Дисертації з теми "Foundries South Australia Environmental aspects"

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1

Larwood, Andrew John. "Cleaner production : promoting and achieving it in the South Australian foundry industry." Title page, table of contents and abstract only, 2000. http://web4.library.adelaide.edu.au/theses/09ENV/09envl336.pdf.

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Bibliography: leaves 123-130. The literature search and the findings from the investigation have been used to provide recommendations for a sector specific cooperative approach using regulation, self-regulation, voluntary agreements, economic incentatives and educational/information strategies to promote and acheive cleaner production in the South Australian foundry industry.
2

Heshmatti, Gholam Ali. "Plant and soil indicators for detecting zones around water points in arid perennial chenopod shrublands of South Australia /." Title page, contents and summary only, 1997. http://web4.library.adelaide.edu.au/theses/09PH/09phh584.pdf.

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Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Adelaide, Dept. of Botany, 1997.
Errata page is behind title page (p. i). Copies of author's previously published articles inserted. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 121-156).
3

Burroughs, Gary Leslie. "The response to environmental economic drivers by civil engineering contractors in South Australia." Title page, contents and abstract only, 2000. http://web4.library.adelaide.edu.au/theses/09ENV/09envb972.pdf.

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Bibliography: leaves 91-93. Examines the response of two civil engineering construction contractors in South Australia to environmental economic conditions and market requirements using primarily an action research methodology whilst the researcher was engaged as the environmental manager at both corporations.
4

Peel, Samantha. "Indicators for sustainability : Local Agenda 21 in Adelaide." Title page, contents and abstract only, 1999. http://web4.library.adelaide.edu.au/theses/09ENV/09envp374.pdf.

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Bibliography: leaves 99-105. Examines the ways in which local governments in the Adelaide region have used the Local Agenda 21 program, with particular focus on public participation and the development of indicators. Argues that sustainability requires the support and involvement of the widest possible community, a necessity that will not be realised until public participation, particularly involving those groups with a reduced 'social voice' (such as women, youth and minority cultural/ethnic groups), becomes an integral part of the local government's modernisation agenda. Concludes with a summary of the main issues and a set of recommendations for future research and action.
5

Jordan, Matthew. "Procuring industrial pollution control : the South Australian case, 1836-1975." Title page, contents and abstract only, 2001. http://web4.library.adelaide.edu.au/theses/09PH/09phj816.pdf.

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6

Banham, Brenton James. "The role of MFP Australia in mangrove conservation." Title page, contents and abstract only, 1992. http://web4.library.adelaide.edu.au/theses/09ENV/09envb216.pdf.

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7

Copertino, Margareth. "Production ecology and ecophysiology of turf algal communities on a temperate reef (West Island, South Australia)." Title page, contents and abstract only, 2002. http://web4.library.adelaide.edu.au/theses/09PH/09phc782.pdf.

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Includes bibliographical references (leaves 235-258). Estimates the primary production and investigates the photosynthetic performance of temperate turfs at West Island, off the coast of South Australia. These communities play a fundamental role in reef ecology, being the main source of food for grazers, both fishes and invertebrates. Turfs also have an important function in benthic algal community dynamics, being the first colonizers on disturbed and bare substratum.
8

O'Brien, R. Christopher. "Forensic animal necrophagy in the South-West of Western Australia : species, feeding patterns and taphonomic effects." University of Western Australia. School of Anatomy and Human Biology, 2008. http://theses.library.uwa.edu.au/adt-WU2008.0195.

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[Truncated abstract] One of the standard ways of assessing time since death is from the stages of decomposition of the body. It is well known that the rate of decomposition is affected by environmental factors such as temperature and humidity. Another factor that can affect decompositional rates is the presence of breaches in the protective barrier of the skin, whether arising from antemortem injury or postmortem damage, including that occurring from animal necrophagy. Scavengers have the potential to affect decomposition by breaching the skin allowing access to associated insect material, feeding on the maggot masses, or by consumption of the carcass itself. Each locality will have its own set of features determining the rate of decomposition of the body, and variation may occur within localities based on the seasons. Such variation implies the need for local calibration of time since death against degree of decomposition and to establish the magnitude of interseasonal variation. When the localities are outdoors, the influence of potential scavengers, and the factors affecting their activity need also to be taken into account. This study investigates the interaction of environmental factors and animal scavenging on the rate of decomposition of pig (Sus scrofa) carcasses at four south-west Western Australia sites; Jandakot, Shenton Park, Perup Forest, and Watheroo National Park. Jandakot and Shenton Park are both close to the Perth metropolitan area and the western coast while Perup Forest is southern and inland and Watheroo is northern and inland. ... The most common insectivore feeding in relation to the carcasses was the Willie Wagtail (Rhipidura leucophrys) which was associated with the carcasses in all seasons and all locations except for Perup Forest. The breeding cycle appeared to have a marked influence on the intensity of scavenging by several species. The effect of season on decompositional rates was greatly reduced in carcasses that were exposed to scavenging. It took no additional time for carcasses to achieve skeletonization in winter than in the other seasons in the presence of scavenging. Scavenging had no significant impact on the rate of breakdown of carcasses in summer, when decompositional rates were greatest and scavenging at a minimum. v In Western Australia, it is not uncommon for bodies to remain undiscovered in bush environments for lengthy periods of time due to the low human population density. This study shows conclusively that it is not sufficient simply to consider the accumulated degree day (ADD) when estimating time since death by the degree of decomposition of the body. Attention must also be given to local wildlife assemblages and variations in their activities with the seasons. The implications of this research are in the determination of time of death. If the effects of scavengers accelerate decomposition this must be taken into account when any calculation since time of death is determined. The marked variations between sites in the rates of decomposition of carcasses exposed to natural animal scavenging in this study highlights the need for local calibration of time since death to decompositional stages for all locales. The techniques devised in this study are straight forward and easily conducted yet are informative and essential in determining time since death for bodies which have been exposed to animal scavenging.
9

Sheppard, Barbara Dorothea. "Assessing the environmental performance of building developments : the Green Building Tool." Title page, table of contents and abstract only, 2000. http://web4.library.adelaide.edu.au/theses/09ENV/09envs549.pdf.

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Bibliography: p. 119-122. Aims to show how the GB Tool (Green BuildingTool) can be used to access the environmental performance of residential building developments, with a focus on South Australia. Describes the history of, and rationale for, the GB Tool; and its practical implementation. Identifies some theoretical short comings of the GB Tool, as well as some practical difficulties with using it.
10

Jankovic-Karasoulos, Tanja. "A case study of the physical, chemical and biological factors affecting dissolved organic carbon in the Warren Reservoir, South Australia /." Title page, table of contents and abstract only, 2004. http://web4.library.adelaide.edu.au/theses/09PH/09phj339.pdf.

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11

Collins, Margaret Thora. "Factors affecting the recovery of orchids in a post-mining landscape." University of Western Australia. School of Earth and Geographical Sciences, 2008. http://theses.library.uwa.edu.au/adt-WU2008.0022.

