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1

Johnson, T. C., and S. H. Williams. "From Canals to Lakes in South-East Queensland (Australia); Water Quality Aspects." Water Science and Technology 21, no. 2 (February 1, 1989): 261–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.1989.0061.

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2

Toms, Ken N., Ian P. Williamson, and Don M. Grant. "THE CADASTRE AND THE EMERGING LAND INFORMATION SYSTEM IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: SOME ADMINISTRATIVE ASPECTS." Canadian Surveyor 41, no. 2 (June 1987): 125–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/tcs-1987-0011.

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A modern cadastre is defined and the relationship with the wider concept of land information system is established. A generalized approach to cadastral and land information systems in Australia is discussed. The experience of administration of cadastre and the emerging land information system in South Australia is examined and a conceptual model aimed at improvement is presented. The paper concludes with a recommendation for the creation of an Office of Land Information that would administer the operation of a complete LIS for South Australia.
3

Lattimore, MAE. "Pastures in temperate rice rotations of south-eastern Australia." Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 34, no. 7 (1994): 959. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/ea9940959.

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Legume-based pastures have long been an integral part of rice growing in the southern New South Wales irrigation areas and still offer potential to improve the productivity, profitability, and sustainability of the temperate rice-cropping system.This paper reviews both historical and current aspects of pastures in temperate rice rotations in southern New South Wales and highlights the importance of pastures in sustaining this cropping system as environmental pressures increase. Topics discussed include pasture species and rotations, their role in improving soil fertility and sustainability, the value of pastures in weed control, and their management for maximum profitability.
4

Wright, W. J. "The low latitude influence on winter rainfall in Victoria, south-eastern Australia-I. Climatological aspects." Journal of Climatology 8, no. 5 (September 1988): 437–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/joc.3370080502.

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5

Schrale, G., R. Boardman, and M. J. Blaskett. "Investigating Land Based Disposal of Bolivar Reclaimed Water, South Australia." Water Science and Technology 27, no. 1 (January 1, 1993): 87–96. http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.1993.0022.

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The Bolivar Sewage Treatment Works (STW) processes the urban and industrial sewage from the northern and eastern suburbs of Adelaide. The treatment capacity is equivalent to the sewage production of 1.1 million people. The disposal of more than 40 000 ML of reclaimed water into the sea has caused a progressive degradation of about 950 ha of seagrass beds which threatens the sustainability of the fisheries and marine ecosystems of Gulf St. Vincent. The current practice will no longer be viable to achieve compliance with the SA Marine Environment Protection Act, 1990. A Inter-Departmental Working Party recommmended that the Bolivar reclaimed water be disposed by irrigation of suitable land on the coastal plains north of Adelaide. They proposed the construction of two pipelines: a 12 km long pipeline to extend the distribution of reclaimed water in the most intense portion of the 3 500 hectares of irrigated horticulture on the Northern Adelaide Plains, and a second, 18 km long pipeline to deliver the remainder to a more northerly site for irrigation of an estimated 4 000 hectares of hardwood plantations. The paper summarizes the findings as they relate to public health, environmental, technical and financial aspects of land based disposal. Land based disposal would completely eliminate the marine degradation and also arrest the over-use of the NAP underground water resources for horticulture. The total net costs over thirty years for land based disposal are about $ 21.8 million. The ‘horticultural' pipeline of the land based disposal scheme is expected to be commercially viable. A shortfall in revenue from the afforestation component is expected and may need to be considered as an environmental cost of ceasing marine disposal.
6

FIELKE, SIMON J., and DOUGLAS K. BARDSLEY. "A Brief Political History of South Australian Agriculture." Rural History 26, no. 1 (March 9, 2015): 101–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s095679331400017x.

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Abstract:This paper aims to explain why South Australian agricultural land use is focused on continually increasing productivity, when the majority of produce is exported, at the long-term expense of agriculturally-based communities and the environment. A historical analysis of literature relevant to the agricultural development of South Australia is used chronologically to report aspects of the industry that continue to cause concerns in the present day. The historically dominant capitalist socio-economic system and ‘anthropocentric’ world views of farmers, politicians, and key stakeholders have resulted in detrimental social, environmental and political outcomes. Although recognition of the environmental impacts of agricultural land use has increased dramatically since the 1980s, conventional productivist, export oriented farming still dominates the South Australian landscape. A combination of market oriented initiatives and concerned producers are, however, contributing to increasing the recognition of the environmental and social outcomes of agricultural practice and it is argued here that South Australia has the opportunity to value multifunctional land use more explicitly via innovative policy.
7

Rameezdeen, Raufdeen, Jian Zuo, and Jack Stevens. "Practices, drivers and barriers of implementing green leases: lessons from South Australia." Journal of Corporate Real Estate 19, no. 1 (April 3, 2017): 36–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/jcre-04-2016-0018.

