelah pengisian selesai. Pengujian hipotesis menggunakan alat analisis Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Hasil penelitian menyatakan bahwa semua hipotesis yang diajukan dapat didukung, sehingga dapat disimpulkan bahwa (1) e-customer loyalty dipengaruhi oleh e-customer satisfaction, e-customer trust, dan compulsive buying, dan (2) e-customer satisfaction dan e-customer trust dipengaruhi oleh user interface quality, information quality, perceived security, perceived privacy, dan competent behavior.This study tries to combine research conducted by Wang and Yang (2008), Eid (2011) and Campbell (2013). Formulation of research problems are: (1) whether the e-customer loyalty is influenced by the e-customer satisfaction, customere-trust, and compulsive buying, and (2) whether the e-customer satisfaction and customer trusteinfluenced user interface quality, information quality, perceived security, perceived privacy, and competent behavior. A total of 200 questionnaires were distributed to the people of Yogyakarta purposive lyaged 15 years to 30 year sand never done an online transaction at least oncein thelast 6 months. Hypothesis testing using analytical tools. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The study states that all proposed hypothesis can be supported, so itcanbe concluded that (1) e-customer loyalty is influenced by the e- customer satisfaction, customere-trust, and compulsive buying, and (2) the e-customer satisfaction ande-customer trustis influencedbythe user interfacequality, information quality, perceived security, perceived privacy, andcompetentbehavior.
6

Martin, Kelly D., Abhishek Borah, and Robert W. Palmatier. "Data Privacy: Effects on Customer and Firm Performance." Journal of Marketing 81, no. 1 (January 2017): 36–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1509/jm.15.0497.

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Although marketers increasingly rely on customer data, firms have little insight into the ramifications of such data use and do not know how to prevent negative effects. Data management efforts may heighten customers’ vulnerability worries or create real vulnerability. Using a conceptual framework grounded in gossip theory, the authors link customer vulnerability to negative performance effects. Three studies show that transparency and control in firms’ data management practices can suppress the negative effects of customer data vulnerability. Experimental manipulations reveal that mere access to personal data inflates feelings of violation and reduces trust. An event study of data security breaches affecting 414 public companies also confirms negative effects, as well as spillover vulnerabilities from rival firms’ breaches, on firm performance. Severity of the breach hurts the focal firm but helps the rival firm, which provides some insight into mixed findings in prior research. Finally, a field study with actual customers of 15 companies across three industries demonstrates consistent effects across four types of customer data vulnerability and confirms that violation and trust mediate the effects of data vulnerabilities on outcomes.
7

Pradnyadewi, Luh Putu Ariestari, and IG A. K. Giantari. "Effect of E-Service Quality on Customer Satisfaction and Customer Loyalty on Tokopedia Customers in Denpasar." European Journal of Business and Management Research 7, no. 2 (April 6, 2022): 200–204. http://dx.doi.org/10.24018/ejbmr.2022.7.2.1297.

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The purpose of this study is to examine and explain the effect of e-service quality on customer satisfaction and customer loyalty to Tokopedia customers and the role of gender on this influence. This research was conducted in Denpasar City with 110 respondents. Data were collected through questionnaires and then analyzed using Structural Equation Model (SEM) using PLS (Partial Least Square) and MGS (Multi-Group Analysis) analysis techniques. The results of this study indicate that the dimensions of privacy, responsiveness, convenience, reliability, efficiency have a positive and significant effect on customer satisfaction. Customer satisfaction has a positive and significant effect on customer loyalty. There are differences in the effect of customer satisfaction on customer loyalty based on gender. On the direct influence of the dimensions of Privacy, Responsiveness, Ease, Reliability, efficiency on customer satisfaction, there is no difference based on gender.
8

Mandal, Pratap Chandra. "Public Policy Issues in Direct and Digital Marketing – Concerns and Initiatives." International Journal of Public Administration in the Digital Age 6, no. 4 (October 2019): 54–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.4018/ijpada.2019100105.

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Companies require information about customers to understand them, know their preferences, and develop relationships with them. Companies employ a number of direct and digital marketing channels to collect information and intelligence about customers. Marketers adopt a number of unfair practices for collecting information through direct and digital marketing and this raises concerns about consumer privacy. The article discusses the various aspects of consumer privacy and the need for protecting consumer privacy. The article further focuses on the various regulations enforced by regulatory bodies and governments of countries to protect customers. Various initiatives taken by companies to protect customers are discussed. Direct and digital marketing channels allow companies to collect information and intelligence about customers and to influence them. However, companies should be sensitive to customer concerns. This will help companies in building long-term customer relationships.
9

Top, Cemil, and Bayad Jamal Ali. "Customer satisfaction in online meeting platforms: Impact of efficiency, fulfillment, system availability, and privacy." Revista Amazonia Investiga 10, no. 38 (April 12, 2021): 70–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.34069/ai/2021.38.02.7.

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As it is known business rely on the customers, which means the profitability of any company change depending on customer demand. Due to that, it is necessary to treat customers as the central factor of the market. In another meaning, Customer satisfaction is very important issue to a company’s business performance. In this regard, the purpose of this project was to determine the Impact of service quality on the customer satisfaction in the online meeting platforms. By means of service quality, we tested the impact of efficiency, fulfillment, system availability, and privacy on the customer satisfaction. Though conducting a survey data was collected. Different nationalities from various universities participated in this study including Kurdish, Turkish, Arabic, Turkmen, Indian, Pakistan, Uzbek, Nigerian and British with having different position such as head of the faculty, instructor, academic staff, head of the department and etc. in Kurdistan region of Iraq. Based on the result fulfillment, privacy issues were affected the customer satisfaction mostly.
10

Mandal, Pratap Chandra. "Shifts in Customer Relationship." International Journal of Applied Management Theory and Research 4, no. 1 (January 1, 2022): 1–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.4018/ijamtr.2022010102.