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[Truncated abstract] Currently, Alcoa World Alumina Australia (Alcoa) mines and undertakes procedures to rehabilitate approximately 550 ha of jarrah forest each year at two open-cut bauxite mines in South-West Western Australia. Alcoa aims to establish a self-sustaining jarrah forest ecosystem that maintains the functions of the landscape prior to mining, including biodiversity, on areas that have been mined for bauxite. Indigenous terrestrial orchids form a significant proportion of the indigenous geophytic plant species that either fail to colonise rehabilitated areas or do so very slowly. Terrestrial orchids are considered to be particularly sensitive to competition from weeds and disturbance, which combined with the obligate nature of the orchid-mycorrhizal fungus association suggests that orchids would colonise rehabilitation areas only when both microhabitat sites and soil microflora have established. Occurrence of certain orchids may therefore be expected to be useful as indicators of ecosystem health, the success of vegetation establishment and the recovery of edaphic conditions suitable for orchid mycorrhizal fungi. Vegetation surveys were undertaken to compare orchid species richness and population size of a chrono-sequence of rehabilitation areas with adjacent unmined forest. ... Orchid taxa present in each vegetation assemblage were generally not exclusive to these assemblages, with the following broad exclusions: D. bracteata was found only in species assemblages associated with rehabilitation areas; and Eriochilus sp. and T. crinita were found only in species assemblages associated with unmined forest. No single orchid species appears to be an indicator of ecosystem recovery. However, the presence of populations of C. flava, P. sp. crinkled leaf (G.J.Keighery 13426) or P. recurva in combination with the absence of the disturbance opportunist orchid taxa D. bracteata and M. media appears to be a measure of the maturity of the rehabilitation vegetation. Orchid species richness and clonal orchid population size were correlated with changes in vegetation structure, but apart from the absence of orchids in 1 year old rehabilitation areas, these orchid population characteristics did not show any direct relationship with rehabilitation age or vegetation maturity. Only two orchid taxa appeared to have potential as indicators of vegetation characteristics: T. crinita as an indicator of undisturbed jarrah forest; and D. bracteata as an indicator of disturbed ecosystems. The results of this study suggest that most jarrah forest orchid taxa will readily colonise the post bauxite mining landscape, but that the unassisted colonisation by recalcitrant orchid taxa may be a prolonged process. It is recommended that field-based transplantation and/or seeding trials be undertaken with these recalcitrant taxa to determine if these procedures will enhance recruitment. The results of this work have applications not only in the management of post-mining landscapes but also in vegetation monitoring and conservation work in Western Australia and elsewhere.
12

Tiver, Fleur. "Vegetation patterns of eastern South Australia : edaphic control and effects of herbivory /." Title page, contents and abstract only, 1994. http://web4.library.adelaide.edu.au/theses/09PH/09pht623.pdf.

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13

Harris, Mark Anglin. "Some organic amendments for heavy metal toxicity, acidity and soil structure in acid-sulphate mine tailings /." Title page, contents and abstract only, 2000. http://web4.library.adelaide.edu.au/theses/09PH/09phh3148.pdf.

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14

Sun, Hua. "Digital terrain modelling of catchment erosion and sedimentation /." Title page, contents and abstract only, 1998. http://web4.library.adelaide.edu.au/theses/09PH/09phs9565.pdf.

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15

Weggler-Beaton, Karin M. "The beneficial and detrimental effects of sewage sludge applications in South Australia." Title page, contents and summary only, 1996. http://web4.library.adelaide.edu.au/theses/09PH/09phw4113.pdf.

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16

Loo, Maylene G. K. "Effects of wastewater effluent on macrobenthic infaunal communities at Christies Beach, South Australia /." Title page, table of contents and abstract only, 2001. http://web4.library.adelaide.edu.au/theses/09PH/09phl8625.pdf.

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17

Borger, Catherine. "The biology and ecology of Salsola australis R.Br. (Chenopodiaceae) in southwest Australian cropping systems." University of Western Australia. School of Plant Biology, 2007. http://theses.library.uwa.edu.au/adt-WU2008.0062.

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Salsola australis is an introduced weed of crop and pasture systems in the Western Australian broad acre cropping and pasture region (wheat-belt). This thesis investigated the classification, biology and ecology of the genus Salsola in southwest Australia, as well as modelling the effectiveness of possible weed control practices. Prior to this research, S. tragus was the only recognised species of the Salsola genus within Australia. However, genetic analysis revealed that four genetically distinct putative taxa of the genus Salsola were found in southwest Australia, none of which were S. tragus. The taxa that is the most prevalent agricultural weed was classified as S. australis, but the other three putative taxa could not be matched to recognised species. All four taxa were diploid (2n = 18), as opposed to tetraploid (2n = 36) S. tragus. Within the agricultural system of southwest Australia, S. australis plants established throughout the year, although the majority of seed production occurred in late summer and autumn. Total seed production (138-7734 seeds per plant) and seed viability (7.6-62.8%) of S. australis were lower than that reported for other agricultural weed species of the Salsola genus. Seed dispersal occurred when the senesced plants broke free of their root system to become mobile. Wind driven plants travelled and shed seed over distances of 1.6 to 1247.2 m. Movement of approximately half the plants was restricted to less than 100 m by entanglement with other S. australis plants within the stand. Some seed was retained on the senesced plants, but the germinability of this seed fell to less than 2% in the two month period following plant senescence (i.e. a decline of 79%). Once seed shed into the soil seed bank, anywhere from 32.3 to 80.7% of the viable seeds germinated in the year following seed production, with the rest remaining dormant or degrading. A model of the life cycle of S. australis based on the population ecology data indicated that the dormant seed bank had very little effect on annual seedling recruitment, but seed dispersal from neighbouring populations had a large impact on population growth rate. Therefore, the most successful weed control measures were those that restricted seed dispersal from neighbouring populations, or those that were applied to all populations in the region rather than to a single population. Weed control techniques applied to a single population, without reducing seed dispersal, could not reduce population size.
18

Tynan, R. W. "Stocking limits for South Australian pastoral leases : historical background and relationship with modern ecological and management theory." Title page, contents and abstract only, 2000. http://web4.library.adelaide.edu.au/theses/09AS/09ast987.pdf.

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19

Szota, Christopher. "Root morphology, photosynthesis, water relations and development of jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) in response to soil constraints at restores bauxite mines in south-western Australia." University of Western Australia. School of Plant Biology, 2009. http://theses.library.uwa.edu.au/adt-WU2010.0058.