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Purpose This paper aims to investigate the practices, drivers and barriers which influence the implementation of green leases in South Australia. Despite some efforts on legal aspects of green leases, only a few studies have examined these aspects from an operational perspective. In addition, very little empirical evidence was presented in previous studies to show how green leases work in real-life settings. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected using semi-structured interviews with landlord and tenant representatives who have considerable experience in green leases. These interviewees were selected via a purposive sampling technique that identified buildings which use green leases in South Australia. The concept of interface management (IM) was used to operationalize this research. Findings The green leases were found to be mainly initiated by tenants while government involvement, economic and environmental benefits are the main drivers in South Australia. Drivers such as staff retention, well-being and corporate social responsibility are found to be more relevant to tenants. Lack of awareness and transaction costs are the main barriers to the implementation of green leases. Research limitations/implications This study focuses on the South Australian context and mainly covers dark green leases. There are implications for the government’s continued involvement and the promotion of lighter shades of green leases to overcome operational issues and barriers identified in this study. Originality/value This study contributes to the body of knowledge on the subject of green lease implementation from an operational perspective. In addition, the study introduces a conceptual framework via IM that could be used in future research endeavours.
8

Davison, L., T. Headley, and K. Pratt. "Aspects of design, structure, performance and operation of reed beds – eight years' experience in northeastern New South Wales, Australia." Water Science and Technology 51, no. 10 (May 1, 2005): 129–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2005.0359.

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Reed beds (horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands) have been employed as secondary treatment devices in on-site and decentralised wastewater management systems in the northeast of the Australian state of New South Wales (NSW) for over a decade. This paper summarises some of the practical and research findings that have come to light in that time. Experience with various aspects of reed bed structure is discussed. A study of the evaporative performance of four small beds planted with Phragmites australis yielded an annual crop factor of 2.6. A total of 28 studies on reed beds treating a variety of commonly encountered wastewater streams yielded the following mean pollutant removal efficiencies: total suspended solids (TSS) 83%, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) 81%, total nitrogen (TN) 57%, total phosphorus (TP) 35% and faecal coliforms (FC) 1.9 logs. The reed bed is becoming the preferred on-site technology for removing TN and BOD and polishing TSS from primary settled domestic wastewater. Sizing beds for a residence time of approximately five days has become standard practice. A study of six reed beds found six different species of earthworm present, mainly Perionyx excavatus (Indian Blue). A mesocosm experiment subsequently showed that the worms were translocating clogging material from the substrate interstices to the surface of the bed thereby indicating a possible method for prolonging reed bed life.
9

Rickert, KG, RH Sedgley, and WR Stern. "Environmental response of spring wheat in the south-western Australian cereal belt." Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 38, no. 4 (1987): 655. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/ar9870655.

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The performance of the spring wheat cultivar Gamenya, the leading cultivar in Western Australia since 1968, was studied to identify key aspects of its response to the environment under typically dry conditions on two contrasting soil types: a heavy clay loam and a light loamy sand overlying clay in the Merredin region.In the rain-fed treatments the total water use was similar on both soils and was of the order of 240 mm. On the heavy-textured soil at high nitrogen, the foliage canopy developed more rapidly than on the light soil, resulting in earlier soil water depletion and haying off. Water use efficiencies of about 10 kg grain ha-1 per mm of water were similar to those reported for winter rainfall areas in south-eastern Australia. This suggests a greater degree of buffering against spring drought than is indicated by the high ratio of pre-anthesis to post-anthesis water use (3-4.7:l) relative to values of 2-2.7:l in other parts of the Australian wheatbelt. Data on the partitioning of dry matter indicated that this buffering of the harsh spring conditions at Merredin may be due to a greater contribution of assimilates from pre-anthesis storage, to grain filling. In dry environments, further critical evaluation is needed of the role of stored assimilates in grain formation.Faster canopy closure on the heavy soil resulted from a higher density of shoots and possibly larger leaves. This led to the suggestion that on heavier, more fertile soils, an ideotype with restricted tillering, may be higher yielding. By the end of the season ear bearing shoot densities and total water use were the same on both soil types, thus masking earlier important differences.
10

Zawistowski, Jerzy, and Peter Jones. "Regulatory Aspects Related to Plant Sterol and Stanol Supplemented Foods." Journal of AOAC INTERNATIONAL 98, no. 3 (May 1, 2015): 750–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.5740/jaoacint.sgezawistowski.

