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1

Harvey, Nick. "Energy Related Projects and Environmental Impact Legislation in South Australia." Energy & Environment 5, no. 4 (December 1994): 285–303. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0958305x9400500401.

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Australian projects designed for the production, distribution and use of energy are generally governed by specific legislation within individual States, mostly for the promotion and regulation of resource development. These projects are also subject to environmental protection provisions in Commonwealth and State legislation, in particular environmental impact assessment legislation, which has a much longer history than in Europe. This paper examines the application of the Commonwealth and the South Australian environmental impact assessment legislation to South Australian energy related projects, focusing on the period from 1982–1993. The paper notes the importance of the State government and its instrumentalities in all major energy supply and energy use projects. The paper also notes that significant energy related projects are subject to public scrutiny through the environmental impact assessment process in South Australia but that key energy policy decisions which may also have significant impacts are not subject to the same public scrutiny. The paper concludes by canvassing strategic environmental assessment options as an alternative to project based assessment for energy related projects.
2

Alves de Lima, Araken, Patricia Carvalho dos Reis, Julio César Moreira Reis Castelo Branco, Rodrigo Danieli, Cibele Cristina Osawa, Eduardo Winter, and Douglas Alves Santos. "Scenario-Patent Protection Compared to Climate Change." International Journal of Social Ecology and Sustainable Development 4, no. 3 (July 2013): 61–70. http://dx.doi.org/10.4018/jsesd.2013070105.

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The United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UNFCCC) took effect as a treaty in 1994 to promote international cooperation in the fight against global warming. Currently, nearly 190 countries are signatories of the UNFCCC, which has had successive additions as the Kyoto Protocol (1997). In 1995, the Climate Technology Initiative was established within the UNFCCC to encourage international cooperation in the accelerated development and diffusion of environmentally Sound Technologies - EST. Such technologies are also capable of protection provided by patents, and this kind of protection is a valuable tool for the industrial production inventions to become a worthwhile investment, contributing to economic development. Many patent applications claim advantages relative to efficiency, waste reduction, or even the costs of operation/manufacturing. However, the difficulty of accurately distinguishing the EST’s technologies among others, which are those that only claim environmental benefits, compared to those who actually have a higher potential to promote a more positive impact on the environment directed. This study aims to report some performance initiatives in relations between technologies, focusing on the so-called “GREEN”, and the effects of climate change. Some initiatives have already been started in countries such as Australia, Canada, United States, United Kingdom, Spain, Japan, South Korea and Israel. These nations are constituted in the form of their industrial property offices, as entities that have implemented regulations regarding the patentability of requests for green technologies or EST’s such requests are known as “green patents” applications. In this context, it is highlighted that the definition of “green patents” differs from country to country and this leads to greater uncertainty in this designation, with the codes of the International Patent Classification (IPC) should be prioritized. This study observed that, in the case of South Korea, green patents are technologies classified in accordance with the interests of the Government, or, according to designations of environmental laws. Moreover, it still shows that South Korea, Australia, United States, Japan, Israel already have programs to promote accelerated examination of “green patents” applications with different criteria.
3

Williams, Melinda, Sandra C. Jones, Peter Caputi, and Don Iverson. "Do Australian adolescent female fake tan (sunless tan) users practice better sun-protection behaviours than non-users?" Health Education Journal 71, no. 6 (September 13, 2011): 654–61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0017896911419344.

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Objective: To determine differences in sun-protection behaviours, and incidence of sunburn, between Australian adolescent female fake tan users and non-users. Design: Cross sectional survey. Method: 398 adolescent females aged 12 to 18 years participated in a survey at public venues, schools, and online. The main outcome measures were self-reported fake tan usage in the past 12 months, frequency of sunburns and habitual sun-protection behaviours. Setting: Surveys were completed in New South Wales, Australia. Results: The prevalence of self-reported use of fake tanning products in the past 12 months among Australian adolescent females was 34.5%. Female fake tan users were significantly less likely to report wearing a hat, wearing a shirt with sleeves or wearing pants covering to the knees. There was no difference between fake tan users and non-users in use of sunscreen, seeking shade, wearing sunglasses or avoidance of peak ultraviolet (UV) hours. Logistic regression modelling, when accounting for age, desire for a tan and skin type, revealed fake tan users were more likely to experience frequent sunburns and less likely to wear protective clothing. Conclusions: Our findings show that fake tan use among Australian female adolescents is associated with decreased sun protection, specifically reduced use of both upper and lower body protective clothing. Fake tan users were significantly more likely to experience repeated sunburns, after controlling for skin type. These findings provide impetus for the development of health education programmes targeting a new sub-group of adolescents with distinct tanning behaviours.
4

Sann, Alan, and Edward C. Wayment. "PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT FROM HYDROCARBON POLLUTION—AN INTEGRATED PLANNING APPROACH FOR OIL TERMINALS." International Oil Spill Conference Proceedings 1985, no. 1 (February 1, 1985): 589–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.7901/2169-3358-1985-1-589.

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ABSTRACT In South Australia, the newest Australian liquid hydrocarbon marine export terminal has been completed in record time. The terminal services domestic and export trade in crude oil, condensate and liquified petroleum gases while operating within a gulf which supports a major shellfish and scalefish industry, and a small but growing recreation market. The Terminal Operator has undertaken an integrated, rational, and cost-effective environmental protection strategy based on planning studies designed to ensure government and community approval for the facility. The study subject areas include: oil slick trajectory forecasting, ballast water diffuser outfall performance, prawn taint testing, coastal habitat sensitivity rating and mapping, oil spill response equipment selection and deployment strategies, equipment field trials, and industry-government consultative groups.
5

Turner, G. W., and R. M. C. Ruffio. "Environmental Auditing for Nonpoint Source Pollution Control in a Region of New South Wales (Australia)." Water Science and Technology 28, no. 3-5 (August 1, 1993): 301–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.1993.0431.

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The concept of environmental auditing of point source pollution has been adapted to nonpoint source pollution in rural lands. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and other information technologies provide an effective environmental management tool for characterising nonpoint source (NPS) pollution in a regional context and thereby can assist the environmental auditing process. Nonpoint source pollution problems of rural watersheds in Australia, particularly those in the state of New South Wales, and the role of the state's environment protection agency are outlined. A case study that applies an auditing methodology using GIS in a study area within the Lachlan River catchment is presented. The suitability of the approach for land condition evaluation and the review of land use controls for nonpoint source pollution is discussed.
6

Junk, Wolfgang J. "Long-term environmental trends and the future of tropical wetlands." Environmental Conservation 29, no. 4 (December 2002): 414–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0376892902000310.

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Tropical wetlands assume important functions in the landscape and contribute considerably to the welfare of large parts of the human population, but they are seriously threatened because they are considered free resources of land and water. This review summarizes long-term environmental trends for tropical wetlands and predicts their future to the time horizon 2025. Many tropical countries do not have the economic strength, scientific and technological capacity, and/or administrative infrastructure to adequately react to the challenges of increasing population pressure and globalization of the economy with respect to the sustainable use of the resources. Furthermore, political instability and armed conflicts affect large areas in several tropical countries, hindering wetland research and management. Detailed wetland inventories are missing in most countries, as are plans for a sustainable management of wetlands in the context of a long-term integrated watershed management. Despite large regional variability, a continental ranking shows, in decreasing order of wetland integrity, South America, Africa, Australia and Asia, while efforts to mitigate human impacts on wetlands are largest and most advanced in Australia. Analysis of demographic, political, economic and ecological trends indicates fairly stable conditions for wetlands in tropical Australia, slight deterioration of the large wetland areas in tropical South America excepting the Magdalena and Cauca River flood plains where human population is larger, rapidly increasing pressure and destruction on many African and Central American wetlands and serious threats for the remaining wetlands in tropical Asia, by the year of 2025. Policy deficiencies, deficient planning concepts, limited information and awareness and institutional weakness are the main administrative reasons for wetland degradation and must be overcome to improve wetland management and protection in future. Intensification of international cooperation and assistance is considered of fundamental importance for most tropical countries to solve problems related to wetland research, protection and sustainable management.
7

Schrale, G., R. Boardman, and M. J. Blaskett. "Investigating Land Based Disposal of Bolivar Reclaimed Water, South Australia." Water Science and Technology 27, no. 1 (January 1, 1993): 87–96. http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.1993.0022.

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The Bolivar Sewage Treatment Works (STW) processes the urban and industrial sewage from the northern and eastern suburbs of Adelaide. The treatment capacity is equivalent to the sewage production of 1.1 million people. The disposal of more than 40 000 ML of reclaimed water into the sea has caused a progressive degradation of about 950 ha of seagrass beds which threatens the sustainability of the fisheries and marine ecosystems of Gulf St. Vincent. The current practice will no longer be viable to achieve compliance with the SA Marine Environment Protection Act, 1990. A Inter-Departmental Working Party recommmended that the Bolivar reclaimed water be disposed by irrigation of suitable land on the coastal plains north of Adelaide. They proposed the construction of two pipelines: a 12 km long pipeline to extend the distribution of reclaimed water in the most intense portion of the 3 500 hectares of irrigated horticulture on the Northern Adelaide Plains, and a second, 18 km long pipeline to deliver the remainder to a more northerly site for irrigation of an estimated 4 000 hectares of hardwood plantations. The paper summarizes the findings as they relate to public health, environmental, technical and financial aspects of land based disposal. Land based disposal would completely eliminate the marine degradation and also arrest the over-use of the NAP underground water resources for horticulture. The total net costs over thirty years for land based disposal are about $ 21.8 million. The ‘horticultural' pipeline of the land based disposal scheme is expected to be commercially viable. A shortfall in revenue from the afforestation component is expected and may need to be considered as an environmental cost of ceasing marine disposal.
8

Lane, Jan-Erik. "ASIA: Economic Success but Uncertain Future." Research in Economics and Management 2, no. 2 (June 6, 2017): 77. http://dx.doi.org/10.22158/rem.v2n2p77.