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Bauxite mining is a major activity in the jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata Donn ex Sm.) forest of south-western Australia. After mining, poor tree growth can occur in some areas. This thesis aimed to determine whether soil constraints, including reduced depth and compaction, were responsible for poor tree growth at low-quality restored bauxite mines. In particular, this study determined the response of jarrah root morphology, leaf-scale physiology and growth/development to soil constraints at two contrasting (low-quality and high-quality) restored bauxite-mine sites. Jarrah root excavations at a low-quality restored site revealed that deep-ripping equipment failed to penetrate the cemented lateritic subsoil, causing coarse roots to be restricted to the top 0.5 m of the soil profile, resulting in fewer and smaller jarrah trees. An adjacent area within the same mine pit (high-quality site) had a kaolinitic clay subsoil, which coarse roots were able to penetrate to the average ripping depth of 1.5 m. Impenetrable subsoil prevented development of taproots at the low-quality site, with trees instead producing multiple lateral and sinker roots. Trees in riplines, made by deep-ripping, at the high-quality site accessed the subsoil via a major taproot, while those on crests developed large lateral and sinker roots. Bauxite mining is a major activity in the jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata Donn ex Sm.) forest of south-western Australia. After mining, poor tree growth can occur in some areas. This thesis aimed to determine whether soil constraints, including reduced depth and compaction, were responsible for poor tree growth at low-quality restored bauxite mines. In particular, this study determined the response of jarrah root morphology, leaf-scale physiology and growth/development to soil constraints at two contrasting (low-quality and high-quality) restored bauxite-mine sites. Jarrah root excavations at a low-quality restored site revealed that deep-ripping equipment failed to penetrate the cemented lateritic subsoil, causing coarse roots to be restricted to the top 0.5 m of the soil profile, resulting in fewer and smaller jarrah trees. An adjacent area within the same mine pit (high-quality site) had a kaolinitic clay subsoil, which coarse roots were able to penetrate to the average ripping depth of 1.5 m. Impenetrable subsoil prevented development of taproots at the low-quality site, with trees instead producing multiple lateral and sinker roots. Trees in riplines, made by deep-ripping, at the high-quality site accessed the subsoil via a major taproot, while those on crests developed large lateral and sinker roots.
20

Badman, Francis John. "A comparison of the effects of grazing and mining on vegetation of selected parts of northern South Australia." Title page, table of contents and abstract only, 2002. http://web4.library.adelaide.edu.au/theses/09PH/09phb136.pdf.

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Accompanying CD-ROM inside back cover, includes Appendices. Bibliography: leaves 242-266. This thesis examines the effects on vegetation at selected sites in northern South Australia of excluding various herbivores over a four and a half year period and of two intense but controlled grazing pulses over a six month period followed by an 18 month recovery period in a dune-swale land system. These changes are compared with changes recorded over an 11-year period at the Olympic Dam mine site. It found that short-term changes in vegetation revealed by ordination of periodical cover, density and species richness, are attributable to the periodicity of rainfall and that, under present grazing regimes, rainfall effects override grazing effects. Differences between the effects of sheep and cattle hoof damage are worthy of further investigation, as is the impact of kangaroo grazing. These two factors may have important implications for the management of Australian rangelands. System requirements for accompanying CD-ROM: IBM compatible computer with Pentium processor or higher and Windows 95, 98 or NT ; 4 MB or RAM. Other software: Acrobat Adobe Reader.
21

French, Rachel. "Modelling urban runoff : volume and pollutant concentration of the Barker Inlet Wetland Catchment." Title page, abstract and contents only, 1999. http://web4.library.adelaide.edu.au/theses/09ENS/09ensf875.pdf.

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Bibliography :leaves 158-171. A monitoring program, funded by the South Australian government (through the former MFP Development Corporation), was established to monitor the quality and quantity of storm water entering and leaving the wetland. This study formed part of the funded program. Simple regression models were developed; and will assist in the monitoring of performance of the wetland to alleviate the pollutant load into the Barker Inlet.
22

Wilmot, Peter Nicholas. "Modelling cooling tower risk for Legionnaires' Disease using Bayesian Networks and Geographic Information Systems." Title page, contents and conclusion only, 1999. http://web4.library.adelaide.edu.au/theses/09SIS.M/09sismw744.pdf.

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Includes bibliographical references (leaves 115-120) Establishes a Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) to model uncertainty of aerosols released from cooling towers and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to create a wind dispersal model and identify potential cooling towers as the source of infection. Demonstrates the use of GIS and BBN in environmental epidemiology and the power of spatial information in the area of health.
23

Bleby, Timothy Michael. "Water use, ecophysiology and hydraulic architecture of Eucalyptus marginata (jarrah) growing on mine rehabilitation sites in the jarrah forest of south-western Australia." University of Western Australia. School of Plant Biology, 2003. http://theses.library.uwa.edu.au/adt-WU2004.0004.

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[Truncated abstract. Please see the pdf format for the complete text. Also, formulae and special characters can only be approximated here. Please see the pdf version for an accurate reproduction.] This thesis examines the water use, ecophysiology and hydraulic architecture of Eucalyptus marginata (jarrah) growing on bauxite mine rehabilitation sites in the jarrah forest of south-western Australia. The principal objective was to characterise the key environment and plant-based influences on tree water use, and to better understand the dynamics of water use over a range of spatial and temporal scales in this drought-prone ecosystem. A novel sap flow measurement system (based on the use of the heat pulse method) was developed so that a large number of trees could be monitored concurrently in the field. A validation experiment using potted jarrah saplings showed that rates of sap flow (transpiration) obtained using this system agreed with those obtained gravimetrically. Notably, diurnal patterns of transpiration were measured accurately and with precision using the newly developed heat ratio method. Field studies showed that water stress and water use by jarrah saplings on rehabilitation sites were strongly seasonal: being greatest in summer when it was warm and dry, and least in winter when it was cool and wet. At different times, water use was influenced by soil water availability, vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and plant hydraulic conductance. In some areas, there was evidence of a rapid decline in transpiration in response to dry soil conditions. At the end of summer, most saplings on rehabilitation sites were not water stressed, whereas water status in the forest was poor for small saplings but improved with increasing size. It has been recognised that mature jarrah trees avoid drought by having deep root systems, however, it appears that saplings on rehabilitation sites may have not yet developed functional deep roots, and as such, they may be heavily reliant on moisture stored in surface soil horizons. Simple predictive models of tree water use revealed that stand water use was 74 % of annual rainfall at a high density (leaf area index, LAI = 3.1), high rainfall (1200 mm yr-1) site, and 12 % of rainfall at a low density (LAI = 0.4), low rainfall (600 mm yr-1) site, and that water use increased with stand growth. A controlled field experiment confirmed that: (1) sapling transpiration was restricted as root-zone water availability declined, irrespective of VPD; (2) transpiration was correlated with VPD when water was abundant; and (3) transpiration was limited by soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance when water was abundant and VPD was high (> 2 kPa). Specifically, transpiration was regulated by stomatal conductance. Large stomatal apertures could sustain high transpiration rates, but stomata were sensitive to hydraulic perturbations caused by soil water deficits and/or high evaporative demand. No other physiological mechanisms conferred immediate resistance to drought. Empirical observations were agreeably linked with a current theory suggesting that stomata regulate transpiration and plant water potential in order to prevent hydraulic dysfunction following a reduction in soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance. Moreover, it was clear that plant hydraulic capacity determined the pattern and extent of stomatal regulation. Differences in hydraulic capacity across a gradient in water availability were a reflection of differences in root-to-leaf hydraulic conductance, and were possibly related to differences in xylem structure. Saplings on rehabilitation sites had greater hydraulic conductance (by 50 %) and greater leaf-specific rates of transpiration at the high rainfall site (1.5 kg m-2 day1) than at the low rainfall site (0.8 kg m-2 day1) under near optimal conditions. Also, rehabilitation-grown saplings had significantly greater leaf area, leaf area to sapwood area ratios and hydraulic conductance (by 30-50 %) compared to forest-grown saplings, a strong indication that soils in rehabilitation sites contained more water than soils in the forest. Results suggested that: (1) the hydraulic structure and function of saplings growing under the same climatic conditions was determined by soil water availability; (2) drought reduced stomatal conductance and transpiration by reducing whole-tree hydraulic conductance; and (3) saplings growing on open rehabilitation sites utilised more abundant water, light and nutrients than saplings growing in the forest understorey. These findings support a paradigm that trees evolve hydraulic equipment and physiological characteristics suited to the most efficient use of water from a particular spatial and temporal niche in the soil environment.
24

Dougherty, Warwick John. "The mobilisation of soil phosphorus in surface runoff from intensively managed pastures in South-East Australia." 2006. http://hdl.handle.net/2440/37852.