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Companies require building and maintaining customer relationships to achieve excellence in the digital age. Companies should be selective and should develop relationships with loyal and profitable customers and discourage unprofitable customers to continue doing business with them. Companies require developing interactive customer relationships which are mutually beneficial and understanding the growing importance of consumer-generated marketing in the digital age and online marketing domains in forming relationships. They should respect public policies like consumer security and privacy, have knowledge of customer rights, and respect those rights to win customer trust. Firms require developing customer preference programs to strengthen the bondage with passionate customers and to attract potential buyers and convert them into regular customers. All such strategies will help companies understand the shifting nature of customer relationships in the digital age, build in-depth customer relationships, succeed in the tough environment, and achieve business excellence in the digital age.

Дисертації з теми "Customer privacy":

1

Dahlgren, Sanne, and Beatrice Tabell. "Personalized Advertising Online and its Difficulties with Customer Privacy." Thesis, Karlstads universitet, 2018. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-66218.

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Purpose: The aim of this paper is to explain and to create an understanding if personalized advertising online creates value for customers.  Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative study through 14 semi-structured interviews.  Findings: The study found personalized advertising to be seen as value co-creation in some cases, but because privacy concerns exist and affect the perception of advertising, it can in many cases lead to value co-destruction instead. It is thus a consideration between privacy concerns and the perceived value of the personalized advertising that decides if the offering will co-create or co-destroy value.  Research limitations/implications for future research: Our study did not involve respondents’ younger than 21 years old, which could have affected the result as this is a generation seen as technology savvy. Through a quantitative study, future research could try to find extremes in personalities by conducting a survey with a large sample of people in different ages, nationalities, gender, active online, etc. in order to see if there are correlations between for example age and privacy concerns.  Practical implications: One purpose of the study is to provide companies with insights of how different customers perceive personalized advertising online in terms of customer value in order for companies to know how to think when targeting their customers.  Keywords: online advertising, personalized advertising, personalized-privacy paradox, privacy concerns, value creation, value co-creation, value co-destruction.
2

Sarkar, Mainak. "Three essays on artificial intelligence models for customer relationship management." Thesis, Cergy-Pontoise, Ecole supérieure des sciences économiques et commerciales, 2022. http://www.theses.fr/2022ESEC0002.

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La thèse se compose de trois essais sur "Modèles d'intelligence artificielle pour la gestion de la relation client". En particulier, les essais sont construits sur de nouveaux algorithmes d'apprentissage en profondeur connus sous le nom de réseaux de neurones à mémoire longue et courte durée (LSTM). Le premier essai montre que les réseaux de neurones LSTM, qui reposent exclusivement sur des données brutes en entrée, peuvent remplacer les modèles basés sur l'ingénierie des fonctionnalités pour prédire le comportement des clients dans le contexte du marketing direct. Dans le deuxième essai, je développe un modèle de réseaux de neurones à double LSTM pour les prédictions de la valeur à vie du client (CLV) qui intègre la politique adaptative de l'entreprise et capture l'attrition latente. Je montre que l'intégration de la politique marketing adaptative de l'entreprise dans les modèles d'évaluation des clients conduit à des trajectoires divergentes de rentabilité future, mettant en évidence des bimodalités et des modes à la queue de la distribution CLV. La présence de bimodalités et de modes à la queue capturée par mon modèle a des implications pour une compréhension plus approfondie du potentiel du client (c'est-à-dire le meilleur scénario par rapport à l'attente CLV traditionnelle) et pour affiner la hiérarchisation des clients. Dans le troisième essai, j'exploite la capacité des états de mémoire des réseaux de neurones LSTM à résumer les informations utiles des données de transaction passées pour développer une nouvelle approche qui répond aux préoccupations de confidentialité des clients dans la gestion de la relation client (CRM)
The dissertation consists of three essays on “Artificial Intelligence Models for Customer Relationship Management”. In particular, the essays are built on novel deep learning algorithms known as long-short term memory (LSTM) neural networks. The first essay shows that LSTM neural networks, which rely exclusively on raw data as input, can replace feature-engineering based models for predicting customer behavior in the direct marketing context. In the second essay, I develop a dual-LSTM neural networks model for customer lifetime value (CLV) predictions that incorporates the firm’s adaptive policy as well as captures latent attrition. I show that integrating the firm’s adaptive marketing policy into customer valuation models leads to diverging paths of future profitability, highlighting bimodalities and modes at the tail of the CLV distribution. The presence of bimodalities and modes at the tail captured by my model has implications for a deeper understanding of customer potential (i.e., best-case scenario vs. traditional CLV expectation) and for fine-tuning customer prioritization. In the third essay, I leverage the ability of LSTM neural networks’ memory states to summarize useful information from the past transaction data to develop a novel approach that addresses customer privacy concerns in customer relationship management (CRM)
3

Chetty, Nirvashnee. "Privacy preserving data anonymisation: an experimental examination of customer data for POPI compliance in South Africa." Master's thesis, University of Cape Town, 2020. http://hdl.handle.net/11427/32448.

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Data has become an essential commodity in this day and age. Organisations want to share the massive amounts of data that they collect as a way to leverage and grow their businesses. On the other hand, the need to maintain privacy is critical in order to avoid the release of sensitive information. This has been shown to be a constant challenge, namely the trade-off between preserving privacy and data utility [1]. This study performs an evaluation of privacy models together with their relevant tools and techniques to ascertain whether data can be anonymised in such a way that it can be in compliance with the Protection of Personal Information (POPI) Act and preserve the privacy of individuals. The results of this research should provide a practical solution for organisations in South Africa to adequately anonymise customer data to ensure POPI Act compliance with the use of a software tool. An experimental environment was setup with the ARX de-identification tool as the tool of choice to implement the privacy models. Two privacy models, namely k-anonymity and ldiversity, were tested on a publicly available data set. Data quality models as well as privacy risk measures were implemented. The results of the study showed that when taking both data utility and privacy risks into consideration, neither privacy model was the clear winner. The K-anonymity privacy model was a better choice for data utility, whereas the l-diversity privacy model was a better choice for privacy preservation by reducing re-identification risks. Therefore, in relation to the aim of the study which is to compare the results of data anonymisation to ensure that data privacy needs are met more than data utility, the result showed that the l-diversity privacy model was the preferred model. Finally, considering that the POPI Act is still awaiting the final step to be promulgated, there is time to conduct further experiments in the various ways to practically implement and apply data anonymisation techniques in the day-to-day processing of data and information in South Africa.
4

Patania, Fortunato. "The future of retailing: analysis of the context and development of the Omni-Channel strategy." Master's thesis, Alma Mater Studiorum - Università di Bologna, 2018.