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The rise of East Asia, South East Asia and South economically to become the leaders of global capitalism with some 50% of output in the world market economy has one negative drawback, namely the enormous increase in CO2 emissions in this part of the world. Together with general environmental stress, Asia may come pay a heavy price for its stunning economic success, if present trends continue over the 21st century. Asia, here with Australia added, cannot just wait for the eventual implementation of the COP21 Treaty. It needs to go ahead and become the leader in environmental protection.
9

Smith, S. J. "ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW 2000." APPEA Journal 41, no. 2 (2001): 80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/aj00055.

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Last year the petroleum industry witnessed the enactment of new legislation both at Commonwealth and State levels. The principal legislative change to environmental management was the introduction of the Commonwealth Government’s Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Act, 2000 (EPBC Act). South Australia and Victoria also implemented new Petroleum Acts and/ or Regulations.Construction of the Eastern Gas Pipeline was also completed last year, whilst preliminary approvals and environmental assessment continues for the Papua New Guinea, Timor Sea and Tasmania Natural Gas pipelines. Offshore exploration continued, particularly in the North West Shelf, Otway Basin, Timor Sea and Bass Strait.Other critical areas of environmental management included greenhouse gases, national pollution inventory reporting and the increasing requirements for environmental approval and management under various state environmental legislation.This paper provides an overview of environmental developments in the petroleum industry during the year 2000, in particular, the implication of new legislation, new technology, e-commerce and a greater focus on environmental reporting.
10

Biswas, T. K., F. R. Higginson, and I. Shannon. "Effluent nutrient management and resource recovery in intensive rural industries for the protection of natural waters." Water Science and Technology 40, no. 2 (July 1, 1999): 19–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.1999.0076.

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Intensive rural industry is developing rapidly in parts of inland Australia. The usually nutrient and salt rich effluent from these sources has traditionally been disposed to both land and water bodies. Since direct water discharge is no longer permitted, a challenge now exists when applying effluent to land especially where the rate of application exceeds crop requirements. Effluent of high volume and concentration of nutrients and/or salts can easily contaminate land and water resources. Predicting the optimum rate of land application of effluent is complicated by the physical, chemical and biological properties of soils. This paper addresses the characteristics of effluents from various intensive rural industries and their potential environmental impacts when irrigated to agricultural land in New South Wales, Australia. To assess the environmental sustainability of effluent reuse in land application, a mathematical model (ERIM) has been developed based on a monthly water balance. ERIM includes historical rainfall and evaporation; the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus introduced; their yearly removal by plants to be grown; amount of applied organic matter; and water holding capacity of soil.
11

Bennett, Brett M. "Decolonization, Environmentalism and Nationalism in Australia and South Africa." Itinerario 41, no. 1 (April 2017): 27–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0165115317000079.

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Decolonization influenced the rise of environmental activism and thought in Australia and South Africa in ways that have been overlooked by national histories of environmentalism and imperial histories of decolonization. Australia and South Africa’s political and cultural movement away from Britain and the Commonwealth during the 1960s is one important factor explaining why people in both countries created more, and more important, public indigenous botanic gardens than anywhere else in the world during that decade. Effective decolonization from Britain also influenced the rise of indigenous gardening and the growing popularity of native gardens at a critical period in gardening and environmental history. Most facets of contemporary gardening—using plants indigenous to the site or region, planting drought-tolerant species, and seeing gardens as sites to help conserve regional and national flora—can be dated to the 1960s and 1970s. The interpretation advanced here adds to historical research tracing how the former Commonwealth settler colonies experienced effective decolonization in the same era. This article expands the focus of research on decolonization to include environmentalism. The interpretation of the article also augments national environmental histories that have hitherto downplayed the influence of decolonization on the rise of environmentalism. Putting decolonization into the history of the rise of environmental thought and action sheds light on why people in contemporary Australia and South Africa are so passionate about protecting indigenous flora and fauna, and so worried about threats posed by non-native invasive species.
12

Butcher, Paul A., Toby P. Piddocke, Andrew P. Colefax, Brent Hoade, Victor M. Peddemors, Lauren Borg, and Brian R. Cullis. "Beach safety: can drones provide a platform for sighting sharks?" Wildlife Research 46, no. 8 (2019): 701. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/wr18119.

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Abstract ContextA series of unprovoked shark attacks on New South Wales (Australia) beaches between 2013 and 2015 triggered an investigation of new and emerging technologies for protecting bathers. Traditionally, bather protection has included several methods for shark capture, detection and/or deterrence but has often relied on environmentally damaging techniques. Heightened environmental awareness, including the important role of sharks in the marine ecosystem, demands new techniques for protection from shark attack. Recent advances in drone-related technologies have enabled the possibility of real-time shark detection and alerting. AimTo determine the reliability of drones to detect shark analogues in the water across a range of environmental conditions experienced on New South Wales beaches. MethodsA standard multirotor drone (DJI Inspire 1) was used to detect shark analogues as a proxy during flights at 0900, 1200 and 1500 hours over a 3-week period. The 27 flights encompassed a range of environmental conditions, including wind speed (2–30.0kmh−1), turbidity (0.4–6.4m), cloud cover (0–100%), glare (0–100%), seas (0.4–1.4m), swells (1.4–2.5m) and sea state (Beaufort Scale 1–5 Bf). Key resultsDetection rates of the shark analogues over the 27 flights were significantly higher for the independent observer conducting post-flight video analysis (50%) than for the drone pilot (38%) (Wald P=0.04). Water depth and turbidity significantly impaired detection of analogues (Wald P=0.04). Specifically, at a set depth of 2m below the water surface, very few analogues were seen by the observer or pilot when water turbidity reduced visibility to less than 1.5m. Similarly, when water visibility was greater than 1.5m, the detection rate was negatively related to water depth. Conclusions The present study demonstrates that drones can fly under most environmental conditions and would be a cost-effective bather protection tool for a range of user groups. ImplicationsThe most effective use of drones would occur during light winds and in shallow clear water. Although poor water visibility may restrict detection, sharks spend large amounts of time near the surface, therefore providing a practical tool for detection in most conditions.
13

Blake, Tim. "A Field Guide to Freshwater Fishes, Crayfish and Mussels of South-Western Australia." Pacific Conservation Biology 18, no. 2 (2012): 148. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/pc120148.

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MORGAN et al. have filled a significant gap in the library of pictorial guides to the fauna of South- Western Australia with this publication. This pocketsized edition is a must for anyone who has any interest in the natural history of the South West as well as schools, community groups and anyone who wishes to start investigating the fauna of our rivers. Not only will this guide help anyone with identification, but it will alert them to the very existence of so many native species. Perhaps any small fish will no longer be written off as a “mosquito fish” and elicit a more detailed look. It is quite surprising that there are only 11 native species of fish in the whole south-west province but impressive that 9 are endemic – the highest ratio in any part of Australia. The presence of as many crayfish species (11), many of very limited distribution, is also of note. However, it is quite disturbing that 12 (and likely more) introduced fish species are also listed for identification. A further reflection is that only 1 fish and 3 crayfish in the whole of Australia are on the Critically Endangered list under the Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 – all of these are in the area covered by the guide.
14

Solomon, S. B. "REASSESSMENT OF INHALATION DOSES TO WORKERS IN AUSTRALIAN SHOW CAVES." Radiation Protection Dosimetry 184, no. 3-4 (April 26, 2019): 298–301. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rpd/ncz099.

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Abstract Exposure to radon in show caves is an existing exposure situation. A survey of radon levels in underground show caves around Australia, carried out in 1994, found that most of the show caves located in South-Eastern Australia had yearly average radon levels exceeding the Australian radon reference level of 1000 Bq m−3. At the time of the original survey, the radiation doses from exposure to radon progeny of the tour guides in these caves were estimated using the epidemiologically based dose conversion factors and all dose were assessed to be less than 10 mSv per year. In February 2018, the International Commission for Radiological Protection (ICRP) published updated radon and radon progeny dose conversion factors (DCF) applicable to worker exposure to radon in show caves. These updated DCF values are based on dosimetric modelling and are sensitive to the radon progeny activity size distribution. The recommended DCF values are up to a factor four times higher than the previous ICRP recommendations. The ICRP has published data that allows for the estimation of site-specific radon progeny dose coefficients if required. A reassessment of the radiation doses to workers in Australian show caves has been made using these updated ICRP DCF values and the historical measurements of radon progeny activity size distributions in Australian show caves. Using the site-specific DCF values, it is estimated that 15% of the workers exceeded 10 mSv y−1 and 6% exceeded 20 mSv y−1. Although the total number of show cave workers in Australia is very small, the updated radon progeny dose estimates are a significant radiation protection issue for the affected individuals and their employers.
15

Morozow, O. "ACCESS TO LAND FOR EXPLORATION — THE ADOPTION OF MULTIPLE LAND USE PRINCIPLES IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA." APPEA Journal 28, no. 1 (1988): 325. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/aj87025.