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The application of substantial quantities of phosphorus (P) has been required to increase productivity on many Australian soils. Unfortunately, these applications have often resulted in increased concentrations of P in surface runoff that contributes to excessive algal growth in surface waters and consequently a decline in their quality. The concentrations of P in runoff from intensively managed pastures are often high (1-5 mg/L) and typically at least an order of magnitude higher than water quality targets. Although a substantial amount of research has been devoted to the problem of P accumulation and mobilisation in arable systems ( in which P is typically mobilised by the action of raindrop impact and subsequently transported in particulate form ), there has been substantially less research in intensively managed pasture systems. Consequently, there is a paucity of knowledge concerning the fundamental processes and factors responsible for P in runoff from these systems and a dearth of truly effective remedial strategies. In this thesis, the accumulation of P in soil under intensively managed pastures used for dairying and the processes responsible for its mobilisation in surface runoff were investigated. This research was undertaken at two research sites in South - east Australia, i.e. Camden in New South Wales and Flaxley in South Australia. A number of factors relating to scale and hydrology may influence the processes of P mobilisation and its concentration in runoff. A comparison was made of the forms and concentrations of P in runoff between a typical rainfall simulation methodology and large runoff plots. The effect of rainfall intensity on the forms and concentrations of P was also investigated. The concentrations of P in runoff from small - scale, high - intensity rainfall simulations were on average 33 % lower than those from large plots ( approximating hillslopes ) although the processes of mobilisation ( as evidenced by runoff P forms ) were similar. Increasing rainfall intensity resulted in decreasing P concentrations, but similar forms of P. It was hypothesised that changes in hydrological characteristics ( residence time and depth of runoff ) were responsible for the differences in the P concentrations. A model of P mobilisation ( incorporating hydrological and P - release characteristics ) was developed and shown to successfully predict runoff P concentrations under a range of rainfall intensities. These findings and the subsequent model were used in the successful modelling of landscape scale nutrient exports based on rainfall simulation data as part of a separate, but complementary project. There is anecdotal evidence to suggest that Australian soils are relatively ' leaky ' in terms of P in runoff compared to soils overseas. Consequently, comparisons of the labile soil P characteristics and soil P - runoff P relationships were made between Australian soils and soils of similar fertility from the USA, UK and New Zealand ( using both experimental data and data sourced from the literature ). It was concluded that Australian soils leak more P than soils of similar fertility in the USA, UK and New Zealand, although it was beyond the scope of the thesis to make more detailed comparisons between Australian and overseas soils. The accumulation and mobilisation of P in two soils used for intensive pasture production in Australia were investigated. In intensive pasture systems P accumulated in the shallowest zones of the soil and principally as inorganic P. The concentrations of labile P were 3 - 5 times higher in the top 0.01 m than in the top 0.1 m. Using a simple model, it was estimated that only the top several mm of soil influence runoff P concentrations. The dominant form of P in runoff was shown to be orthophosphate although in low to moderate fertility soils, dissolved organic P can constitute a substantial proportion of the P in runoff. These results confirm the need to reduce the pool of P available for mobilisation in the immediate topsoil in order to reduce runoff P concentrations. Because P is stratified, it was hypothesised that one method to reduce the pool of P available for mobilisation is to de - stratify the soil ( i.e. mix the topsoil ). The effect of this technique on runoff P concentrations was investigated in laboratory and rainfall simulation experiments. These experiments revealed that reductions in runoff P concentrations between 45 and 70 % can be achieved by de - stratification of soils under permanent pastures. It was hypothesised that the benefits of de - stratification could be maximised using a combination of information relating to catchment hydrology and the spatial distribution of soil P and that this would result in large reductions in P exports with a relatively small degree of inconvenience to land managers. Given the limited opportunities identified in previous research to reduce P exports in runoff, the strategic utilisation of de - stratification is a potentially important option in water quality management for the dairy industry and warrants further investigation.
Thesis (Ph.D.)--School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, 2006.
25

McCarthy, Megan Emma. "Environmental impact assessment and organisational change in Transport SA & ETSA Corporation / Megan Emma McCarthy." 2000. http://hdl.handle.net/2440/19898.

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Includes bibliographical references (leaves 379-409)
2 v. : ill. ; 30 cm.
Title page, contents and abstract only. The complete thesis in print form is available from the University Library.
Develops a framework for evaluating environmental impact assessment (EIA) and organisational change, and examines the influence of the EIA system on two government organisations within South Australia, Transport SA and ETSA . Finally analyses patterns of organisational change process in South Australia in comparision with experience in the United States.
Thesis (Ph.D.(Arts))--Adelaide University, Dept. of Geographical and Environmental Studies, 2001
26

Mee, Aija C. "Origin, formation and environmental significance of sapropels in shallow Holocene coastal lakes of Southeastern Australia." 2007. http://hdl.handle.net/2440/57295.

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The aims of this investigation on the Holocene carbonate successions of three shallow, ephemeral lakes from the Cooring coastal plain were: to determine the timing of the sapropel ’events’ in the three lakes; to determine the origin of the sapropelic organic matter and evaluate changes; to establish whether sapropel deposition in these shallow, coastal lakes primarily reflects increased organic matter delivery to the sediments during periods of enhanced terrestrial input and/or aquatic productivity, and; to relate sapropel deposition in these three lakes to both regional and global palaeoenvironment reconstructions. --p. 23-24.
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Thesis (Ph.D.) -- University of Adelaide, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, 2007
27

Braccini, Juan Matias. "Assessment of ecological risks from effects of fishing to Piked Spurdog ( Squalus megalops ) in South - Eastern Australia." 2006. http://hdl.handle.net/2440/37791.