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Анотація:
Con la presente ricerca si pone in essere uno studio sulla dimensione del business del Retail, mediante un approccio teorico al quale sono stati correlati alcuni casi aziendali. Negli ultimi anni, l’evoluzione dello spettro di abitudini del consumatore, con la rapida diffusione delle tecnologie di rete, ha richiesto alle aziende di attuare approcci e strategie nuove ed integrate per il raggiungimento del successo aziendale. L’analisi dei segmenti di clientela ha dimostrato come l’avvento di Internet abbia inevitabilmente generato impatti sia sulla vita delle persone sia sul modo di fare impresa. Ciò ha creato delle opportunità, come ad esempio una maggiore visione globale del mercato, ma anche fenomeni quali lo ShowRooming e il WebRooming, che devono essere contrastati se incontrollati o altrimenti sfruttati. Oggi i clienti interagiscono con le aziende attraverso diversi punti di contatto su più canali e media. Questi cambiamenti richiedono alle aziende di integrare più funzioni per offrire esperienze positive ai clienti. Il Retail infatti, si è fisiologicamente evoluto negli anni passando dal classico negozio mono canale, fino ad un concetto più complesso che integra l' online e l'offline. Ciò porta le aziende a rivedere l’intera supply chain. L’analisi del business di Apple, Burberry e Morrisons/ Amazon ha permesso di studiare l’applicazione della strategia Omni-Channel nel rispettivo settore di competenza, approfondendo i vantaggi/ i problemi riscontrati. Infatti, seppur oggi non sia utilizzata da tutte le aziende a causa degli sforzi necessari per l’adottamento, la strategia Omni-Channel è ancora inevitabilmente destinata a prospettive di crescita capillare che porterà ad una evoluzione del concetto stesso di negozio verso una dimensione integrata di vendita al dettaglio. Infine, l’analisi dei trend di business di DHL e UKMail ha permesso di porre l’enfasi sui temi del fullfillment e del last mile delivery.
5

Feliciano, Ana Rita Lemos. "Mobile Customer Relationship Management : questões de privacidade." Master's thesis, Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão, 2013. http://hdl.handle.net/10400.5/11221.

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Mestrado em Ciências Empresariais
As tecnologias de informação permitem um maior contato entre a organização e o cliente, como também auxiliam a perceber as necessidades e as preferências dos clientes, resultando na adoção de estratégias de Marketing com o objetivo de fidelizar o cliente. A gestão de relacionamento com o cliente (CRM - Customer Relationship Management) ajuda as organizações a satisfazer o cliente através de um relacionamento próximo. A gestão móvel de relacionamento com o cliente (MCRM ? Mobile Customer Relationship Management) funciona como uma ferramenta mais rápida e eficaz para publicitar os produtos e serviços das organizações. No entanto, existe uma questão fulcral nestes processos que é a privacidade dos utilizadores\clientes. Assim, este trabalho tem como objetivo perceber como são utilizadas as informações pessoais dadas às organizações através de aplicações móveis que podem influenciar na publicidade que se recebe de novos produtos e serviços, assim como, perceber a preocupação e importância que a privacidade tem para os utilizadores de aplicações móveis.
The information technologies allow greater contact between organization and customer, but also help to understand the needs and preferences of customers, resulting in the adoption of marketing strategies in order to build customer loyalty. The Customer Relationships Management (CRM) helps organizations satisfy the customer through a close relationship. The Mobile Customer Relationship Management (MCRM) works as a tool faster and more effective to advertise products and services of organizations. However, there is a major issue in these cases is that the privacy of users \ clients. Thus, this study aims to understand how it is used the personal information given to organizations through mobile applications that may influence the advertising we get from new products and services, as well as understand the concern and importance to the privacy of the users has to mobile applications.
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Stevens, Arlonda M. "ANTECEDENTS AND OUTCOMES OF PERCEIVED CREEPINESS IN ONLINE PERSONALIZED COMMUNICATIONS." Case Western Reserve University School of Graduate Studies / OhioLINK, 2016. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=case1459413626.

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7

Hrach, Christian, and Rainer Alt. "Datenschutz in Call Centern – Bestandsaufnahme zur Aufzeichnung und Verwendung personenbezogener Daten." Universitätsbibliothek Leipzig, 2012. http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bsz:15-qucosa-81865.

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Dienstleister in der Telekommunikationsbranche haben nicht zuletzt aus rechtlicher Sicht die Pflicht zu einem sensiblen Umgang mit personenbezogenen Daten. Dies bezieht sich nicht nur auf Kundendaten, sondern ebenso auf mitarbeiterbezogene Daten zur Führung eines Call Centers. Je nach Situation und Anwendungsfall regeln die Verwendungsmöglichkeiten dieser Daten in Call Centern das allgemeine Persönlichkeitsrecht und das Bundesdatenschutzgesetz (BDSG). Daraus ergibt sich für die Entwicklung und den Einsatz von Call Center-spezifischen Anwendungssystemen (z.B. Kampagnenmanagement-Systeme, Dialer) die Herausforderung, zum einen die Einhaltung rechtlicher Bestimmungen sicherzustellen, aber zum anderen den häufig detailreichen Informationsbedarfen der Call Center-Leitungsebenen zu entsprechen. Neben rechtlichen Beschränkungen bei der Handhabung von Kundendaten sind hier die Grenzen und Grauzonen bezüglich der Verwendungsmöglichkeiten von Leistungsdaten zur Mitarbeiterüberwachung und -beurteilung (z.B. verdecktes Mithören oder Gesprächsaufzeichnung) zu berücksichtigen.
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Akanda, Md Mahmudul Alam, and Jasmin Dzeko. "Customers’ Perception on their Satisfaction about the Private Banks in a Developing Country : A perspective of Private Banks in Bangladesh." Thesis, Linköpings universitet, Företagsekonomi, 2016. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-134462.