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The continued access to land for exploration by the petroleum and mineral industries in Australia has been increasingly impeded by State and Commonwealth legislation aimed at dedicating Crown Land for single land uses.In September 1986, South Australia's Minister for Mines and Energy, Ron Payne, announced a Cabinet decision for 'a package of recommendations designed to foster multiple land-use concepts and to ensure that no land is alienated from exploration without careful consideration of the sub-surface mineral/petroleum potential, relevant economic factors and the existing and potential sub-surface rights'.In this one innovative and potentially far-reaching move, the South Australian Government has:provided a framework to reconcile conflicting interests;indicated a willingness to listen and act upon the expressed legitimate concerns of industries of vital economic importance to the State;made it necessary for the proponents of reserve areas such as National Parks to be more accountable and to provide balanced, scientific substantiation;indicated its intention to make legislative changes to allow for the adoption of multiple land-use principles; andredressed the imbalance where, in the words of the Minister, 'Legislation providing for Aboriginal land rights, the creation of national and conservation parks, and State Government heritage areas have, to varying degrees, created unforeseen consequences for the resources industry'.The first practical test of this new Government policy is the proposed declaration of the Innamincka Regional Reserve, currently a 14 000 sq km pastoral lease within some of the most productive areas of PELs 5 & 6 held jointly by Santos Ltd. and Delhi Petroleum Pty. Ltd.It is intended that this new form of reserve will allow for the protection of specific areas of environmental sensitivity and of cultural, scientific and historic value, while still allowing for the continuation of pastoral, tourist and petroleum exploration/ production activity within the major part of the reserve area.
16

Schofield, Lisa. "2018 offshore petroleum exploration acreage release." APPEA Journal 58, no. 2 (2018): 465. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/aj17103.

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The Australian Government’s 2018 offshore petroleum exploration acreage release was announced by the Commonwealth Minister for Resources and Northern Australia, Senator the Hon Matthew Canavan at the 2018 APPEA conference. This paper provides insights into the processes that the Australian Government has undertaken to select the final release areas and goes into detail on the ongoing petroleum related activities of the Department of Industry, Innovation and Science (the Department). The annual acreage release is a central component of ensuring ongoing, sustainable and responsible investment in Australia’s offshore petroleum sector. The annual acreage release remains the primary mechanism for securing investment in offshore oil and gas exploration in areas of known petroleum potential and new geological frontiers. Continued exploration for oil and gas in Commonwealth waters is a central component of ensuring Australia’s future energy security. Australia’s well established and independent environmental regulator, NOPSEMA (the National Offshore Petroleum Safety and Environmental Management Authority), ensures all petroleum activities in Commonwealth waters are performed safely and in an environmentally responsible manner. Combined with NOPTA’s (National Offshore Petroleum Titles Administrator) leading practice titles administration, Australia remains an attractive investment destination while offering industry leading environmental protections and ensuring safe working conditions industry-wide. Australia offers investors access to data, secure tenure, a stable economic environment and a well-established transparent regulatory system for offshore petroleum activities. A key driver for sustainable activity in Australia is the acceptance of multiple use access to Australia’s marine resources. Recognising this, the department consults with a range of stakeholders on the areas it proposes to release for petroleum exploration. This consultation process provides an opportunity for all interested parties to provide comments and feedback on the areas proposed and in particular highlight how interested parties or the areas might be impacted by exploration activities. The 21 areas in the 2018 offshore petroleum exploration acreage release are located in the offshore areas of Western Australia, South Australia, Victoria and the Ashmore-Cartier Islands. These areas will enable the next wave of investment in the Australian resources sector, and the prospect of new oil, gas and condensate production.
17

Venables, Anne, and Paul I. Boon. "What environmental, social or economic factors identify high-value wetlands? Data-mining a wetlands database from south-eastern Australia." Pacific Conservation Biology 22, no. 4 (2016): 312. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/pc15034.

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Large amounts of potentially useful information are collected by management agencies as they attempt to identify high-value wetlands and rank them for investment, protection or rehabilitation. Resource constraints frequently mean these information-rich databases are not fully interrogated, with the result that much of their expensively obtained information is only partially analysed or, worse, is not analysed at all. The present paper shows the benefit of rigorously interrogating such databases to identify wetlands of high social, economic or environmental value. Three data-mining methods, namely, univariate analysis, multivariate analysis and artificial neural networks (ANNs), were applied to a large (7.6 MB) but hitherto unanalysed database of 163 wetlands in the Gippsland region of south-eastern Australia. Simple statistical techniques, such as univariate analysis and binary logistic regression, identified high-value wetlands with a prediction accuracy of >90%, using only a small set of environmental indicators. Artificial neural network models with nine environmental-value inputs (six direct indicators plus three threat indicators) correctly also identified 90% of high-value wetlands. Outcomes generated by ANNs were in close agreement with those obtained with more traditional univariate and multivariate analyses. There seems little justification for undertaking economic assessments, and for environmental assessments the best indicators consistently included the presence of listed fauna or flora, vegetation intactness and the absence of hydrological modification. The overall approach, although developed from the analysis of a single (but large) wetland database of wetlands in south-eastern Australia, is likely to find conservation applications in many other regions of the Pacific.
18

Adams, Michael. "Negotiating Nature: Collaboration and Conflict Between Aboriginal and Conservation Interests in New South Wales, Australia." Australian Journal of Environmental Education 20, no. 1 (2004): 3–11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0814062600002251.

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AbstractFaced with the paradox of a large global increase in conservation reserves and a simultaneous global decrease in actual effective protection for biodiversity, conservation scientists and policymakers are questioning established conservation theory and practice. I argue that the fundamental premises, the foundational myths, for Western-style conservation also need to be questioned. The statistics on Indigenous land claims, and conservation reserves, in Australia and more specifically the state of New South Wales (NSW), reveal a landscape of policy failure in both arenas. Focusing on Australia, I use spatial analysis and policy histories to demonstrate converging trajectories of land use priorities for conservation needs and Indigenous peoples' needs. This intersection, while generating much potential for conflict, also creates new political landscapes. A combination of spatial and cultural analyses can create a clear picture of new “operational landscapes”, and an understanding of the (sometimes) complementary values of different cultural groups negotiating about these landscapes. From the basis that environmental problems are fundamentally social problems, this paper contributes to explorations of new paradigms supporting new social-ecological relationships, and new relationships between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples.
19

Lingard, Kylie, Natalie P. Stoianoff, Evana Wright, and Sarah Wright. "Are we there yet? A review of proposed Aboriginal cultural heritage laws in New South Wales, Australia." International Journal of Cultural Property 28, no. 1 (February 2021): 107–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0940739120000284.

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AbstractThis article examines the extent to which a recent law reform initiative in New South Wales (NSW), Australia—the draft Aboriginal Cultural Heritage Bill 2018 (NSW)—advances the general principles outlined in the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP). The examination reveals some improvements on the current legal framework and some concerning proposals that distance the NSW government from the UNDRIP principles. Key concerns include a proposed transfer of administrative responsibility to Aboriginal bodies with no corresponding guarantee of funding; the continued vesting of key decision-making powers in government; inept provisions for the protection of secret knowledge; and lower penalties for harming cultural heritage than for related offences in existing environmental and planning legislation. Given the bill’s weaknesses, the article explores pragmatic alternatives to better advance the UNDRIP principles.
20

Wardell-Johnson, Grant, Angela Wardell-Johnson, Beth Schultz, Joe Dortch, Todd Robinson, Len Collard, and Michael Calver. "The contest for the tall forests of south-western Australia and the discourses of advocates." Pacific Conservation Biology 25, no. 1 (2019): 50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/pc18058.

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After over 50000 years of interaction between Aboriginal people and changing climates, south-western Australia’s tall forests were first logged less than 200 years ago, initiating persistent conflict. Recent conservation advocacy has resulted in the protection of 49% of these tall forests in statutory reserves, providing an opportunity to implement and benefit from a growing moral consensus on the valuing of these globally significant, tall forest ecosystems. We analysed a cross-section of literature (63 papers, 118 statements) published on these forests over 187 years to identify values framing advocacy. We differentiated four resource-oriented discourses and three discourses giving primacy to social and environmental values over seven eras. Invasion sparked initial uncontrolled exploitation, with the Forests Act 1918 managing competing agricultural and timber advocacy. Following the Colonial and Country Life eras, industrial-scale exploitation of the karri forest region resulted in reaction by increasingly broad sectors of society. Warming and drying in the 21st Century emphasises the importance of intact tall forest and the Indigenous Renaissance discourse. Vesting for a more comprehensive set of values would acknowledge a new moral consensus.
21

Slater, Sue. "PESA industry review—2009 environmental update." APPEA Journal 50, no. 1 (2010): 143. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/aj09010.

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This paper provides a brief update on some of the key environmental issues that arose during 2009. In Queensland, activity is dominated by coal seam gas projects and specifically coal seam gas (CSG) to liquefied natural gas (LNG) projects. Environmental milestones for these projects are discussed, and the State Government’s response policy and regulation development response is reviewed. The progress of the more conventional LNG projects in Western Australia and the Northern Territory is also discussed. The final report on the mandated ten year review of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 was released in December 2009. Seventy-one recommendations were made, and some key recommendations related to our industry are discussed here. Climate change has again dominated the media, with the United Nations Climate Change Conference held in Copenhagen in December 2009. In Queensland, the Government released a paper that presented a range of strategies and policies, building on a number of existing schemes and introducing new measures. Gas is identified as a key transitional fuel while low emission coal technology and emerging renewable energy sources are being developed. Greenhouse gas legislation is continuing to be developed across several states, but subordinate legislation is yet to be finalised. In Victoria, submissions on the Greenhouse Gas Geological Sequestration Regulations closed in October 2009, and the Greenhouse Gas Geological Sequestration Act 2008 came into effect on 1 December 2009. In March 2009, ten offshore acreage releases were made under the Commonwealth legislation; however, the closing date for submissions is dependent upon the development of the regulations. South Australia passed an Act amending the Petroleum and Geothermal Act 2000 on 1 October 2009 to allow geosequestration. A number of reviews of the regulatory framework or the administrative systems associated with the upstream oil and gas sector have been completed in the last decade. All these reviews make similar findings and recommendations, and most recently the Jones Report, tabled in Western Australian Parliament on 12 August 2009, found that most key recommendations from previous reports and reviews had not been addressed or properly implemented. There seems to be little point in undertaking regulatory and system reviews that consistently make similar findings, if these findings are never addressed. The hurdles to implementation of key recommendations need to be identified, so that progress can be made in improving the approvals processes for the industry, and improving the environmental outcomes.
22

Cliff, Geremy, and Sheldon F. J. Dudley. "Reducing the environmental impact of shark-control programs: a case study from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa." Marine and Freshwater Research 62, no. 6 (2011): 700. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/mf10182.