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Target species in some Australian shark fisheries are adequately managed, but there has been little attention given to non - target shark species and there is limited information on the biology of their local populations. Among this group of non-target species, the piked spurdog - Squalus megalops ) is of special interest because it is a dominant and ecologically important species with high natural abundance. Hence, the main purpose of the present research was to improve knowledge of the basic biology of this species and to provide essential data for its management, sustainable use and conservation. Squalus megalops had a complex population structure, segregating by sex, size and breeding condition. The sex ratio was biased towards females and there was sexual size dimorphism with females attaining a larger maximum size than males. Conversion factors from partial lengths to total length and from partial masses to total mass were determined due to the common commercial fishing practice of eviscerating, beheading and finning sharks. Comparisons of total and partial length - length and mass - length relationships between males and females using different ranges of size showed that there was no effect of size range on measurements reflecting only somatic growth ( fork and carcass lengths ; carcass, pectoral fin and caudal fin masses ). However, for variables reflecting somatic and reproductive growth ( total and liver masses ), different outcomes can be expected when different ranges of size are compared. Examination of dietary composition revealed that S. megalops is an opportunistic predator that consumes a wide range of prey items. High variability was found when overall importance of prey items was estimated. Dietary composition varied in space and time, exhibiting differences among regions, seasons and size classes. Therefore, the intrinsic natural variability in the dietary composition of S. megalops and its spatial and temporal variation in diet suggest that information on the ecological relationships among species is likely to be missed when predator - prey interactions are only inferred from overall diet. Reproductive parameters were determined for population assessment. For both sexes, length - at - maturity differed depending on the criterion adopted for defining maturity. Mature males are capable of mating throughout the year. Females have a continuous asynchronous reproductive cycle. The sex ratio of embryos is 1 : 1 and litter size and nearterm embryo size increase with maternal length. Females have an ovarian cycle and gestation period of two years. Although all females are mature at 600 mm, only 50 % of them are in maternal condition, contributing to annual recruitment each year. Hence, for chondrichthyan species with reproductive cycles of two, three or more years, if maturity ogives are used in population assessments instead of maternity ogives, the models will over - estimate recruitment rates. Age and growth information was also determined for population assessment. Precision estimates, the relationship between spine total length and body length, edge analysis, and agreement between counts on the inner dentine layer and the enameled surface support the use of the first dorsal fin spine for the age estimation of S. megalops. Based on goodness - of - fit criterion, the best growth model for males and females was a two - phase von Bertalanffy function. However, model selection cannot be based on quality of statistical fit only and results should be interpreted with caution. Regardless of the model used, the growth rate of S. megalops, particularly of females, is very low, even within the range of growth rates reported for shark species. A three - levelled hierarchical risk assessment approach was trialed to evaluate the suitability of the approach for S. megalops. Integration of qualitative, semi - quantitative, and quantitative biological and fishing impact data showed that S. megalops is potentially highly susceptible to the effects of fishing. A qualitative assessment indicated that the only fishing related activities to have moderate or high impact on S. megalops were those associated with ' capture fishing ' of the otter trawl, Danish seine, gillnet and automatic longline methods. A semi - quantitative assessment ranked S. megalops at risk because of its low biological productivity and, possibly, its catch susceptibility from cumulative effects across the separate fishing methods. Finally, a quantitative assessment showed that population growth is slow even under the assumption of density - dependent compensation where the fishing mortality rate equals the natural mortality rate. Therefore, conservation and management for sustainable use of S. megalops will require a close control of fishing mortality due to the low capacity of this species to withstand fishing pressure.
Thesis (Ph.D.)--School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, 2006.
28

Stoll, J. A. E. (Julie-Ann E. ). "Mining in national parks : a case study--An integrated environmental evaluation of possible magnesite mining in Weetootla Gorge within the Gammon Ranges National Park, South Australia." 1989. http://web4.library.adelaide.edu.au/theses/09ENV/09envs875.pdf.

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29

Brennan, Michael J. (Michael Joseph) 1944. "Private and public economic impacts of coastal wetland preservation an ecological economic review of State Environmental Planning Policy No. 14 - New South Wales North Coast." 2001. http://mjbrennan@coffs.com.au.

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30

Deegan, Brian Martin. "Ecological benefits of 'environmental flows' in the Eastern Mt. Lofty Ranges." 2007. http://hdl.handle.net/2440/41432.