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Customers’ satisfaction is a decisive factor in the development process of business which has also an effective impact on contributing a country's GDP. Private banks have been emerged over the time in developing countries where customers’ satisfaction is the driven force of banking industry investigated in Bangladesh. In this study a conventional American Customer Satisfaction Index model has been used over Bangladesh to compare overall performance of banking industry. Customers’ satisfaction in Bangladesh has been measured from the different angle of customers’ perception based on their portfolio. This research has been designed on a quantitative approach followed by survey research method. Questionnaire was administered to collect data through objective list as well as physical interaction with the respondents from different locations in the capital city of Bangladesh named Dhaka. Collected data had been analyzed applying Partial Latent Square (PLS) software program. The study outcomes showed that the perceived quality is the main determinant factor on customer satisfaction towards banks in Bangladesh. It also revealed that significant relationship exists between customers’ satisfaction and customers’ loyalty. The revised model in 2016 represents the benchmark scores of customers’ satisfaction in Bangladesh lagged behind consecutively 18 and 13 scores than that of USA and Taiwan. Considering the study results, we summed the quality of service leads to satisfied customers in turns towards customers loyalty. Banks also can get competitive advantage by evaluating all classes of customers equally through providing superior services to them.
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Alnefelt, Patrik, and Petra Malmgren. "Automated error reporting : Business-to-business aspects to consider for a software provider." Thesis, Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, 2009. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-52247.

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Computer errors are a constant problem for software providers. To completely avoid bugs has proven very difficult even though computer software goes through rigorous testing before released. One of the challenges for developers is recreating errors that end-users experience. User-submitted error reports can often be of help for developers to localize and fix bugs. However, the reports often vary in quality depending on the user's experience and the effort they put into writing the report. Instead of relying on manual error reports, some software providers have equipped their software with automated error reporting functionality. These programs are set to collect important information about the computer and the software in the event of a crash. There are pros and cons with both automated and manual error reporting.

The research that has previously been done in the field of error reporting has mostly focused on the situation where private persons are senders and corporations are receivers. This report addresses the setting where both parties are corporations, which brings several new aspects to the problem. The five main topics this report focuses on are: customer attitude, which data to send, privacy, user interaction and feedback. A study has been conducted at the ERP system provider IFS in Sweden where interviews with employees and customers have been performed. Interviewees in the customer companies have been primarily ERP and application managers. The results of the study show that companies are less concerned than what the literature suggests even though the attitudes differ some depending on line of business. Conclusions are that a high degree of configurability of what is sent in the error reports and the level of user interaction is needed for companies to accept automated error reporting.


Buggar är ett ständigt problem för mjukvarutillverkare. Att helt undvika dessa har visat sig vara mycket svårt trots rigorösa tester innan ny mjukvara släpps. En av utmaningarna för utvecklare är att återskapa felen som uppstår hos användarna. Felrapporter inskickade av användare kan ofta vara till hjälp för utvecklare när de ska lokalisera och åtgärda fel. Men rapporterna kan variera i kvalitet beroende på användarnas erfarenhet och tiden de lägger på att skriva rapporten. Istället för att förlita sig på manuella felrapporter har vissa mjukvarutillverkare utrustat sin programvara med funktionalitet för automatiska felrapporter. Dessa program ska samla in viktig information om datorn och programvaran i händelse av att en krasch uppstår.

Viss forskning har skett inom området automatiserad felrapportering men fokus har då legat på situationen då privatpersoner är avsändare och företag är mottagare. Denna rapport behandlar läget då båda parter är företag, vilket tillför flera nya aspekter till problemet. De fem huvudfrågorna som den här rapporten fokuserar på är: kunders attityd, vilken data ska skickas, integritet, användarinteraktion och feedback. En studie har utförts hos affärssystemleverantören IFS i Sverige, där intervjuer med anställda och kunder har genomförts. De intervjuade hos kundföretagen har huvudsakligen varit ERP- och applikationsansvariga. Resultaten av studien visar att företagen är mindre oroade än vad litteraturen indikerar även om attityderna skiljer sig något i olika branscher. Slutsatserna är att en hög grad av konfigurerbarhet behövs när det gäller vad som skickas i felrapporter samt vilken grad av interaktion med användaren som behövs. Detta för att kundföretagen ska acceptera automatisk felrapportering.

10

Hrach, Christian, and Rainer Alt. "Datenschutz in Call Centern – Bestandsaufnahme zur Aufzeichnung und Verwendung personenbezogener Daten." Universität Leipzig, 2010. https://ul.qucosa.de/id/qucosa%3A11331.

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Dienstleister in der Telekommunikationsbranche haben nicht zuletzt aus rechtlicher Sicht die Pflicht zu einem sensiblen Umgang mit personenbezogenen Daten. Dies bezieht sich nicht nur auf Kundendaten, sondern ebenso auf mitarbeiterbezogene Daten zur Führung eines Call Centers. Je nach Situation und Anwendungsfall regeln die Verwendungsmöglichkeiten dieser Daten in Call Centern das allgemeine Persönlichkeitsrecht und das Bundesdatenschutzgesetz (BDSG). Daraus ergibt sich für die Entwicklung und den Einsatz von Call Center-spezifischen Anwendungssystemen (z.B. Kampagnenmanagement-Systeme, Dialer) die Herausforderung, zum einen die Einhaltung rechtlicher Bestimmungen sicherzustellen, aber zum anderen den häufig detailreichen Informationsbedarfen der Call Center-Leitungsebenen zu entsprechen. Neben rechtlichen Beschränkungen bei der Handhabung von Kundendaten sind hier die Grenzen und Grauzonen bezüglich der Verwendungsmöglichkeiten von Leistungsdaten zur Mitarbeiterüberwachung und -beurteilung (z.B. verdecktes Mithören oder Gesprächsaufzeichnung) zu berücksichtigen.:1 Einleitung 2 Verwendung personenbezogener Daten 2.1 Personenbezogene Daten 2.2 Verwendung personenbezogener Daten nach BDSG 2.3 Legitimation durch Einwilligung 2.4 Aufhebung der Zweckbindung 2.5 Transparenzpflicht gegenüber den Betroffenen 2.6 Zusammenfassung 3 Telefondatenerfassung im Call Center 3.1 Erfassung von Dienstgesprächen 3.2 Besonderheiten in Call Centern 3.3 Mithören und Gesprächsaufzeichnung in Call Centern 4 Fazit

Книги з теми "Customer privacy":

1

E, Burns Robert. Utility customer information: Privacy and competitive implications. Columbus, Ohio (1080 Carmack Rd., Columbus 43210): National Regulatory Research Institute, Ohio State University, 1992.