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Abstract This chapter reviews regulatory frameworks for plant sterol containing functional foods in various jurisdictions including Europe, North America, South America, Asia and, Australia/New Zealand. Included is a discussion on approval of plant sterols as novel food ingredients in some countries, as well as details on the type of health claims permitted in the marketing and sale of foods enriched with plant sterols within each jurisdiction. Based on the abundance of clinical trial data, many countries around the world have now approved the use of claims relating the cholesterol-lowering effect of plant sterols, further attesting to their value as functional food ingredients.
11

Dikshit, Abhirup, Biswajeet Pradhan, and Abdullah M. Alamri. "Temporal Hydrological Drought Index Forecasting for New South Wales, Australia Using Machine Learning Approaches." Atmosphere 11, no. 6 (June 3, 2020): 585. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/atmos11060585.

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Droughts can cause significant damage to agriculture and water resources leading to severe economic losses. One of the most important aspects of drought management is to develop useful tools to forecast drought events, which could be helpful in mitigation strategies. The recent global trends in drought events reveal that climate change would be a dominant factor in influencing such events. The present study aims to understand this effect for the New South Wales (NSW) region of Australia, which has suffered from several droughts in recent decades. The understanding of the drought is usually carried out using a drought index, therefore the Standard Precipitation Evaporation Index (SPEI) was chosen as it uses both rainfall and temperature parameters in its calculation and has proven to better reflect drought. The drought index was calculated at various time scales (1, 3, 6, and 12 months) using a Climate Research Unit (CRU) dataset. The study focused on predicting the temporal aspect of the drought index using 13 different variables, of which eight were climatic drivers and sea surface temperature indices, and the remainder were various meteorological variables. The models used for forecasting were an artificial neural network (ANN) and support vector regression (SVR). The model was trained from 1901–2010 and tested for nine years (2011–2018), using three different performance metric scores (coefficient of determination (R2), root mean square error (RMSE), and mean absolute error (MAE). The results indicate that ANN was better than SVR in predicting temporal drought trends, with the highest R2 value of 0.86 for the former compared to 0.75 for the latter. The study also reveals that sea surface temperatures and the climatic index (Pacific Decadal Oscillation) do not have a significant effect on the temporal drought aspect. The present work can be considered as a first step, wherein we only study the temporal trends, towards the use of climatological variables and drought incidences for the NSW region.
12

Thomsen, D. A., and J. Davies. "Social and cultural dimensions of commercial kangaroo harvest in South Australia." Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 45, no. 10 (2005): 1239. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/ea03248.

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Kangaroo management is important to the sustainability of Australia’s rangeland landscapes. The commercial harvest of kangaroos assists in reduction of total grazing pressure in the rangelands and provides the potential for supplementary income to pastoralists. Indeed, the commercial kangaroo industry is considered by natural resource scientists as one of the few rural industry development options with potential to provide economic return with minimal environmental impact. While the biology and population ecology of harvested kangaroo species in Australia is the subject of past and present research, the social, institutional and economic issues pertinent to the commercial kangaroo industry are not well understood. Our research is addressing the lack of understanding of social issues around kangaroo management, which are emerging as constraints on industry development. The non-indigenous stakeholders in kangaroo harvest are landholders, regional management authorities, government conservation and primary production agencies, meat processors, marketers and field processors (shooters) and these industry players generally have little understanding of what issues the commercial harvest of kangaroos presents to Aboriginal people. Consequently, the perspectives and aspirations of Aboriginal people regarding the commercial harvest of kangaroos are not well considered in management, industry development and planning. For Aboriginal people, kangaroos have subsistence, economic and cultural values and while these values and perspectives vary between language groups and individuals, there is potential to address indigenous issues by including Aboriginal people in various aspects of kangaroo management. This research also examines the Aboriginal interface with commercial kangaroo harvest, and by working with Aboriginal people and groups is exploring several options for greater industry involvement. The promotion of better understandings between indigenous and non-indigenous people with interests in kangaroo management could promote industry development through the marketing of kangaroo as not only clean and green, but also as a socially just product.
13

Manchikanti, Prashanti, I.-Hao Cheng, Jenny Advocat, and Grant Russell. "Acceptability of general practice services for Afghan refugees in south-eastern Melbourne." Australian Journal of Primary Health 23, no. 1 (2017): 87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/py16020.