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This thesis examined the impact of anthropogenic alterations in four riverine catchments of the Eastern Mt. Lofty Ranges, South Australia, to identify if creek restoration via environmental flows is a viable management option and if so, to determine; 1) Whether an aquatic/riparian viable seed bank was present and if so what was its composition 2) The ecological condition of selected riverine reaches. This in combination with the seed bank study would identify those creeks that would most benefit from the imposition of environmental flows 3) The response of key species to the water regimes likely to result from the imposition of environmental flows 4) The influence of nutrient enrichment under a fluctuating water level and to use this information to formulate best practice policy for environmental flows 5) Whether aquatic plants promoted by environmental flows were a significant fraction of the diet for higher trophic levels represented by Trichopterans and Amphipods. The seed banks were of comparable density (ranging from 4,000 to 110,000 seeds m-2) and species richness (ranging from 13 to 20 aquatic / riparian species) to the seed banks of other Australian rivers and wetlands, but this varied significantly among riverine sections and across catchments. Out of a total of 81 species recorded, 51 were classified as terrestrial (63% of all species recorded). What is of greater concern was the number of exotic (both aquatic and terrestrial) species recorded: 43% of the species recorded in the Angas, 47% of the species in the Finniss, 39% of the species in Tookayerta creek and 43% of the species recorded in Currency creek were exotic, which are significantly higher in comparison to other Australian studies. There were 24 to 28 aquatic/riparian species recorded in the extant vegetation of each catchment that were not recorded in their seed banks. Likewise, a number of species (3 to 7) were recorded in each catchments seed bank that were not recorded in the extant vegetation of those catchments. A species of particular interest is Crassula sieberana, which is on the State endangered plant species list. Indices for assessing the ecological condition, health or integrity of a river or riparian habitat were employed to investigate the relationship between the river/riparian habitat and the land and water management practices associated with those habitats. Of the four catchments surveyed, each catchment identified a unique set of site parameters (subindex indicators) that were strongly correlated with its ecological condition. Indicator species analyses revealed pasture grasses to be a significant indicator of reaches in very poor condition (p = 0.0010) along the Finniss and Baumea juncea of those reaches in good condition (p = 0.0230). Along the Angas, Cotula coronopifolia was an indicator of those reaches in average condition (p = 0.0240) and along Currency creek, Cladium procerum was an indicator of those reaches in good condition (p = 0.0190). However, when all 115 surveyed reaches were analysed together, those reaches of average to excellent ecological condition were all strongly correlated (R2 = 0.50) with the subindex indicators: bank stability, % riparian cover, grazing, fenced, aquatic wood, and width of the riparian vegetation. This would indicate that these subindex indicators are the main site parameters determining the ecological condition of a riverine reach and hence its restoration potential. Those catchments or sub-catchments containing a high proportion of reaches classified to be in poor to very poor condition had significantly reduced seed banks. The influence of water level fluctuations (±15 cm, ±30 cm and ±45 cm) on the growth of four species of emergent macrophytes (Cyperus vaginatus, Phragmites australis, Typha domingensis and Triglochin procerum) were species dependent. These species naturally inhabits different zones across the elevation gradient. C. vaginatus, which has a high elevation preference, was strongly inhibited by increasing water depth and fluctuations in water levels. In contrast, species with an intermediate elevation preference, such as Phragmites australis and Typha domingensis, were more tolerant to both depth and water level fluctuations. However, the biomass and relative growth rate (RGR) of T. domingensis and P. australis were depressed when grown under the combination of deep elevation and a highly fluctuating water level (±45 cm). Between the static and ±45 cm amplitude treatments, growth of T. domingensis was inhibited by 52%. The growth of P. australis appeared to be enhanced by fluctuating water levels and only showed a severe drop-off in growth in the deep elevation, ±45 cm amplitude treatment. In C. vaginatus the RGR was dependent of the average emergent surface area (and the implied rate of carbon acquisition)(p<0.0001; r2=0.7196; F=87.276; n=36; RGR (mg g-1 day-1) = -5.096 + 4.313 × ln (Average emergent surface area (cm2)), but this was not the case in P. australis and T. domingensis (p>0.05) even when the photosynthetic canopy was partially inundated by rising water levels. Yet these two species demonstrated different growth rates when grown under different water regime amplitudes and at different elevations. Growth of T. procerum did not respond to either amplitude or elevation, but its RGR remained negative. This suggests that another factor(s) was limiting the growth of P. australis, T. domingensis and possibly T. procerum, a factor that varies with water level. Cyperus gymnocaulos had significantly increased plant performance (p <.0001) with increased nutrient loading rates but this effect was significantly reduced under a fluctuating water regime (p =0.0007). Remarkably, under a fluctuating regime, P. australis had a significant reduction in performance with increased nutrient loading rates (p =0.0013), whereas T. domingensis performance was significantly limited (p =0.034) even with increased nutrient loading rates. T. procerum too had increased plant performance with increased nutrient loading rates but this effect was reduced under a fluctuating regime. The morphological response by T. procerum demonstrates that it is mainly limited by the nutrient loading rates and not the water regime. However, it was significantly limited/reduced by its increased turnover rates caused by a stochastic fluctuating water regime. Illustrating that in fact the effects of nutrient enrichment on T. procerum were independent of water regime but bearing in mind that water regime is the primary factor determining the productivity of this species. For those species with higher elevation preferences, e.g. C. gymnocaulos, or low elevation preference, e.g. T. procerum, the effects of nutrient loading are independent of water regime, whereas those species with an intermediate elevation preference, e.g. P. australis and T. domingensis the effects of nutrient loading are largely dependent on the water regime. Amphipoda and Trichoptera selectively fed on succulent semi-emergent macrophytes across sites of average to excellent ecological condition (31-64% to 65-97% of diet), depending on availability. These semi-emergent macrophytes contained the lowest C:N ratio (≈10:1), closest to that of their consumers (≈5:1) and therefore the highest nutritional content. In degraded riverine reaches, there were limited food resources available, hence course particulate organic matter (CPOM) formed the main dietary components of Amphipoda (20-53% of diet) even though it had the highest C:N ratio (≈40:1). At site VP. 1, filamentous algae was the main dietary component of Trichoptera (48-64% of diet) due to its availability and its low C:N ratio (≈14:1) in comparison to the other primary sources available. The imbalanced consumer-resource nutrient ratios in these degraded riverine reaches are likely to impose constraints on the growth and reproduction of their aquatic shredder communities with probable knock-on effects at higher trophic levels. The installation of environmental flows to restore and promote aquatic/riparian plant communities, which in turn would benefit higher trophic organisms, is a viable and realistic management option along selected reaches. Those selected reaches contain a significant aquatic/riparian seed bank and with sufficient physical habitat remaining to promote their germination and establishment. However, the imposition of environmental flows as a control measure to prevent the colonisation and dominance of particular species (T. domingensis and P. australis) was deemed to be redundant as a management technique given the limited water resources available.
Thesis (Ph.D.) -- School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, 2007
31

Moskwa, Emily Claire. "Ecotourism as a means of encouraging ecological recovery in the Flinders Ranges, South Australia." 2008. http://hdl.handle.net/2440/50481.

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Some of Australia’s most pressing conservation problems are found in the arid and semi-arid rangelands where the traditional major land-use is extensive pastoralism. Yet with the emergence of a change in resource values, the rangelands of Australia have started to move away from a strict production land-use towards a multifunctional land-use where pastoralism, tourism and the environment have an influence on one another. With the present mixture of consumption and protection values in the rangelands, ecotourism represents a model for achieving a symbiotic relationship between tourism activity and conservation in a pastoral setting. This study develops a theoretical framework for understanding the relationships between ecotourism, pastoralism and ecological recovery efforts in the Flinders Ranges through employing mixed qualitative and quantitative research techniques to examine the perceptions and practices of tourism operators, local landholders and visitors to the study site. The study finds that while pastoralism and its level of success often remain variable, the strength and stability of tourism is increasing. Because economics is a central component of the concept of sustainability, and because we must manage the environment while accommodating tourists, ecotourism is one way to help reach rangeland sustainability goals, provided that there are adequate levels of agreement amongst the local community and other land users. The results indicate that the vast majority of stakeholders are currently in a state of co-existence with each other rather than one of conflict, suggesting ecotourism has the potential to assist ecological recovery. However, many landholders are constrained in their ability to integrate ecotourism operations and conservation due to economic difficulties and market barriers. There are also conflicting results among visitors who claim to be interested in ecotourism but do not necessarily act accordingly, highlighting the need for a greater focus on environmental education. Ecotourism should be incorporated into a regional sustainability plan where the public are able to assist decision makers through collaborative planning. The thesis concludes that when well-managed, ecotourism can be a business supporting conservation in the Flinders Ranges. It contributes to knowledge of the role that ecotourism can play in encouraging ecological recovery in the rangelands and explores the complex interrelationships involved through consultation with the primary stakeholders of landholders, tourism operators and visitors.
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Thesis (Ph.D.) - University of Adelaide, School of Social Sciences, 2008
32

Schmidt, Carmel Elizabeth. "The valuation of South Australian wetlands and their water filtering function : a cost benefit analysis." 2007. http://hdl.handle.net/2440/57336.

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Title page, table of contents and abstract only. The complete thesis in print form is available from the University of Adelaide Library.
"The Lower Murray dairy swamps were once part of a series of freshwater wetlands stretching along the Murray to the Cooring. Of the original 5700 hectares of wetlands only 500 hectares remain today. While the dairy industry that has developed on the swamp has considerable commercial value, it has destroyed the natural water filtration function that the wetlands provided. The industry also causes high levels of dairly effluent to enter the River Murray, contributing to blue-green algae outbreaks and associated economic losses for the local tourism industry. This thesis provides valuable cost-benefit results on a set of three mutually exclusive land use and management options for dealing with the joint problems of water filtration and blue-green algae. The most important options examined involve the return of this area to wetlands for water filtration rather continuing to use it for dairy farming." --p. ix.
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Thesis (Ph.D.) -- University of Adelaide, School of Economics, 2007
33

Wijayanto, Yagus. "Cumulative Effects Assessment (CEA) in spatially unconstrained area using geographical information systems (GIS) and water quality modelling : thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy / Yagus Wijayanto." 2002. http://hdl.handle.net/2440/21817.