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Cavoukian, Ann. The privacy payoff: How successful businesses build customer trust. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2002.

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United States. Congress. House. Committee on Energy and Commerce. Subcommittee on Commerce, Trade, and Consumer Protection. "How do businesses use customer information: Is the customer's privacy protected?" : hearing before ... 107th Congress, 1st session, July 26, 2001. Washington, DC: U.S. G.P.O., 2001.

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4

Kasanoff, Bruce. Making it personal: How to profit from personalization without invading privacy. Cambridge, MA: Perseus, 2001.

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5

Campana, Joseph. Privacy makeover: The essential guide to best practices : how to protect assets and foster consumer loyalty. Madison, WI: Bell House Press, 2008.

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6

United States. Congress. House. Committee on Energy and Commerce. Subcommittee on Commerce, Trade, and Consumer Protection. How do businesses use customer information? Is the customer's privacy protected? : hearing before the Subcommittee on Commerce, Trade, and Consumer Protection of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, first session, July 26, 2001. Washington: U.S. G.P.O., 2001.

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7

Schweizer, Alex. Customer relationship management: Datenschutz- und Privatrechtsverletzungen beim CRM : Datenschutz und Privatrechtsverletzungen beim analytischen CRM mit Data Mining und Data Warehousing - zugleich ein Beitrag zu den technischen, organisatorischen und rechtlichen Lösungsansätzen. Bern: Ed. Weblaw, 2007.

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8

Law, United States Congress House Committee on the Judiciary Subcommittee on Commercial and Administrative. "Know your customer" rules: Privacy in the hands of federal regulators : hearing before the Subcommittee on Commercial and Administrative Law of the Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, first session, March 4, 1999. Washington: U.S. G.P.O., 2000.

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9

Office, General Accounting. U.S. Postal Service: New focus on improving service quality and customer satisfaction : report to Congressional requesters. Washington, D.C: The Office, 1995.

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Sandra, Brown. Tough customer. London: Hodder, 2010.

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Частини книг з теми "Customer privacy":

1

Kumar, V., and Werner Reinartz. "Customer Privacy Concerns and Privacy Protective Responses." In Springer Texts in Business and Economics, 279–300. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-20110-3_14.

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Kumar, V., and Werner Reinartz. "Customer Privacy Concerns and Privacy Protective Responses." In Springer Texts in Business and Economics, 285–309. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2018. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-55381-7_14.

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3

Thompson, Frauke Mattison, and Kirk Plangger. "The Customer Fishbowl: Strategic Approaches to Customer Privacy." In Let’s Get Engaged! Crossing the Threshold of Marketing’s Engagement Era, 807–8. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-11815-4_235.

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4

Blattberg, Robert C., Byung-Do Kim, and Scott A. Neslin. "Customer Privacy and Database Marketing." In Database Marketing, 75–101. New York, NY: Springer New York, 2008. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-72579-6_4.

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5

Verhoef, Peter C., Edwin Kooge, Natasha Walk, and Jaap E. Wieringa. "Customer privacy and data security." In Creating Value with Data Analytics in Marketing, 99–118. 2nd ed. London: Routledge, 2021. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9781003011163-6.

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Haag, Oliver, and Joachim Löffler. "Electronic Customer Care versus E-Privacy." In Handbuch Electronic Customer Care, 203–16. Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag HD, 2004. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-7908-2680-7_12.

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7

Palmatier, Robert W., and Kelly D. Martin. "Inoculating Against Customer Vulnerability." In The Intelligent Marketer’s Guide to Data Privacy, 93–108. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2019. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-03724-6_5.

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Palmatier, Robert W., and Kelly D. Martin. "Understanding and Valuing Customer Data." In The Intelligent Marketer’s Guide to Data Privacy, 133–51. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2019. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-03724-6_7.

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Karjoth, Günter, Matthias Schunter, and Michael Waidner. "Platform for Enterprise Privacy Practices: Privacy-Enabled Management of Customer Data." In Privacy Enhancing Technologies, 69–84. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2003. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/3-540-36467-6_6.

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10

Palmatier, Robert W., and Kelly D. Martin. "Big Data’s Marketing Applications and Customer Privacy." In The Intelligent Marketer’s Guide to Data Privacy, 73–92. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2019. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-03724-6_4.

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Тези доповідей конференцій з теми "Customer privacy":

1

Youssef, Mahmoud, Vijayalakshmi Atluri, and Nabil R. Adam. "Preserving mobile customer privacy." In the 6th international conference. New York, New York, USA: ACM Press, 2005. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1071246.1071257.

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2

McBurney, Paul. "Customer Perceived Privacy, Corporate Privacy Adherence, Authentication Use Case." In 29th International Technical Meeting of The Satellite Division of the Institute of Navigation (ION GNSS+ 2016). Institute of Navigation, 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.33012/2016.14629.

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3

Boyce, Gordon. "Beyond Privacy: The Ethics of Customer Information Systems." In 2002 Informing Science + IT Education Conference. Informing Science Institute, 2002. http://dx.doi.org/10.28945/2444.

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The rise of an ostensibly customer-centred corporate culture in the 1980s recogised the importance of “knowing the customer”. As a result, customer information systems and associated practices of marketing, customer segmentation, and customer accounting have become significant elements in corporate customer-focus strategies. This paper discusses a range of ethical considerations that flow from the use of customer information systems and critically examines these systems in their organisational and social context. It is well-recognised that customer information systems give rise to concerns of privacy, but this paper raises perhaps more important ethical issues that relate to organisational transformation and significant links to issues of access, equity, alienation, and social exclusion.
4

"Cost-Effective Investments in Customer Information Privacy." In 2009 42nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences. IEEE, 2009. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/hicss.2009.135.

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5

Zhong, Sheng, Zhiqiang Yang, and Rebecca N. Wright. "Privacy-enhancing k-anonymization of customer data." In the twenty-fourth ACM SIGMOD-SIGACT-SIGART symposium. New York, New York, USA: ACM Press, 2005. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1065167.1065185.