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Large-scale shark-control programs at popular beaches in New South Wales and Queensland, Australia, and KwaZulu-Natal (KZN), South Africa, provide protection against shark attack. Although these programs have enhanced bathing safety, reducing the environmental impacts of decades of fishing for large sharks and the associated by-catch remains a challenge. Over the past three decades, there have been several interventions to reduce such impact in the KZN program. The first was the release of all live sharks, including those species known to be responsible for fatal shark attacks. Measures to reduce catches of sharks associated with the winter influx of shoals of sardines, Sardinops sagax, have been increasingly successful. In addition, extensive removal of nets has resulted in a major reduction in effort. Collectively, these initiatives reduced mortalities of sharks by 64%. Baited lines, termed drumlines, were introduced at 18 beaches, where they replaced some of the nets. The former had a far lower by-catch of rays, turtles and cetaceans and significantly lower catches of certain shark species. Replacement of some nets with drumlines is planned for the remaining beaches. Only two attacks, both non-fatal, have occurred at protected beaches in KZN over the past three decades, indicating that the program has maintained its public safety mandate while it has succeeded in reducing its impact on the environment.
23

Tasca, F. A., L. B. Assunção, and A. R. Finotti. "International experiences in stormwater fee." Water Science and Technology 2017, no. 1 (March 8, 2018): 287–99. http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2018.112.

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Abstract Stormwater management (SWM) includes a wide range of services aimed at environmental protection, enhancement of water resources and flood control. Local governments are responsible for managing all these aspects within their jurisdiction, but they often present limitations in generating revenues. Thus, many municipalities have been seeking a dedicated funding source for these programs and practices. This publication provides a brief overview of current legal issues associated with stormwater funding focusing on the most used method: fees. It is a successful mechanism to fund legal obligations of municipalities; however, it must have a significant value to motivate the reduction of runoff. Through literature, we found stormwater fees in Australia, Brazil, Canada, Ecuador, France, Germany, Poland, South Africa and the United States (USA). France had the highest average monthly fee, but this financing experience was suspended in 2014. Brazil has the lowest fee by m², comparable to the US fee. While in Brazil overall SWM represents low priority investments, the USA represents one of the most evolved countries in stormwater funding practices. It was noticed by reviewing the international experience that charging stormwater fees is a successful mechanism to fund the legal obligations and environmental protection.
24

Scholz, G., J. VanLaarhoven, L. Phipps, D. Favier, and S. Rixon. "Managing for river health - integrating watercourse management, environmental water requirements and community participation." Water Science and Technology 45, no. 11 (June 1, 2002): 209–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2002.0397.

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The Mid North Rivers Management Planning Project (MNRMPP) of the Environment Protection Agency, Department for Environment and Heritage began as a response to community concerns regarding watercourse related issues in the Mid North of South Australia. In response to these concerns the MNRMPP project team developed rapid, cost effective methods to collect and assess data, establish collaborative partnerships with stakeholder organisations, ensure community involvement, and initiate mechanisms to sustain local involvement past the life of the project. Environmental water requirements were identified, along with key watercourse management issues; the integration of these two components of the study enabled more informed decision making regarding watercourse management within the study area. The integration of these components and the involvement of the community and stakeholders through all components of the project has resulted in a sense of ownership and an increase in awareness of watercourse related issues. This has increased the prospect of individuals and organisations implementing the management options and priorities identified within the plan, and has promoted the long term involvement of these groups in better watercourse management.
25

Williams, Nombasa. "A Critical Review of the Literature: Engendering the Discourse of Masculinities Matter for Parenting African Refugee Men." American Journal of Men's Health 5, no. 2 (December 29, 2009): 104–17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1557988309346055.

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According to the literature on culturally and linguistically diverse parenting, refugee parenting practices and styles that are normative in countries of origin may not be sanctioned in Australia. In the case of refugee parenting, beliefs, practices, and values may be decentered in pre-resettlement contexts where survival becomes the primary concern. Engendering the discourse of masculinities to reflect a relationship between child protection and the experience of refugee parenting for African men in both pre- and post-resettlement contexts will inform culturally competent practice, intervention, and community development that is inclusive of their gender-specific needs. This article brings an expanded masculinities perspective to the ecology of refugee parenting for resettled African men resulting from larger research findings with focus group participants. Incorporating notions of masculinity into the child protection discourse is an attempt not only to reduce existing gender under- and misrepresentation among South Australian refugees but also to ensure greater visibility and increase the role of refugee men in the process of developing culturally relevant and appropriate policies, practices, and services to assist successful resettlement transitions while strengthening family well-being. The concept of masculinities, this article argues, must be treated as integral to any approach to working with refugees, particularly in areas that penetrate and may define the quality of their life experiences, expectations, and aspirations. Masculinities matter. Exploring refugee male perceptions, interpretations, and enactment of masculinity may unmask the differential experiences of refugee women from men and ensure the integration and operationalization of these differences into child protection services and practice.
26

Champion, Curtis, Alistair J. Hobday, Xuebin Zhang, Gretta T. Pecl, and Sean R. Tracey. "Changing windows of opportunity: past and future climate-driven shifts in temporal persistence of kingfish (Seriola lalandi) oceanographic habitat within south-eastern Australian bioregions." Marine and Freshwater Research 70, no. 1 (2019): 33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/mf17387.

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Climate-driven shifts in species distributions are occurring rapidly within marine systems and are predicted to continue under climate change. To effectively adapt, marine resource users require information relevant to their activities at decision-making timescales. We model oceanographic habitat suitability for kingfish (Seriola lalandi) from south-eastern Australia using multiple environmental variables at monthly time steps over the period 1996–2040. Habitat predictions were used to quantify the temporal persistence (months per year) of suitable oceanographic habitat within six coastal bioregions. A decline in temporal habitat persistence is predicted for the northernmost (equatorward) bioregion, whereas increases are predicted for the three southernmost (poleward) bioregions. We suggest that temporal habitat persistence is an important metric for climate change adaptation because it provides fishery-relevant information. Our methods demonstrate how novel metrics relevant to climate adaptation can be derived from predictions of species’ environmental habitats, and are appropriate for the management of fisheries resources and protection of high conservation value species under future climate change.
27

Mwanri, Lillian, Leticia Anderson, and Kathomi Gatwiri. "Telling Our Stories: Resilience during Resettlement for African Skilled Migrants in Australia." International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 8 (April 9, 2021): 3954. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18083954.

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Background: Emigration to Australia by people from Africa has grown steadily in the past two decades, with skilled migration an increasingly significant component of migration streams. Challenges to resettlement in Australia by African migrants have been identified, including difficulties securing employment, experiences of racism, discrimination and social isolation. These challenges can negatively impact resettlement outcomes, including health and wellbeing. There has been limited research that has examined protective and resilience factors that help highly skilled African migrants mitigate the aforementioned challenges in Australia. This paper discusses how individual and community resilience factors supported successful resettlement Africans in Australia. The paper is contextualised within a larger study which sought to investigate how belonging and identity inform Afrodiasporic experiences of Africans in Australia. Methods: A qualitative inquiry was conducted with twenty-seven (n = 27) skilled African migrants based in South Australia, using face-to-face semi-structured interviews. Participants were not directly questioned about ‘resilience,’ but were encouraged to reflect critically on how they navigated the transition to living in Australia, and to identify factors that facilitated a successful resettlement. Results: The study findings revealed a mixture of settlement experiences for participants. Resettlement challenges were observed as barriers to fully meeting expectations of emigration. However, there were significant protective factors reported that supported resilience, including participants’ capacities for excellence and willingness to work hard; the social capital vested in community and family support networks; and African religious and cultural values and traditions. Many participants emphasised their pride in their contributions to Australian society as well as their desire to contribute to changing narratives of what it means to be African in Australia. Conclusions: The findings demonstrate that despite challenges, skilled African migrants’ resilience, ambition and determination were significant enablers to a healthy resettlement in Australia, contributing effectively to social, economic and cultural expectations, and subsequently meeting most of their own migration intentions. These findings suggest that resilience factors identified in the study are key elements of integration.
28

Cuthbert, P. "Olympic Dam: BHP thinking big about the future." Annals of the ICRP 49, no. 1_suppl (December 2020): 45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146645320960681.

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Olympic Dam is one of the world’s most significant polymetallic orebodies producing copper, uranium, gold, and silver in remote South Australia. The polymetallic deposit is located 520 km north-northwest of Adelaide, South Australia and has an inferred resource of 2660 Mt at 1.2% Cu, 1.4 kg t−1 U3Os, and 0.5 g t−1 Au. Ore is mined from the underground operation at a rate of approximately 10 mt year−1, and is processed on site through a concentrator and hydrometallurgical facility, smelter, and electrolytic refinery. Olympic Dam is one of the only sites in the world to claim the ‘mine to market’ title. Protection of the workforce and the environment has been a primary focus for the operations through its 30+ year life and will continue to be into the future. Broken Hill Propriety Company (BHP) believes that its most important asset is its people. With such a large orebody and a very long potential mine life, it is important to think strategically about the future to ensure the viability of the operation. This requires development of mine and surface processing facilities in a staged manner. Importantly, it also involves the development of people. This presentation provides an overview of BHP’s work at Olympic Dam and outlines development plans for Olympic Dam into the future. © 2020 ICRP. Published by SAGE.
29

Jensen, Anne, Clare Nicolson, and Jason Carter. "Preservation and Management of Natural Wetlands in the South Australian Murray Valley." Water Science and Technology 29, no. 4 (February 1, 1994): 325–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.1994.0217.