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Includes bibliographical references (leaves [268]-285)
xiv, 285, [85] leaves : ill. (some folded), maps (col., folded) ; 30 cm.
Title page, contents and abstract only. The complete thesis in print form is available from the University Library.
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Adelaide, Dept. of Geographical and Environmental Studies, 2002
34

Kutlaca, Alex (Alexander). "Mechanisms of entry of lead-bearing dusts into houses in Port Pirie." 1998. http://web4.library.adelaide.edu.au/theses/09PH/09phk973.pdf.

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Bibliography: leaves 395-473. Research is directed toward demonstrating spatial variability in dust lead contamination patterns both statically and dynamically within the confines of vacant test houses, thus eliciting specific entrance pathways.
35

Weggler-Beaton, Karin Maria. "The beneficial and detrimental effects of sewage sludge applications in South Australia / Karin M. Weggler-Beaton." 1996. http://hdl.handle.net/2440/18935.

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Bibliography: leaves 256-275.
xx, 275 leaves : ill., map ; 30 cm.
Title page, contents and abstract only. The complete thesis in print form is available from the University Library.
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Adelaide, Dept. of Plant Science, 1997
36

Carne, Vanessa Lynne. "Ecology of Mediterranean snails in Southern Australian agriculture : a study of Cernuella virgata and Cochlicella acuta on the Yorke Peninsula / Vanessa L. Carne." 2003. http://hdl.handle.net/2440/22109.

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"August 2003."
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 294-333)
2 v. (xxxi, 333 leaves) ; ill. (some col.) ; 30 cm.
Title page, contents and abstract only. The complete thesis in print form is available from the University Library.
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Adelaide, School of Agriculture and Wine, Discipline of Plant and Pest Science, 2005
37

Loo, Maylene G. K. (Maylene Geok Kuan). "Effects of wastewater effluent on macrobenthic infaunal communities at Christies Beach, South Australia." 2001. http://web4.library.adelaide.edu.au/theses/09PH/09phl8625.pdf.

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Includes bibliographical references (leaves 136-154) Aims to determine the effects of an outfall discharging secondarily treated wastewater effluent on benthic communities at Christies Beach with the specific objectives of: characterising the physical, biological and chemical environment of Gulf St Vincent and the study area region; ascertaining the extent to which effluent outfall has affected the macrobenthic infaunal community structure; characterising the structure of macrobenthic infaunal communities in the near shore water of the Adelaide metropolitan coast; and, determining the functional response through measurements of sediment community respiration to these changes.
38

Fleming, Graham. "An approach to rural suicide." 2007. http://hdl.handle.net/2440/39465.

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Suicide rates have been relatively constant in Australia for over a hundred years, albeit peaking in 1997 and since returning towards historically average levels. Suicide now represents the commonest cause of violent deaths and exceeds deaths from motor vehicle accidents and armed conflict. There have been a number of national programs following the lead of Finland in the 1980s. Modern research has clearly demonstrated many of the risk factors, but they lack specificity in terms of prediction, and therefore the numbers needed to demonstrate the effectiveness of any intervention are particularly daunting. This makes research problematic and it is probably impossible to ever get Level 1 evidence because of the large numbers and expense required. Therefore many research studies are either epidemiologically oriented or directed to crisis care and treatment algorithms. Rural suicide presents particular challenges because of the increasing numbers of young and elderly men who take their lives, the lack of services available locally and the paucity of research in rural societies, with it usually being confined to examining risk factors and comparing them with urban populations. This thesis describes an approach to rural suicide which, whilst cognisant of the broad range of risk factors, was more directed to tackling poor mental health on a community basis, utilising local resources. It used four main approaches: educating the community to enhance mental health literacy by appreciating the causes of poor mental health; building the social capital or community capacity of existing resources; emphasising early identification and intervention of problems; and the establishment of a community child and adolescent program based in the local school, but with close liaison with the local medical practitioners. The educative approach to mental health literacy was to engage the whole community as widely as possible with special programs for general practitioners, nurses, and teachers; community capacity and social capital were increased by teaching the community warning signs, techniques to engage and refer to known entry points into the system; early identification was undertaken by screening for poor mental health within the doctors’ office, the hospital and the school; and a child and adolescent program was devised to detect dysfunctional students, formulate an assessment and management plan, and then evaluate the outcome. The most important results were a statistically significant reduction of suicides from twelve in ten years to one in the following decade, as well as a statistically significant reduction in the number of suicide attempts. In addition there was the establishment of a primary mental health service within the community which was independent of specific government finance and resources.
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Thesis(M.D.)-- School of Medicine, 2007.
39

Downton, Paul Francis. "Ecopolis : towards an integrated theory for the design, development and maintenance of ecological cities." 2002. http://web4.library.adelaide.edu.au/theses/09PH/09phd75151.pdf.

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Includes bibliographical references (p. 575-607) Pt. A. Ecological cityscapes: theory & practice -- pt. B. Urban ecology Australia &ecopolis: ecocity projects in South Australia -- pt. C. Towards a theoretical synthesis of ecopolis About creating and maintaining 'ecological cities' and the necessary conditions for making ecocities. Sets the creation of human settlement in an ecological context and demonstrates through case study analyses that practical approaches to urbanism can be made within a theory of city-making grounded in principles of direct democracy and cooperative community processes.
40

Jensen, Anne Elizabeth. "The roles of seed banks and soil moisture in recruitment of semi-arid floodplain plants: the River Murray, Australia." 2008. http://hdl.handle.net/2440/49169.

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The decline of floodplain vegetation along the Lower River Murray, South Australia, has evoked recommendations for ‘environmental flows’ to restore and maintain the health of the ecosystem. To assist managers to maximize benefits from environmental flows, this thesis considers the significance of water for germination and recruitment in key floodplain plant species. Three dominant species are considered, including two trees, river red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) and black box (E. largiflorens), and an understorey shrub, tangled lignum (Muehlenbeckia florulenta). The soil seed bank was dominated by terrestrial annual native plants. Among 1400 seedlings, a single river red gum was found, and no black box or lignum, suggesting that these species do not contribute to the persistent soil seed bank and rely instead on aerial seed banks (serotiny). Sampling of the soil seed bank was continued to determine when seed fall might coincide with appropriate soil moisture conditions. Responses of the soil seed bank to varied water regimes were compared to determine requirements for seedling survival. The results indicated that species richness, rapidity of response and survival time were all promoted by sustained soil moisture. Stands of eucalypts in various states of health (from very stressed to very healthy) were monitored to identify seasonal patterns in bud crops, flowering, fresh leaves and volumes of seed released from the aerial seed bank. Distinct seasonal phenological patterns were apparent, and suggested alternating flowering among individual trees (biennial for red gum, bi-annual for black box), producing an annual peak in summer. Peak seed rain occurred in summer (December–March) in healthy trees for both red gum and black box, with light seed rain continuing throughout the year. Seed fall from stressed trees was much reduced. Stressed trees responded after a second watering event, with much more varied and extended annual seed fall patterns. Lignum showed a spring peak in flowering and seed production. There was a prolific response of flowering and seeding to rainfall, but few seedlings survived. Vigorous vegetative growth occurred in existing plants in response to rainfall and watering but no new cloned plants were found during the study. An investigation of chromosomes as a potential tool to appraise the balance between sexual and asexual reproduction in lignum proved inconclusive, although a previous report of octoploidy in lignum was confirmed. Seeds from all three species and lignum cuttings were tested for their responses to varied watering regimes, based on combinations of simulated rain and flood conditions. The optimal soil moisture for continued growth and survival in all seeds and cuttings was 10 25%, with moisture values <10% causing wilting and death. The results also suggested that red gum and black box seeds which germinate in water under flooded conditions need to be stranded onto moist soil at the water’s edge within 10 days, for the seedling to continue to grow. It was also concluded that germination on rain-moistened soil is a key supplementary mechanism for recruitment, particularly between irregular flood events. For greatest benefit, the timing of environmental flows should complement any seasonal rainfall and irregular flooding that may occur. Extension of suitable soil moisture conditions (10-25%) for as long as possible after >5 mm rainfall, or after over-bank flows, would increase chances for survival of seedlings. December is the most likely month for maximal benefit from watering in the Lower Murray Valley, for germination and recruitment, based on regional rainfall and flooding patterns.
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Thesis (Ph.D.) -- University of Adelaide, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, 2008
41