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6

Zhao, Zhojun, and Jairo Gutierrez. "Customer Service Factors Influencing Internet Shopping in New Zealand." In InSITE 2004: Informing Science + IT Education Conference. Informing Science Institute, 2004. http://dx.doi.org/10.28945/2837.

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Recent e-commerce failures caused by poor e-customer service have motivated many researchers to explore the factors that influence e-customer service quality, which leads to business-to-consumer (B2C) e-commerce success. The research reported in this paper explored the perceptions of a group of New Zealand e-customers and e-users about e-customer service and the influence of their perceptions on their attitudes towards Internet shopping. The study findings strongly indicate e-customers are only moderately satisfied with current e-customer service. Conversely, New Zealand e-users (i.e.: not yet “customers”) are discouraged from using the Internet for shopping due to issues such as credit card security, resistance to change, lack of physicality, hard-to-trust online vendors, and the perceived insecurity of payment systems. The study found that the motivators to Internet shopping are: goods returns and refunds policy, privacy protection, timely online service, ease of use, help and support facilities. Based on these findings, some recommendations on e-customer service for Internet shopping are presented.
7

Kuacharoen, Pramote. "A practical customer privacy protection on shared servers." In 2010 IEEE International Conference on Information Theory and Information Security (ICITIS). IEEE, 2010. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/icitis.2010.5689544.

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8

Ratliff, Lillian J., Roy Dong, Henrik Ohlsson, Alvaro A. Cardenas, and S. Shankar Sastry. "Privacy and customer segmentation in the smart grid." In 2014 IEEE 53rd Annual Conference on Decision and Control (CDC). IEEE, 2014. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/cdc.2014.7039714.

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9

Chen, Yi-Ming, and Yan-Hao Chu. "Outsourcing Data Mining Tasksto Cloud While Preserving Customer Privacy." In Annual International Academic Conference on Business Intelligence and Data Warehousing. Global Science and Technology Forum, 2010. http://dx.doi.org/10.5176/978-981-08-6308-1_59.

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10

Zhao, Yingying, Dongsheng Li, Qi Liu, Qin Lv, and Li Shang. "Deriving Customer Privacy from Randomly Perturbed Smart Metering Data." In 2018 IEEE 16th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN). IEEE, 2018. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/indin.2018.8471935.

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Звіти організацій з теми "Customer privacy":

1

Brockners, F., and Y. Serbest. Virtual Private LAN Service (VPLS) Interoperability with Customer Edge (CE) Bridges. Edited by A. Sajassi and D. Mohan. RFC Editor, June 2011. http://dx.doi.org/10.17487/rfc6246.

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2

AbuMezied, Asmaa, and Rahhal Rahhal. Towards a Gender-Sensitive Private Sector in the OPT. Oxfam, April 2021. http://dx.doi.org/10.21201/2021.7338.

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This learning paper describes Oxfam's experience of conducting a Participatory Gender Audit with private sector companies in the agriculture sector in the OPT. It highlights issues such as women’s limited access to the labor market, their weak representation both as staff and as decision makers, the absence of gender-sensitive working conditions and policies, and a lack of consideration for women as customers and suppliers. The paper looks at the approach used when conducting the audits and the challenges around their implementation. It provides ideas and learning on how to successfully manage the audits so that companies are willing to buy in to the process and are supported to adopt gender-sensitive policies.
3

Rosen, E., P. Psenak, and P. Pillay-Esnault. OSPF as the Provider/Customer Edge Protocol for BGP/MPLS IP Virtual Private Networks (VPNs). RFC Editor, June 2006. http://dx.doi.org/10.17487/rfc4577.

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4

Marques, P., R. Raszuk, K. Patel, K. Kumaki, and T. Yamagata. Internal BGP as the Provider/Customer Edge Protocol for BGP/MPLS IP Virtual Private Networks (VPNs). RFC Editor, September 2011. http://dx.doi.org/10.17487/rfc6368.

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5

Niles, John S., and J. M. Pogodzinski. Steps to Supplement Park-and-Ride Public Transit Access with Ride-and-Ride Shuttles. Mineta Transportation Institute, July 2021. http://dx.doi.org/10.31979/mti.2021.1950.

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Public transit ridership in California declined in the five years before the pandemic of 2020–21 and dropped significantly further after the pandemic began. A sharp downward step in the level of transit boarding occurred after February 2020, and continues to the date of this report as a result of the public-health guidance on social distancing, expanded work-at-home, and a travel mode shift from public transit to private cars. A critical issue has come to the foreground of public transportation policy, namely, how to increase the quality and geographic reach of transit service to better serve the essential trips of mobility disadvantaged citizens who do not have access to private vehicle travel. The research focus of this report is an examination of the circumstances where fixed route bus route service could cost-effectively be replaced by on-demand microtransit, with equivalent overall zone-level efficiency and a higher quality of complete trip service. Research methods were reviews of documented agency experience, execution of simple simulations, and sketch-level analysis of 2019 performance reported in the National Transit Database. Available evidence is encouraging and suggestive, but not conclusive. The research found that substitutions of flexible microtransit for fixed route buses are already being piloted across the U.S., with promising performance results. The findings imply that action steps could be taken in California to expand and refine an emphasis on general purpose microtransit in corridors and zones with a relatively high fraction of potential travelers who are mobility disadvantaged, and where traditional bus routes are capturing fewer than 15 boardings per vehicle hour. To be sufficiently productive as fixed route replacements, microtransit service technologies in the same or larger zones need to be capable of achieving vehicle boardings of five per hour, a challenge worth addressing with technology applications. Delivery of microtransit service can be undertaken through contracts with a growing set of private sector firms, which are developing processes to merge general purpose customers with those now assigned to ADA-required paratransit and Medi-Cal-supported non-emergency medical transport.
6

Ozano, Kim, Andrew Roby, and Jacob Tompkins. Learning Journey on Water Security: UK Water Offer. Institute of Development Studies (IDS), January 2022. http://dx.doi.org/10.19088/k4d.2022.026.