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The impact of river regulation has been to reduce flood frequencies on the Murray floodplain below Mildura. The lower frequency of inundation of wetlands reduces the number of successful breeding and regeneration events in floodplain biota, causing a decline in the health and vigour of many floodplain plants and animals. The potential for rehabilitation of floodplain wetlands through increased flushing flows has been demonstrated. The ultimate aim is to enhance habitat value and achieve maximum biodiversity. Future opportunities are identified for hydrological manipulation within river operating strategies to extend beneficial management on a floodplain scale to improve wetland habitat. These can be combined with rehabilitation techniques such as specific water allocations, grazing controls and physical works on individual wetlands to ensure preservation and sustainable management of natural wetlands along the South Australian Murray Valley. Results so far indicate that successful restoration of the wetlands will take a number of flushing events and will be dependent primarily on the acceleration and protection of natural regeneration processes.
30

Howard, Mark V. A., Simon P. Corben, Alessandra Raudino, and Jennifer J. Galouzis. "Maintaining Safety in the Prison Environment: A Multilevel Analysis of Inmate Victimisation in Assaults." International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 64, no. 10-11 (July 3, 2020): 1091–113. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0306624x19871633.

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Theoretical models of victimisation emphasise the importance of context. However, few studies have assessed the influence of prison environmental variables on inmate harm in physical assaults. This study used a multilevel model approach to examine individual- and facility-level factors associated with the incidence of assaults among inmates housed at correctional centres in New South Wales, Australia. Results supported proposals that institutional routines and conditions may have an influence on risk. Inmates, who spent less time in employment, were placed in special housing arrangements such as protection, or were located in sites with higher security designations or longer routine hours out of cells were more likely to be harmed in assaults. In addition, more than 40% of variance in assaults was associated with differences across correctional centre sites. We draw on routine activities theory to explain relationships between different prison contexts, provision of guardianship, and exposure to motivated offenders in assault outcomes.
31

Niella, Y., AF Smoothey, V. Peddemors, and R. Harcourt. "Predicting changes in distribution of a large coastal shark in the face of the strengthening East Australian Current." Marine Ecology Progress Series 642 (May 28, 2020): 163–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/meps13322.

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In the face of accelerating climate change, conservation strategies will need to consider how marine animals deal with forecast environmental change as well as ongoing threats. We used 10 yr (2009-2018) of data from commercial fisheries and a bather protection program along the coast of New South Wales (NSW), southeastern Australia, to investigate (1) spatial and temporal patterns of occurrence in bull sharks and (2) environmental factors affecting bull shark occurrence along the coast of NSW. Predicted future distribution for this species was modelled for the forecast strengthening East Australian Current. Bull sharks were mostly harvested in small to larger estuaries, with average depth and rainfall responsible for contrasting patterns for each of the fisheries. There was an increase in the occurrence of bull sharks over the last decade, particularly among coastal setline fisheries, associated with seasonal availability of thermal gradients >22°C and both westward and southward coastal currents stronger than 0.15 and 0.60 m s-1, respectively, during the austral summer. Our model predicts a 3 mo increase in the availability of favourable water temperatures along the entire coast of NSW for bull sharks by 2030. This coastline provides a uniquely favourable topography for range expansion in the face of a southerly shift of warmer waters, and habitat is unlikely to be a limiting factor for bull sharks in the future. Such a southerly shift in distribution has implications for the management of bull sharks both in commercial fisheries and for mitigation of shark-human interactions.
32

Levett, K. J., J. L. Vanderzalm, D. W. Page, and P. J. Dillon. "Factors affecting the performance and risks to human health of on-site wastewater treatment systems." Water Science and Technology 62, no. 7 (October 1, 2010): 1499–509. http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2010.434.

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Aerobic wastewater treatment systems (aerobic systems) are the preferred choice in a region overlying a karstic aquifer used for drinking water supplies, as they are thought to provide better protection to groundwater and human health than standard septic systems. However, aerobic systems in operation do not always perform to design standard; while this is often blamed on lack of maintenance, few studies have investigated the link directly. This study investigates the performance of domestic on-site wastewater treatment systems in South Australia, and compares effluent quality to maintenance records. Effluent from 29 septic tanks and 31 aerobic systems was analysed for nutrients, physico-chemical parameters and microbiological indicators. Aerobic systems generally provided greater treatment than septic tanks, yet most aerobic systems did not meet regulatory guidelines with high levels of indicator bacteria in 71% of samples. The effect of system size, number of household occupants and maintenance on aerobic system treatment performance was analysed: chlorine levels were positively correlated with time of last service, and nutrient concentrations were positively correlated with the number of occupants. A microbial risk assessment revealed the observed irrigation practices to be high risk; and sufficient residence time in the aquifer cannot be guaranteed for protection of groundwater used for drinking. Additional preventive measures such as irrigation management or post treatment of drinking water supply (such as UV disinfection) are required to meet public health targets.
33

Sukati, Bonokwakhe Hezekiel, Pieter Christiaan De Jager, John George Annandale, and Philip Dale Tanner. "The Hazardous Status of High Density Sludge from Acid Mine Drainage Neutralization." Sustainability 10, no. 11 (November 13, 2018): 4185. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/su10114185.

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Classification of waste is an essential part of waste management to limit potential environmental pollution; however, global systems vary. The objective was to understand the waste classification of high density sludge (HDS) from acid mine drainage (AMD) treatment, according to selected global systems. Three sludges from two limestone treatment plants, and three others from a limestone and lime treatment plant from the Mpumalanga coalfields of the Republic of South Africa (RSA) were evaluated. Systems for the RSA, Australia, Canada, China, and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) were considered. The USEPA system rated all six sludges non-hazardous, Canadian and Chinese systems allocated a hazardous status to one sludge from the limestone treatment plants based on Ni solubility. The RSA system considered two of the sludges from limestone treatment plants to be higher risk materials than did the other countries. This was due mainly to the RSA system’s inclusion of Mn and use of appreciably lower minimum soluble levels for As, Cd, Pb, Hg, and Se. None’s use of lime resulted in higher soluble Mn. Minimum leachable concentration thresholds for Cd, Hg, Pb, As, and Se in the RSA system were below method detection limits for Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) extracts, making the guidelines impractical, and revision is advised. Considering all the systems, the probability that the HDS from the coalfields of Mpumalanga, South Africa will be classified as hazardous waste increases if the material is only subjected to limestone treatment because of Ni solubility.
34

Laws, R. A., and T. Aust. "THE CHANGING FACE OF GOVERNMENT REGULATION." APPEA Journal 34, no. 1 (1994): 845. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/aj93064.

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Significant changes are forecast in the approach of government to regulation of the upstream petroleum industry.Prescriptive 'command and control' style regulation is still widely used but does not provide confidence that outcomes will be acceptable and has been criticised as a major contributing factor in the Piper Alpha disaster. Regulator capture, conflict of interest, over-regulation and high compliance costs are also cited as common problems with the existing system.The trend toward greater community involvement in the regulatory process, smaller government and open and transparent decision making are adding pressure for change.A new approach termed objective regulation is being developed in South Australia and involves:establishment by government in dialogue with industry and the community of meaningful and measurable objectives in regard to environmental protection, safety etc.;preparation of codes of practice, guidelines and manuals designed to ensure objectives will be met; andintegration of management systems designed to assure achievement of objectives, including operator and regulator audits of outcomes and the effectiveness of the environmental and safety management system.Objective regulation is aimed at reducing compliance costs, eliminating many approvals currently required, providing greater flexibility, achieving better outcomes and giving greater assurance that management policies are being implemented.Involvement of community interest groups insetting and reviewing objectives should increase community confidence in the industry's ability to operate in an environmentally responsible and consistent manner. This should assist in reducing and hopefully reversing the trend towards increasing restrictions on access to land to which the industry has become increasingly subject.
35

Gough, Noel. "Interrogating Silence: Environmental Education Research as Postcolonialist Textwork." Australian Journal of Environmental Education 15 (1999): 113–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0814062600002676.

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In December 1997 I was privileged—and very pleasantly surprised—to receive the inaugural Allen Strom Eureka Prize for Environmental Education for ‘environmental education research of a substantive nature which contributes to professional thinking and practice’. According to the program for the prize-giving ceremony, I was awarded the prize ‘for research on recent cultural and philosophical movements, such as postmodernism, which has translated and applied complex social theories to theory and practice in environmental education’.I want to take this opportunity to repeat my thanks to the New South Wales Environment Protection Authority for their generous sponsorship of this prize. I offer these thanks not only as an individual recipient but also on behalf of the wider Australian environmental education community. I see particular significance in the Allen Strom Eureka Prize for Environmental Education being awarded in a suite that includes separate prizes for environmental research and environmental journalism. This helps to distinguish our field from other disciplines with which it is sometimes confused. My own research emphasises that environmental education is not just another type of environmental study but more a form of cultural and media literacy.
36

D'Souza, Nola K., Ian J. Colquhoun, Bryan L. Shearer, and Giles E. St J. Hardy. "The potential of five Western Australian native Acacia species for biological control of Phytophthora cinnamomi." Australian Journal of Botany 52, no. 2 (2004): 267. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/bt03089.

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Five Acacia species native to Western Australia were assessed for their potential to protect the highly susceptible species Banksia grandis Wield from infection by the plant pathogen Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands. In a rehabilitated bauxite pit at Jarrahdale 55 km south-east of Perth and in a glasshouse trial, B. grandis planted either alone or with A. pulchella R.Br., A. urophylla Benth., A. extensa Lindl., A. lateriticola Maslin or A. drummondii Lindl., was soil inoculated with P. cinnamomi. It could only be shown that A. pulchella significantly protected B. grandis from P. cinnamomi infection in the rehabilitated bauxite pit trial up to 1 year after inoculation. This confirms the potential of this species for biological control of the pathogen in infested plant communities. The observed protection was not the result of a decrease in soil temperature or moisture. Protection was not emulated in a glasshouse trial where optimum environmental conditions favoured P. cinnamomi. Despite a delay in infection of B. grandis planted with Acacia spp., none of the five species definitively protected B. grandis from P. cinnamomi. However, in the glasshouse trial, A. pulchella, A. extensa, A. lateriticola and A. drummondii did significantly reduce the soil inoculum of P. cinnamomi, indicating a possible biological control effect on the pathogen. The mechanisms of biological control are discussed and the implications for management of rehabilitated bauxite mined areas and forests severely affected by P. cinnamomi are considered.
37

Wardell-Johnson, Grant, Sarah Luxton, Kaylene Craig, Vanessa Brown, Natalee Evans, and Serene Kennedy. "Implications of floristic patterns, and changes in stand structure following a large-scale, intense fire across forested ecosystems in south-western Australia." Pacific Conservation Biology 23, no. 4 (2017): 399. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/pc17016.