Kinsela, Andrew Stephen School of Biological Earth &amp Environmental Sciences UNSW. "Volatile sulfur compounds in coastal acid sulfate soils, northern N.S.W." 2007. http://handle.unsw.edu.au/1959.4/40889.

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The cycling of biogenic volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) within marine and terrestrial ecosystems has been shown to play an integral role in atmospheric chemistry; by influencing global climate change through the creation of cloud condensation nuclei and controlling acid-base chemistry; as well as influencing sediment chemistry including the interactions with trace metals, particularly regarding iron sulfide formation. Despite this, the examination of VSCs within Australian coastal acid sulfate soils (ASS) is an unexplored area of research. As ASS in Australia occupy an area in excess of 9 M ha, there is a clear need for a greater understanding of the cycling of these compounds within such systems. This thesis looks at the concentrations of several VSCs within agricultural and undisturbed ASS on the east coast of Australia. Initial measurements of sulfur dioxide (SO2) were made using passive diffusion samplers, which were followed by two detailed field-based studies looking at the concentrations and fluxes of both SO2 and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) using flux-gradient micrometeorological techniques. These novel results indicated that this agricultural ASS was a substantial source of atmospheric H2S (0.036-0.056 gSm-2yr-1), and SO2 (0.095-0.31 gSm-2yr-1), with flux values equating to many other salt- and freshwater marshes and swamps. The flux data also suggested that the ASS could be a continual source of H2S which is photo-oxidised during the daytime to SO2. Measurements of both compounds showed separate, inverse correlations to temperature and moisture meteorological parameters indicating possible contributing and / or causal release factors. Further identification of these and other VSCs within ASS samplers was undertaken in the laboratory using gas chromatography in combination with solid-phase microextraction. Although SO2 and H2S were not discovered within the headspace samples, two other VSCs important in atmospheric sulfur cycling and trace metal geochemistry were quantified; dimethylsulfide (DMS; > 300??g/L) and ethanethiol (ESH > 4??g/L). The measurements of H2S, DMS and ESH are the first quantifications with Australian ASS, and they may be important for refining regional or local atmospheric sulfur budgets, as well as interpreting previous SO2 emissions from ASS. Ultimately this thesis further enhances our understanding of the cycling of VSCs within acid sulfate systems.
42

Li, Wen. "Mechanisms for phosphorus elimination in constructed wetlands: a pilot study for the treatment of agricultural drainage water from dairy farms at the Lower River Murray, South Australia / Li Wen." 2002. http://hdl.handle.net/2440/21868.

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Includes list of publications issued during the candidature.
Bibliography: leaves 176-197.
iii, ix, 197, [22] leaves : ill., maps ; 30 cm.
Title page, contents and abstract only. The complete thesis in print form is available from the University Library.
Phosphorus retention was measured in five pilot-scaled constructed wetlands with different configurations in terms of macrophyte species and substrates in order to evaluate the phosphorus removal efficiency of water plants and substrates in experimental ponds; assess the contribution of macrophytes to phosphorus removal through direct uptake, modification of water chemistry and impacts on the phosphorus adsorption characteristics of substrate; and, contribute to the optimal design and operation of constructed wetlands for the treatment of agricultural drainage water.
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Adelaide, Dept. of Soil and Water, 2002?
43

Bjornsson, Kjartan Tumi. "Regional scale modelling of the lower River Murray wetlands: a model for the assessment of nutrient retention of floodplain wetlands pre- and post-management." 2008. http://hdl.handle.net/2440/47936.

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Most of the lower River Murray and its floodplain wetlands are impacted upon by degradation caused by river regulation. Increasingly the restoration of these ecosystems and the river water quality has become a high priority for federal and state governments and associated departments and agencies. Public concern is adding to the pressures on these departments and agencies to restore these ecosystems and to sustainably maintain the river water quality. The long term monitoring of floodplain wetlands has been limited, compounding the difficulties faced by managers and decision makers on assessing the potential outcome of restoration options. The role of this project in the broad scheme of restoration/rehabilitation is to contribute to the construction of a model capable of increasing managers and decision makers understanding, and build consensus of potential outcomes of management option. This model was to use available data. The developed model, based on WETMOD developed by Cetin (2001), simulates wetland internal nutrient processes, phytoplankton, zooplankton and macrophyte biomass as well as the interaction (nutrient and phytoplankton exchange) between wetlands and the river. The model further simulates the potential impact management options have on the wetlands, and their nutrient retention capacity, and therefore their impact on the river nutrient load. Due to the limitation of data, wetlands were considered in categories for which data was available. Of these two had sufficient data to develop, calibrate and validate the model. Management scenarios for these two wetlands were developed. These scenarios included, the impact of returning a degraded wetland in a turbid state to a rehabilitated clear state, and the impact the removal of nutrient from irrigation drainage inflows has on wetland nutrient retention, and consequent input to the river. Scenarios of the cumulative impact of the management of multiple wetlands were developed based on using these two wetlands, for which adequate data was available, as “exemplar” wetlands, i.e. data from these wetlands were substituted for other similar wetlands (those identified as belonging to the same category). The model scenarios of these multiple wetlands provide some insight into the potential response management may have on individual wetlands, the cumulative impact on river nutrient load and how wetland morphology may relate to management considerations. The model is restricted by data availability and consequently the outputs. Further, some limitations identified during the development of the model need to be addressed before it can be applied for management purposes. However, the model and methods provide a guide by which monitoring efforts can assist in developing future modelling assessments and gain a greater insight not only at the monitoring site but also on a landscape scale.
http://proxy.library.adelaide.edu.au/login?url= http://library.adelaide.edu.au/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=1320131
Thesis (Ph.D.) -- University of Adelaide, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, 2008

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