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Over 750000 refugees have resettled in Australia since 1945. Despite complex health needs related to prior traumatic experiences and the challenges of resettlement in a foreign country, refugees experience poor access to primary care. Health and settlement service providers describe numerous cultural, communication, financial and health literacy barriers. This study aimed to investigate the acceptability of general practitioner (GP) services and understand what aspects of acceptability are relevant for Afghan refugees in south-eastern Melbourne. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with two Afghan community leaders and 16 Dari- or English-speaking Afghan refugees who accessed GP services. Two distinct narratives emerged – those of recently arrived refugees and established refugees (living in Australia for 3 years or longer). Transecting these narratives, participants indicated the importance of: (1) a preference for detailed clinical assessments, diagnostic investigations and the provision of prescriptions at the first consultation; (2) ‘refugee-friendly’ staff; and (3) integrated, ‘one-stop-shop’ GP clinic features. The value of acceptable personal characteristics evolved over time – GP acceptability was less a consideration for recently arrived, compared with more, established refugees. The findings reinforce the importance of tailoring healthcare delivery to the evolving needs and healthcare expectations of newly arrived and established refugees respectively.
14

Stoessel, Daniel J. "Age, growth, condition and reproduction of roach Rutilus rutilus (Teleostei : Cyprinidae), in south-eastern Australia." Marine and Freshwater Research 65, no. 3 (2014): 275. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/mf13095.

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The roach, Rutilus rutilus, endemic to large portions of Europe, was introduced to Australia in 1861. Because of a lack of ecological knowledge of populations in Australia, life-history aspects of specimens collected in 2000 and 2001 from Lake Eildon were investigated. Fish ranged in length (LF) from 83 to 240 mm, in weight from 63 to 187 g and in age from 1.1 to 8.6 years. Parameters of growth for male R. rutilus were L∞ = 209 and t0 = –2.2 (n = 62), for female R. rutilus L∞ = 211 and t0 = –0.8 (n = 147), and for all aged individuals L∞ = 203 and t0 = –1.6 (n = 380). Mean size and age at sexual maturity (Lm50) was 161 mm and 3.6 years for males and 156 mm and 3.3 years for females. Latitudinal variation in environmental conditions, especially temperature, is suggested to be largely responsible for inter-population differences of growth and condition described in the present study.
15

Konowalik, Kamil, and Marta Kolanowska. "Climatic niche shift and possible future spread of the invasive South African Orchid Disa bracteata in Australia and adjacent areas." PeerJ 6 (December 20, 2018): e6107. http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.6107.

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Orchids are generally regarded as plants with an insignificant invasive potential and so far only one species has proved to be harmful for native flora. However, previous studies on Epipactis helleborine and Arundina graminifolia indicate that the ecological aspects of range extension in their non-native geographical range are not the same for all species of orchids. Disa bracteata in its native range, South Africa, is categorized as of little concern in terms of conservation whereas in Australia it is naturalized and considered to be an environmental weed. The aim of this research was to determine the ecological preferences enabling the spread of Disa bracteata in Western and South Australia, Victoria and Tasmania and to evaluate the effect of future climate change on its potential range. The ecological niche modeling approach indicates that most of the accessible areas are already occupied by this species but future expansion will continue based on four climate change scenarios (rcp26, rcp45, rcp60, rcp85). Further expansion is predicted especially in eastern Australia and eastern Tasmania. Moreover, there are some unpopulated but suitable habitats in New Zealand, which according to climate change scenarios will become even more suitable in the future. The most striking result of this study is the significant difference between the environmental conditions recorded in the areas which D. bracteata naturally inhabits and invasive sites—that indicates a possible niche shift. In Australia the studied species continues to populate a new niche or exploit habitats that are only moderately represented in South Africa.
16

Cheng, I.-Hao, Jacquie McBride, Miriam Decker, Therese Watson, Hannah Jakubenko, and Alana Russo. "The Asylum Seeker Integrated Healthcare Pathway: a collaborative approach to improving access to primary health care in South Eastern Melbourne, Victoria, Australia." Australian Journal of Primary Health 25, no. 1 (2019): 6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/py18028.