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The isolated forested ecosystems of south-western Australia are experiencing warming, drying, and increasing wildfires. How are these changes impacting on biodiversity in the region? A wildfire burnt over 98 000 ha in the high-rainfall (>1100 mm) zone between Northcliffe and Walpole in January–February 2015. A lack of permanent plots limited assessment of impact. However, plot establishment in September 2016 enabled benchmarking of local biodiversity responses in areas burnt at high intensity 18 months previously. We assessed floristic composition, fire response traits and vegetation structure in 48 plots (each 78.5 m2) replicated equally across four neighbouring vegetation types (tall open-forest, open-forest, low open-forest and shrubland). We recorded 165 vascular plant species across these four environments, which differed in environmental profiles, species density, fire trait syndromes and fire-determined structural responses. Shrubland (77 species) was most dominated by geophytes and rhizomatous taxa; and open-forest (82 species) and tall open-forest (41 species) by soil-stored seeders. Epicormic resprouters were dominant in all three forest types. Considerable impact was observed in tree structure, suggesting that recovery in height and biomass in forested vegetation will take longer than fire-return times under trends of increasing frequency and intensity of wildfire in the region. In light of these findings we advocate fire management regimes that reduce the impact of on-going climate trends. These are mosaics that take advantage of moisture differentials, sharp ecotones and different suites of fire response syndromes, and target high-value assets for protection.
38

Yap, Lorraine, Juliet Richters, Tony Butler, Karen Schneider, Kristie Kirkwood, and Basil Donovan. "Sexual practices and dental dam use among women prisoners - a mixed methods study." Sexual Health 7, no. 2 (2010): 170. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/sh09138.

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Background: Dental dams have been distributed to women prisoners for protection against HIV and other sexually transmissible infections (STIs) in some Canadian and Australian prisons for over a decade. However, we do not know whether they serve any useful public health purpose. Objective: To determine how dental dams are used in women’s prisons in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Method: Using quantitative and qualitative methods, we investigated women’s sexual practices with a focus on how dental dams are used in NSW prisons. Results: Although 71 of the 199 (36%) women reported having had sex with another inmate, with oral sex involved in most encounters, only eight (4%) had ever used a dental dam. The main sources of STI transmission risk among women prisoners were oral sex, manual sex and sharing dildos. Furthermore, sharing razors could also allow the transmission of blood-borne viruses, which could occur during sex in the presence of cuts or menstrual fluid. The high rates of hepatitis B and C among incarcerated women compound this risk. Conclusion: Dental dams are not widely used by women prisoners and we question their utility in women’s prisons. Oral sex is an important risk factor for acquisition of herpes simplex virus type 1, but most women in NSW prisons (89%) are already infected. Condoms and latex gloves may have more use. Condoms could be used as a barrier on shared dildos and sex toys, while latex gloves could be used to protect cut and grazed hands from vaginal and menstrual fluids.
39

Harper, R. J., K. R. J. Smettem, and R. J. Tomlinson. "Using soil and climatic data to estimate the performance of trees, carbon sequestration and recharge potential at the catchment scale." Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 45, no. 11 (2005): 1389. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/ea04186.

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There is considerable interest in integrating deep-rooted perennial plants into the dryland farming systems of southern Australia as soil, water supplies and biodiversity are continually threatened by salinity. In addition to wood products, trees could provide new products, such as bioenergy, environmental services, such as the sequestration of carbon, reductions in recharge to groundwater and biodiversity protection. Before marketing these services, it is necessary to determine the optimal distribution of trees across the landscape, in terms of land suitability, their productivity, and proximity to existing processing and transport infrastructure. Similarly, understanding how recharge varies across landscapes will allow the targeting of trees to areas where they are most needed for salinity control. Catchment scale (1:100 000) soil and landform datasets are now available across much of the agricultural area of Australia. While these data are at a scale inappropriate for management at the enterprise (farm) scale, they will allow broad planning for new plant-based industries, such as whether there is sufficient suitable land available before embarking on a new enterprise and the likely productivity of that land. In this paper, we outline an approach that combines existing soil and landform data with estimates of climate to produce estimates of likely wood yield, carbon sequestration and potential for recharge to groundwater. Using the 283 686 ha Collie catchment of south-western Australia as an example, this analysis indicated broad areas where land is suitable for forestry, where forestry is unlikely to succeed, or where it was not required because leakage to groundwater is negligible. It also provides broad estimates of wood production and carbon sequestration. The approach is applicable to the integration of deep-rooted perennial plants into farming systems in other regions confronted with multiple natural resource management issues.
40

Huxedurp, Leonie M., Guðný Þ. Pálsdóttir, and Nanda Altavilla. "Risk-based planning for water recycling in an Australian context." Water Supply 14, no. 6 (June 3, 2014): 971–83. http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/ws.2014.058.

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Australia has seen an unprecedented proliferation in large scale water recycling schemes since the late 1990s. This has been driven by a recent decade of drought, policies to encourage water efficiency in new homes and buildings in urban areas, and to reduce pressure on rain-fed water supplies by replacement with alternate water sources in rural areas. Underpinning these drivers are principles of economic and environmental sustainability and protection of public health. National guidelines for recycling of treated sewage, released in 2006, replaced an approach using prescriptive end point water quality targets, with a 12-step risk-based framework for the planning and operation of Australian water recycling schemes. Essential to this risk-based approach is an understanding of the sewage treatment system and assessing the risks in the catchment, the treatment process, distribution system and end use environment. Inherent also in this process is the identification of critical control points with tangible operational targets for pre-empting, preventing and correcting off-spec conditions before they derail a scheme. Validation of systems through microbial log reduction targets for indicator viruses, bacteria, protozoa and helminths, differentiated according to end use and expected exposures, may be obtained through treatment, site controls or a combination of both. Drawing on case studies from the Australian states of New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland (Qld), this paper gives insight to preventative risk management of water recycling schemes with typical risk profiles. Some advantages and disadvantages of the guideline approach are considered. The information paints a picture of the industry's risk management obligations in the planning phase and may be of use to practitioners in other regions where planning for safe and sustainable water recycling is developing.
41

Somerville, R. "THE CEDUNA SUB-BASIN—A SNAPSHOT OF PROSPECTIVITY." APPEA Journal 41, no. 1 (2001): 321. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/aj00015.

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The Ceduna Sub-basin comprises one of the major untested potential petroleum provinces in Australia. It is located in the Great Australian Bight, forming part of the Bight Basin. Water depths range from 100 m in the north to over 4,000 m in the south. Although over 100,000 line km of 2D marine seismic data have been acquired in the Great Australian Bight, only 20,600 line km of 2D marine seismic data of variable vintage and quality have been acquired in the Ceduna Sub-basin. Only one exploration well, Potoroo–1, has been drilled within the Ceduna Sub-basin. The Potoroo–1 well is located on the extreme landward edge of the depocentre which is dominated by the Late Cretaceous Ceduna Delta. Consequently, the hydrocarbon potential of the basin is effectively untested.The most promising play types within the Ceduna Subbasin are dip and fault-dip closures associated with listric faults within the Late Cretaceous (Santonian- Maastrichtian) deltaic sequence and accentuated by slight Late Cretaceous/Tertiary compression. Fault-dip closures are also recognised within the Santonian section. A channel sub-crop play within the Santonian is also potentially viable.Hydrocarbon charge is perceived to be the most significant exploration risk. Although asphaltite strandings have been reported, the hydrocarbon charge system is unproven. Future exploration in the Great Australian Bight will need to address:harsh climatic/meteorological and oceanographic conditions in the Southern Ocean and short seasonal windows;extreme sea floor relief and viability of safe exploration drilling in water depths over 1,500 m; andoperating in a responsible and environmentally sensitive way in proximity to the Benthic Protection Zone.
42

Woinarski, JCZ. "Biogeography and conservation of reptiles, mammals and birds across north-western Australia: an inventory and base for planning an ecological reserve system." Wildlife Research 19, no. 6 (1992): 665. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/wr9920665.

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The distributions of mammals (94 spp. =38% of the Australian total), land birds (252 spp. =52%), and terrestrial reptiles (269 spp. = 39%) in north-western Australia are analysed. Of these species, 133 (mostly reptiles) are restricted to this region. Reptiles (and especially endemic species) characteristically have small ranges in this area. For all three groups, diversity is highest in coastal, high rainfall areas (especially of Arnhem Land and the northern Kimberley). Such areas are relatively well represented in the existing nature reserve system. Assemblages of species are mapped, on the basis of classification of the 123 lo latitude by lo longitude cells in the region. For both mammal and bird species, four defined assemblages were distributed in high rainfall coastal areas, inland low rainfall areas and two transitional zones, all extending over a broad east-west span. Reptile assemblages show a similar initial (wet-dry) division, but then split into east and west subdivisions. For all three animal groups, transitional and inland assemblages are poorly reserved (<0.25% of land area). A total of 58 reserves occur in the region. Most are small (median 24km*2) and concentrated around population centres. Biological information is lacking for most reserves. Largely because of the dispersion of existing reserves, almost one quarter of the species considered (and about the same proportion of endemic species) are not known to occur in any conservation reserve in the region. Priorities are assigned for the placement of future reserves. The most significant additions should be in the north Kimberley, south-west Kimberley, northern fringe of the Tanami Desert, Gulf of Carpentaria hinterland and eastern Arnhem Land. The conservation of this fauna is not dependent solely on the provision of a park network, but demands also informed management of reserves and adequate environmental protection of land outside reserves.
43

Coscarella, Mariano A., Silvana L. Dans, Mariana Degrati, Griselda V. Garaffo, and Enrique A. Crespo. "Bottlenose dolphins at the southern extreme of the south-western Atlantic: local population decline?" Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 92, no. 8 (December 6, 2011): 1843–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0025315411001901.