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The overarching goals for the UK in relation to global water security are to; tackle and reverse growing water insecurity and its consequences caused by depletion and degradation of natural water sources; and address poor water management and increasing demand. To do this, the UK has a well-developed water ‘offer’ that together can help reach the goal of global water security. This note details some of that water offer: UK water leadership: The UK developed the concept of modern sanitation and water supply, with an early example being the Victorian Bazalgette London sewer; Ownership and regulation: The UK has four models of ownership: government department in Northern Ireland, GoCo in Scotland, Mutual in Wales, and private companies in England. But the common thread is strong and clear, regulation to deliver the right outcomes for society; Competition and markets: The UK set up the world’s first water retail markets for business customers, delivering savings and environmental benefits. Similar market mechanisms are being developed for sewage sludge, which will help drive circular economy solutions; Innovation: The UK has a huge number of water tech start-ups and most water companies have labs and pilot schemes to support these fledgling companies. At the same time, the English regulator, Ofwat, has established a huge innovation fund, which along with the Scottish Hydro Nation initiative has made the UK the best place in the world for water innovation and tech.
7

Jones, Emily, Beatriz Kira, Anna Sands, and Danilo B. Garrido Alves. The UK and Digital Trade: Which way forward? Blavatnik School of Government, February 2021. http://dx.doi.org/10.35489/bsg-wp-2021/038.

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The internet and digital technologies are upending global trade. Industries and supply chains are being transformed, and the movement of data across borders is now central to the operation of the global economy. Provisions in trade agreements address many aspects of the digital economy – from cross-border data flows, to the protection of citizens’ personal data, and the regulation of the internet and new technologies like artificial intelligence and algorithmic decision-making. The UK government has identified digital trade as a priority in its Global Britain strategy and one of the main sources of economic growth to recover from the pandemic. It wants the UK to play a leading role in setting the international standards and regulations that govern the global digital economy. The regulation of digital trade is a fast-evolving and contentious issue, and the US, European Union (EU), and China have adopted different approaches. Now that the UK has left the EU, it will need to navigate across multiple and often conflicting digital realms. The UK needs to decide which policy objectives it will prioritise, how to regulate the digital economy domestically, and how best to achieve its priorities when negotiating international trade agreements. There is an urgent need to develop a robust, evidence-based approach to the UK’s digital trade strategy that takes into account the perspectives of businesses, workers, and citizens, as well as the approaches of other countries in the global economy. This working paper aims to inform UK policy debates by assessing the state of play in digital trade globally. The authors present a detailed analysis of five policy areas that are central to discussions on digital trade for the UK: cross-border data flows and privacy; internet access and content regulation; intellectual property and innovation; e-commerce (including trade facilitation and consumer protection); and taxation (customs duties on e-commerce and digital services taxes). In each of these areas the authors compare and contrast the approaches taken by the US, EU and China, discuss the public policy implications, and examine the choices facing the UK.
8

Kira, Beatriz, Rutendo Tavengerwei, and Valary Mumbo. Points à examiner à l'approche des négociations de Phase II de la ZLECAf: enjeux de la politique commerciale numérique dans quatre pays d'Afrique subsaharienne. Digital Pathways at Oxford, March 2022. http://dx.doi.org/10.35489/bsg-dp-wp_2022/01.

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Realities such as the COVID-19 pandemic have expedited the move to online operations, highlighting the undeniable fact that the world is continuing to go digital. This emphasises the need for policymakers to regulate in a manner that allows them to harness digital trade benefits while also avoiding associated risk. However, given that digital trade remains unco-ordinated globally, with countries adopting different approaches to policy issues, national regulatory divergence on the matter continues, placing limits on the benefits that countries can obtain from digital trade. Given these disparities, ahead of the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) Phase II Negotiations, African countries have been considering the best way to harmonise regulations on issues related to digital trade. To do this effectively, AfCFTA members need to identify where divergencies exist in their domestic regulatory systems. This will allow AfCFTA members to determine where harmonisation is possible, as well as what is needed to achieve such harmonisation. This report analyses the domestic regulations and policies of four focus countries – South Africa, Nigeria, Kenya and Senegal – comparing their regulatory approaches to five policy issues: i) regulation of online transactions; ii) cross-border data flows, data localisation, and personal data protection; iii) access to source code and technology transfer; iv) intermediary liability; and v) customs duties on electronic transmissions. The study highlights where divergencies exist in adopted approaches, indicating the need for the four countries – and AfCFTA members in general – to carefully consider the implications of the divergences, and determine where it is possible and beneficial to harmonise approaches. This was intended to encourage AfCFTA member states to take ownership of these issues and reflect on the reforms needed. As seen in Table 1 below, the study shows that the four countries diverge on most of the five policy issues. There are differences in how all four countries regulate online transactions – that is, e-signatures and online consumer protection. Nigeria was the only country out of the four to recognise all types of e-signatures as legally equivalent. Kenya and Senegal only recognise specific e-signatures, which are either issued or validated by a recognised institution, while South Africa adopts a mixed approach, where it recognises all e-signatures as legally valid, but provides higher evidentiary weight to certain types of e-signatures. Only South Africa and Senegal have specific regulations relating to online consumer protection, while Nigeria and Kenya do not have any clear rules. With regards to cross border data flows, data localisation, and personal data protection, the study shows that all four focus countries have regulations that consist of elements borrowed from the European Union (EU) General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). In particular, this was regarding the need for the data subject's consent, and also the adequacy requirement. Interestingly, the study also shows that South Africa, Kenya and Nigeria also adopt data localisation measures, although at different levels of strictness. South Africa’s data localisation laws are mostly imposed on data that is considered critical – which is then required to be processed within South African borders – while Nigeria requires all data to be processed and stored locally, using local servers. Kenya imposes data localisation measures that are mostly linked to its priority for data privacy. Out of the four focus countries, Senegal is the only country that does not impose any data localisation laws. Although the study shows that all four countries share a position on customs duties on electronic transmissions, it is also interesting to note that none of the four countries currently have domestic regulations or policies on the subject. The report concludes by highlighting that, as the AfCFTA Phase II Negotiations aim to arrive at harmonisation and to improve intra-African trade and international trade, AfCFTA members should reflect on their national policies and domestic regulations to determine where harmonisation is needed, and whether AfCFTA is the right platform for achieving this efficiently.
9

Accelerating Digital Payments in Latin America and the Caribbean. Inter-American Development Bank, May 2022. http://dx.doi.org/10.18235/0004256.