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The management scheme of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) includes monitoring protocols but such activities are not always carried out. This is the case for Golfo San José, a MPA in northern Patagonia, Argentina. It was created in 1975 for the protection of the southern right whale (Eubalaena australis) breeding grounds. Other components of the system, such as dolphin populations have received little attention. This study is the first attempt to estimate sighting rates, group size and overall abundance of a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) population in Golfo San José and adjacent areas after 30 years. An analysis of the seasonal sighting rates indicates that bottlenose dolphins were present in the study area throughout the year but a decline in group size and abundance and major shift in distribution was detected when compared with previous published reports. The settlement of the MPA failed to secure the persistence of the bottlenose dolphin population within its boundaries. Possible explanations for the detected decline are addressed including increased natural mortality, human induced mortality and disturbance, resources depletion and environmental shift.
44

Carroll, Suzanne J., Michael J. Dale, Anne W. Taylor, and Mark Daniel. "Contributions of Multiple Built Environment Features to 10-Year Change in Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in a South Australian Middle-Aged Cohort." International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 3 (January 30, 2020): 870. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17030870.

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Residential areas may shape health, yet few studies are longitudinal or concurrently test relationships between multiple residential features and health. This longitudinal study concurrently assessed the contributions of multiple environmental features to 10-year change in clinically measured body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Longitudinal data for adults (18+ years of age, n = 2253) from the north-west of Adelaide, Australia were linked to built environment measures representing the physical activity and food environment (expressed for residence-based 1600 m road-network buffers) and area education. Associations were concurrently estimated using latent growth models. In models including all environmental exposure measures, area education was associated with change in BMI and WC (protective effects). Dwelling density was associated with worsening BMI and WC but also highly correlated with area education and moderately correlated with count of fast food outlets. Public open space (POS) area was associated with worsening WC. Intersection density, land use mix, greenness, and a retail food environment index were not associated with change in BMI or WC. This study found greater dwelling density and POS area exacerbated increases in BMI and WC. Greater area education was protective against worsening body size. Interventions should consider dwelling density and POS, and target areas with low SES.
45

Wood, A. R., and M. Scholler. "Puccinia abrupta var. partheniicola on Parthenium hysterophorus in Southern Africa." Plant Disease 86, no. 3 (March 2002): 327. http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/pdis.2002.86.3.327a.

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Parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L., family Asteraceae), an annual herb of neotropic origin, is an invasive noxious weed with a pantropical distribution (1). It is particularly undesirable because of the serious health risks it poses to people living close to infestations (1). In January 1995, S. Neser (ARC-Plant Protection Research Institute, Pretoria, South Africa) collected a rust fungus on this plant near Brits, Northwest Province, South Africa (25°35′S, 27°46′E). Only uredinia were present. The same rust fungus was collected in the same area in January, March, and June of 2001, and again only uredinia were observed. In its native range, P. hysterophorus is infected by two rust fungus species, Puccinia abrupta Diet. & Holw. var. partheniicola (Jackson) Parmelee and Puccinia melampodii Diet. & Holw., but the latter species is microcyclic with telia only. The morphology of the urediniospores in the South African collections corresponds to Puccinia abrupta var. partheniicola (3): obovoid to almost triangular, 22 to 27 × 18 to 25 µm, echinulate, two subequatorial and one apical germ pores, spines absent around germ pores, wall 1 to 2.5 µm thick. The native range of Puccinia abrupta var. partheniicola is Mexico and northern South America (3). In addition, it has been recorded from Mauritius (3), Kenya, and India (H. C. Evans and C. A. Ellison, International Institute of Biological Control, CAB, 1987, unpublished data). It was intentionally introduced into Australia for the biological control of P. hysterophorus (2). Thirteen specimens in the Arthur Herbarium were examined, and only two had telia in addition to uredinia. The other 11 had only uredinia, indicating that nonformation of telia is common. Telia and uredinia are produced in high altitude, semiarid areas of Mexico, whereas in low altitude, more humid areas only uredinia are produced (1). The production of telia appears to depend on environmental conditions, and their absence is not unexpected at the Brits site, which is a high altitude (1,120 m) area with high summer rainfall (400 to 600 mm per year from November to February) and dry winters. Voucher specimens were deposited at the National Collection of Fungi, Plant Protection Research Institute, Pretoria (PREM 57298) and the Arthur Herbarium, West Lafayette, IN (PUR N1117). To our knowledge, this is the second report of this rust fungus in Africa and the first in southern Africa. References: (1) H. C. Evans. Trans. Br. Mycol. Soc. 88:105, 1987. (2) A. Parker et. al. Plant Pathol. 43:1, 1994. (3) J. A. Parmelee. Can. J. Bot. 45:2267, 1967.
46

Amoako, Daniel Gyamfi, Anou M. Somboro, Akebe Luther King Abia, Mushal Allam, Arshad Ismail, Linda A. Bester, and Sabiha Y. Essack. "Genome Mining and Comparative Pathogenomic Analysis of An Endemic Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) Clone, ST612-CC8-t1257-SCCmec_IVd(2B), Isolated in South Africa." Pathogens 8, no. 4 (September 27, 2019): 166. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens8040166.

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This study undertook genome mining and comparative genomics to gain genetic insights into the dominance of the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) endemic clone ST612-CC8-t1257-SCCmec_IVd(2B), obtained from the poultry food chain in South Africa. Functional annotation of the genome revealed a vast array of similar central metabolic, cellular and biochemical networks within the endemic clone crucial for its survival in the microbial community. In-silico analysis of the clone revealed the possession of uniform defense systems, restriction-modification system (type I and IV), accessory gene regulator (type I), arginine catabolic mobile element (type II), and type 1 clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)Cas array (N = 7 ± 1), which offer protection against exogenous attacks. The estimated pathogenic potential predicted a higher probability (average Pscore ≈ 0.927) of the clone being pathogenic to its host. The clone carried a battery of putative virulence determinants whose expression are critical for establishing infection. However, there was a slight difference in their possession of adherence factors (biofilm operon system) and toxins (hemolysins and enterotoxins). Further analysis revealed a conserved environmental tolerance and persistence mechanisms related to stress (oxidative and osmotic), heat shock, sporulation, bacteriocins, and detoxification, which enable it to withstand lethal threats and contribute to its success in diverse ecological niches. Phylogenomic analysis with close sister lineages revealed that the clone was closely related to the MRSA isolate SHV713 from Australia. The results of this bioinformatic analysis provide valuable insights into the biology of this endemic clone.
47

Oram, Rex, and Greg Lodge. "Trends in temperate Australian grass breeding and selection." Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 54, no. 3 (2003): 211. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/ar02137.

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Current trends in grass cultivar development are reviewed, with respect to the range of species involved, and the objectives and methodology within each species. Extrapolations and predictions are made about future directions and methodologies. It is assumed that selection will necessarily cater for the following environmental changes: (1) higher year-round temperatures, higher variability of rainfall incidence, and lower total winter and spring rainfall along the south of the continent; (2) higher nutrient and lime inputs as land utilisation intensifies; and (3) the grazing management requirements of the important pasture components will be increasingly defined and met in practice.The 'big four' species, perennial ryegrass, phalaris, cocksfoot and tall fescue, will continue to be the most widely sown species in temperate regions for many decades, with the latter 3 increasing most in area and genetic differentiation. However, species diversification will continue, especially with native grasses, legumes, and shrubs from fertile regions of Australia and exotics from little-explored parts of the world, such as South Africa, western North and South America, coastal Caucasus, and Iraq–Iran. By contrast, the recent high rate of species diversification in the tropics and subtropics will probably give way to a much lower rate of cultivar development by refinement and diversification within the established species. Domestication of native grasses will continue for amenity, recreational, land protection, and grazing purposes. As seed harvesting technologies and ecological knowledge improve, natural stands will become increasingly important as local sources of seed. It is suggested that many native grasses have been greatly changed by natural selection so as to withstand strong competition from introduced species under conditions of higher soil fertility and grazing pressure. Conversely, some introduced species are being selected consciously and naturally to persist in regions with irregular rainfall and less fertile soils. Therefore, the distinction between native and introduced grasses may be disappearing, and many populations of native species could now be as foreign to the habitats of pre-European settlement as are populations of introduced species that have been evolving here for 50–200 years. Methods used for genetic improvement will continue to be selection among both overseas accessions and the many native and introduced populations that have responded to natural selection in Australia. As well, there will be deliberate recurrent crossing and selection programs in both native and introduced species for specific purposes and environments. Increasingly, molecular biology methods will complement traditional ones, at first by the provision of DNA markers to assist the selection of complex traits, and for proving distinctness to obtain Plant Breeders' Rights for new cultivars. Later, genetic engineering will be used to manipulate nutritive value, resistance to fungal and viral diseases, and breeding systems, especially cytoplasmic male sterility and apomixis, to utilise heterosis in hybrid cultivars of grasses, particularly for dairying and intensive meat production.Areas where the practice and management of grass breeding and selection programs could be improved are highlighted throughout the review, and reiterated in a concluding statement. Most problems appear to stem from inadequate training in population ecology, population genetics, evolution, and quantitative inheritance.
48

Beecher, H. G., B. W. Dunn, J. A. Thompson, E. Humphreys, S. K. Mathews, and J. Timsina. "Effect of raised beds, irrigation and nitrogen management on growth, water use and yield of rice in south-eastern Australia." Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 46, no. 10 (2006): 1363. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/ea04136.

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To remain economically and environmentally sustainable, Australian rice growers need to be able to readily respond to market opportunities and increase cropping system productivity and water productivity. Water availability is decreasing whereas its price is increasing. Alternative irrigation layouts and water management approaches could contribute to reduced water use and increased irrigation efficiency. This paper reports results for the first crop (rice) in a cropping system experiment to compare permanent raised bed and conventional layouts on a transitional red-brown earth at Coleambally, New South Wales. The performance of conventional ponded rice grown on a flat layout was compared with rice grown on 1.84-m wide, raised beds with furrow and subsurface drip irrigation. In addition, deep and shallow ponded water depth treatments (15 and 5 cm water depth over the beds) were imposed on the rice on beds during the reproductive period. A range of nitrogen (N) fertiliser rates (0–180 kg N/ha) was applied to all treatments. The traditional flat flooded treatment (Flat) achieved the highest grain yield of 12.7 t/ha, followed by the deep (Bed 15) and shallow (Bed 5) ponded beds (10.2 and 10.1 t/ha, respectively). The furrow (Furrow) irrigated bed treatment yielded 9.4 t/ha and the furrow/drip (Furr/Drip) treatment yielded the lowest grain yield (8.3 t/ha). Grain yield from all bed treatments was reduced owing to the wide furrows (0.8 m between edge rows on adjacent beds), which were not planted to rice. Rice crop water use was significantly different between the layout–irrigation treatments. The Flat, Bed 5 and Bed 15 treatments had similar input (irrigation + rainfall – surface drainage) water use (mean of 18.3 ML/ha). The water use for the Furrow treatment was 17.2 ML/ha and for the Furr/Drip treatment, 15.1 ML/ha. Input WP of the Flat treatment (0.68 t/ML) was higher than the raised bed treatments, which were all similar (mean 0.55 t/ML). This single season experiment shows that high yielding rice crops can be successfully grown on raised beds, but when beds are ponded after panicle initiation, there is no water saving compared with rice grown on a conventional flat layout. Preliminary recommendations for the growing of rice on raised beds are that the crop be grown as a flooded crop in a bankless channel layout. This assists with weed control and allows flooding for cold temperature protection, which is necessary with current varieties. Until we find effective herbicides and other methods of weed control and N application that do not require ponding, there is little scope for saving water while maintaining yield on suitable rice soil through the use of beds.
49

Ambang, Oscar Agbor, Sergio Alloggio, and Roman Tandlich. "Moral Reciprocity, Ethics of Appropriation of Indigenous Medicinal Plant Knowledge and Associated Biopiracy." Acta Educationis Generalis 9, no. 2 (August 1, 2019): 24–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/atd-2019-0007.

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AbstractIntroduction: Although this paper deals mostly with the positive effects of a posthumanist worldview on environmental sustainability, partnership, or moral accountability in science and scientific research, it also promotes a new understanding of our educational practice in higher education. The ideas espoused have the ability to inspire educators at all levels to show students, future researchers or other professions about the importance of a progressive, holistic approach to our environment. We claim that being sensitive and caring for our environment is not only part of our moral and ethical responsibility, it is an inseparable aspect of our environmental education, our environmental intelligence. This paper discusses posthumanist1 reciprocity ethics in the context of traditional knowledge (TK) and the protection of indigenous traditional knowledge from commercial exploitation.Methods: Instances of unethical bioprospecting and biopiracy were common throughout the turn of the 21st century and are discussed using cases in countries such as Cameroon, India, South Africa and Australia, where medicinal plant species were, are still a highly sought-after source of potent, pharmacologically active phytochemicals.Results and discussion: The observed increase in regulations against bioprospecting on indigenous land in these countries as a result of intellectual property monopoly by big pharmaceutical companies is discussed in this paper along the lines of a ‘humanist vs posthumanist’ ontology. Patent exclusivity laws have historically marginalized the proprietary owners of indigenous traditional knowledge, creating a moral and ethical rift between those that seek to exploit this knowledge commercially and those from whom the knowledge originally comes from. This disconnection from nature and natural resources due to a humanistic approach2 to growth and development, often leads to environmental exploitation, exploitation of indigenous people and unsustainable commercial practices. Existing research and bioprospecting ethics that are practiced on indigenous lands must be questioned in their ability to provide mutually beneficial outcomes for all stakeholders.Conclusions: The posthumanist approach to morality and research ethics is discussed in this paper as a possible and practical alternative to humanism along with the potential for posthumanist ethics to be a tool to shape legal frameworks and the policies that protect at-risk communities and their respective natural environments. Our current developmental trajectory as a collective species has us blurring the lines that separate the ‘human’ from the ‘non-human’ elements in our world as humanity grows towards a more technologically advanced but equally environmentally dependent people. Thus, the currently existing systems of ethics that govern the relationship between the ‘human’ and ‘non-human’ must be called into question. This paper aims to illustrate the positive effects of a posthumanist worldview on issues such as environmental sustainability, partnership, moral accountability and reciprocity ethics in the context of modern science and modern scientific research.
50

FOLDI, IMRE. "Archaeococcoid scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) from the tropical high mountains of the Andean Cordillera, South America." Zootaxa 2300, no. 1 (November 30, 2009): 1–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.2300.1.1.

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The diversity of the archaeococcoid scale insect fauna in the Cordillera of the Andes, particularly the páramos, was studied in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. The páramos is an ecosystem in the tropical high mountains, where the temperature alternates between freezing at night and thawing during the day. Within this habitat, two new genera and several new species and new country records were discovered and are described and illustrated below. Thus, at 4200 m in the Cordillera de Mérida, Venezuela, a new monophlebid genus, Corandesia Foldi n. gen., is erected for C. kozári Foldi n. sp. (Monophlebidae) based on the adult female. The genus Paramoandesia Foldi n. gen. (Monophlebidae) is erected for P. colombiensis Foldi n. sp. from 4200 m in Colombia, based on the adult female and male and for P. ecuadorensis Foldi n. sp. from 4100 m in Ecuador, based on the adult females. These three new species were found on Espeletia spp. (Asteraceae) in the páramos and, although living in the typically harsh environmental conditions of this habitat, do not appear to have developed special protective structures, although they have probably developed physiological adaptations and appear to exploit the protection afforded by the microhabitat at the base of large, dense leaves of their host plant. In addition, at 2000 m near Mérida, another monophlebid, Crypticerya abrahami (Newstead) was collected, previously only known from Guyana, and redescribed here based on the adult female and first-instar nymph. The adult and preadult females of Mimosicerya williamsi Foldi n. sp. (Coelostomidiidae) from 2500 m in Venezuela are described and illustrated. In addition, Platycoelostoma rauppi Foldi n. sp. (Callipappidae), a hypogeal species found on the roots of alfalfa in the mountains around Cusco, Peru, is described based on the adult female. This is the first record of a member of the Callipapidae from South America, as Platycoelostoma Morrison was previously believed to be restricted to Australia and to New Zealand. A taxonomic key to genera based on the adult females of Coelostomidiidae in the Neotropics is provided and, also keys to the adult females of species of Mimosicerya Cockerell (Coelostomidiidae), Paramoandesia (Monophlebidae) and to Platycoelostoma (Callipappidae).Les Archaeococcoides de la Cordillère des Andes de Colombie, de l’Equateur, du Pérou et du Venezuela sont analysés. Dans les páramos étudiés, un écosystème de haute montagne où les températures nuit-jour alternent entre congélation et décongélation, deux nouveau genres et plusieurs espèces nouvelles ont été découverts. Ainsi, dans les páramos de la Cordillère de Mérida, Venezuela, 4200 m, Corandesia Foldi n. gen. est créé pour l’espèce C. kozári Foldi n. sp. fondée sur l’adulte femelle. (Monophlebidae). Paramoandesia Foldi n. gen. est créé pour les espèces P. colombiensis Foldi n. sp. de Colombie, 4200 m, description fondée sur les adultes femelle et mâle et P. ecuadorensis Foldi n. sp. de l’Equateur, 4100 m, (Monophlebidae). Les espèces des páramos furent toutes collectées sur Espeletia spp. (Asteraceae) et, bien que vivant dans des conditions d’environnement extrêmes, elles n’ont cependant pas de structure de protection, mais ont développé probablement une adaptation physiologique, exploitent de plus l’effet protecteur du microclimat offert par les bases des larges feuilles de leurs plantes-hôtes. A une altitude inférieure près de Mérida au Venezuela, vers 2000 m, Crypticerya abrahami (Newstead) autre Monophlebidae, a été collectée, alors qu’elle n’était connue que de Guyana est redécrite fondée sur l’adulte femelle et de la première stade larvaire. Adulte et préadulte femelle de Mimosicerya williamsi Foldi n. sp. (Coelostomididae) du Venezuela, 2500 m, sont décrites et illustrées. Au Pérou, Platycoelostoma rauppi Foldi n. sp. (Callipappidae), espèce hypogée trouvée sur les racines de Medicago sativa, sur les montagnes environnantes de Cusco, décrite fondée sur l’adulte femelle. Il s’agit de la première découverte d’un membre de la famille des Callipappidae en Amérique du Sud, le genre Platycoelostoma Morrison étant jusqu’à présent considéré comme restreint à l’Australie et à la Nouvelle-Zélande. Une clef taxonomique fondée sur les adultes femelles est proposée pour les genres néotropicaux de Coelostomidiidae, ainsi que pour les espèces des genres Mimosicerya Cockerell (Coelostomidiidae), Paramoandesia (Monophlebidae), et Platycoelostoma Morrison (Callipappidae).

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