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Between the first and second quarters of 2020, e-commerce website traffic from five of the regions major markets increased by over 150%. The COVID-19 pandemic has pushed and pulled tens of thousands of businesses in the region to go digital. The impact and advantages of such digitalization are quite telling for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in particular. SMEs in LAC can diversify their customer base and reach 20 foreign markets when operating online, while those that operate offline can only reach from two to five. As todays digital economy becomes the norm, universal basic services such as education and medical care are also taking place online. Digital payments are critical to enabling this transformation at both domestic and cross-border levels. But many challenges still exist that preclude the broadening of digital payment use throughout the region from a lack of access, regulatory harmonization and affordable payment solutions, to a need for further public and private sector cooperation, consumer protections and an open, inclusive and interoperable payment ecosystem. In 2021, the World Economic Forum and the innovation laboratory of the Inter-American Development Bank, IDB Lab, jointly launched the Payments to Advance Growth for All (PAGA) initiative to address these challenges. This initiative has convened a diverse community of over 100 public and private sector representatives to explore, through dialogue, how to best unlock the true benefits of digital payments in LAC. As digital payments continue to thrive and drive financial inclusion and economic growth, we hope this paper will provide a timely snapshot of the most pressing issues and highlight the importance of public-private and private-private cooperation to advance digital payments for all in an open, inclusive and safe manner. * The opinions expressed in this work are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the IDB, its Board of Directors or the countries they represent, nor of the MIF (IDB Lab) Donors Committee or the countries it represents.
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Payment Systems Report - June of 2020. Banco de la República de Colombia, February 2021. http://dx.doi.org/10.32468/rept-sist-pag.eng.2020.

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With its annual Payment Systems Report, Banco de la República offers a complete overview of the infrastructure of Colombia’s financial market. Each edition of the report has four objectives: 1) to publicize a consolidated account of how the figures for payment infrastructures have evolved with respect to both financial assets and goods and services; 2) to summarize the issues that are being debated internationally and are of interest to the industry that provides payment clearing and settlement services; 3) to offer the public an explanation of the ideas and concepts behind retail-value payment processes and the trends in retail payments within the circuit of individuals and companies; and 4) to familiarize the public, the industry, and all other financial authorities with the methodological progress that has been achieved through applied research to analyze the stability of payment systems. This edition introduces changes that have been made in the structure of the report, which are intended to make it easier and more enjoyable to read. The initial sections in this edition, which is the eleventh, contain an analysis of the statistics on the evolution and performance of financial market infrastructures. These are understood as multilateral systems wherein the participating entities clear, settle and register payments, securities, derivatives and other financial assets. The large-value payment system (CUD) saw less momentum in 2019 than it did the year before, mainly because of a decline in the amount of secondary market operations for government bonds, both in cash and sell/buy-backs, which was offset by an increase in operations with collective investment funds (CIFs) and Banco de la República’s operations to increase the money supply (repos). Consequently, the Central Securities Depository (DCV) registered less activity, due to fewer negotiations on the secondary market for public debt. This trend was also observed in the private debt market, as evidenced by the decline in the average amounts cleared and settled through the Central Securities Depository of Colombia (Deceval) and in the value of operations with financial derivatives cleared and settled through the Central Counterparty of Colombia (CRCC). Section three offers a comprehensive look at the market for retail-value payments; that is, transactions made by individuals and companies. During 2019, electronic transfers increased, and payments made with debit and credit cards continued to trend upward. In contrast, payments by check continued to decline, although the average daily value was almost four times the value of debit and credit card purchases. The same section contains the results of the fourth survey on how the use of retail-value payment instruments (for usual payments) is perceived. Conducted at the end of 2019, the main purpose of the survey was to identify the availability of these payment instruments, the public’s preferences for them, and their acceptance by merchants. It is worth noting that cash continues to be the instrument most used by the population for usual monthly payments (88.1% with respect to the number of payments and 87.4% in value). However, its use in terms of value has declined, having registered 89.6% in the 2017 survey. In turn, the level of acceptance by merchants of payment instruments other than cash is 14.1% for debit cards, 13.4% for credit cards, 8.2% for electronic transfers of funds and 1.8% for checks. The main reason for the use of cash is the absence of point-of-sale terminals at commercial establishments. Considering that the retail-payment market worldwide is influenced by constant innovation in payment services, by the modernization of clearing and settlement systems, and by the efforts of regulators to redefine the payment industry for the future, these trends are addressed in the fourth section of the report. There is an account of how innovations in technology-based financial payment services have developed, and it shows that while this topic is not new, it has evolved, particularly in terms of origin and vocation. One of the boxes that accompanies the fourth section deals with certain payment aspects of open banking and international experience in that regard, which has given the customers of a financial entity sovereignty over their data, allowing them, under transparent and secure conditions, to authorize a third party, other than their financial entity, to request information on their accounts with financial entities, thus enabling the third party to offer various financial services or initiate payments. Innovation also has sparked interest among international organizations, central banks, and research groups concerning the creation of digital currencies. Accordingly, the last box deals with the recent international debate on issuance of central bank digital currencies. In terms of the methodological progress that has been made, it is important to underscore the work that has been done on the role of central counterparties (CCPs) in mitigating liquidity and counterparty risk. The fifth section of the report offers an explanation of a document in which the work of CCPs in financial markets is analyzed and corroborated through an exercise that was built around the Central Counterparty of Colombia (CRCC) in the Colombian market for non-delivery peso-dollar forward exchange transactions, using the methodology of network topology. The results provide empirical support for the different theoretical models developed to study the effect of CCPs on financial markets. Finally, the results of research using artificial intelligence with information from the large-value payment system are presented. Based on the payments made among financial institutions in the large-value payment system, a methodology is used to compare different payment networks, as well as to determine which ones can be considered abnormal. The methodology shows signs that indicate when a network moves away from its historical trend, so it can be studied and monitored. A methodology similar to the one applied to classify images is used to make this comparison, the idea being to extract the main characteristics of the networks and use them as a parameter for comparison. Juan José Echavarría Governor

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