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It is important to address the health needs of asylum seekers within the early stages of their arrival in Australia, as this impacts all aspects of their resettlement. However, asylum seekers face a range of barriers to accessing timely and appropriate health care in the community. In 2012, the increasing number of asylum seekers in Australia placed additional demand on health and social services in high-settlement regions. Health providers experienced a substantial increase in Medicare ineligible clients and avoidable presentations to Emergency Departments, and the health needs of new asylum seeker arrivals were not being fully addressed. In response, South Eastern Melbourne Medicare Local, Monash Health, the Australian Red Cross and local settlement support agencies collaborated to develop an integrated healthcare pathway in South Eastern Melbourne to facilitate healthcare access for asylum seekers released from detention. From September 2012 to December 2014, a total of 951 asylum seekers transitioned through the pathway. Seventy-eight percent required primary healthcare assistance, and were provided with a service appointment within 3 weeks of their arrival in Melbourne. This initiative has demonstrated the value of partnership and collaboration when responding to emergent asylum seeker health needs.
17

Wood, H., and R. Degabriele. "Genetic Variation and Phenotypic Plasticity in Populations of Paterson's Curse (Echium plantagineum L.) In South-Eastern Australia." Australian Journal of Botany 33, no. 6 (1985): 677. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/bt9850677.

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Natural populations of Echium plantagineum on an east-west line across south-eastern Australia were sampled on three occasions during the growing season, and seeds collected from individual plants in each population were grown in a common glasshouse. In another experiment seedlings of E. plantagineum were divided and clones from each plant were grown under two soil moisture regimes. Field populations differed significantly in all seven characters measured at all sampling dates but, with one exception, between-population differences were unrelated to five climatic indices. Glasshouse populations differed significantly in 15 of 27 characters; variations in some of these characters were related by regression analysis to one or more of the climatic indices. Clones grown under moisture stress flowered later, had proportionally wider leaves and were smaller than well watered clones. The data suggest that an ecocline has developed, or is developing, in E. plantagineum in south- eastern Australia in response to large-scale and long-term aspects of climate, although extensive genetic variation between individuals in each population was also observed. This species exhibits a great deal of phenotypic plasticity in response to localized environmental factors.
18

Coveney, John. "Food and trust in Australia: building a picture." Public Health Nutrition 11, no. 3 (March 2008): 237–45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s1368980007000250.

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AbstractObjectiveTo explore consumer trust in food, especially people’s experiences that support or diminish trust in the food supply; consumer practices to strengthen trust in food; and views on how trust in the food supply could be increased.SettingAdelaide, South Australia.DesignIn-depth qualitative research interviews and focus groups.SubjectsWomen and men who are primary food providers in families (n= 24).ResultsMedia coverage of food scares and scandals and personal experience of food-borne illness challenged respondents’ trust in the food system. Poor retail food handling practices and questionable marketing ploys by food manufacturers also decreased trust. Buying ‘Made-in-Australia’ produce and following food safety procedures at home were important practices to strengthen food trust. Knowledge of procedures for local food inspection and for national food regulation to keep food safe was scanty. Having a strong regulatory environment governing food safety and quality was considered by respondents to be of prime importance for trust building.DiscussionThe dimensions of trust found in this study are consistent with key theoretical aspects of trust. The need for trust in highly complex environments, in this case the food supply, was evident. Trust was found to be integral to food choice, and negative media reports, the sources of which themselves enjoy various levels of dependability, were found to easily damage trust relationships. The lack of visibility of authoritative monitoring and surveillance, misleading food advertising, and poor retail food handling practices were identified as areas that decreased consumer trust. Respondents also questioned the probity of food labelling, especially health claims and other mechanisms designed to guide food choice. The research highlights the role trust plays in food choice. It also emphasises the importance of a visible authoritative presence in the food system to strengthen trust and provide reassurance to consumers.
19

Jia, Ling, Hong Gan, and Chang Hai Qin. "Review of Research on Water Accounting." Applied Mechanics and Materials 522-524 (February 2014): 911–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/amm.522-524.911.

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Current progress of water accounting was reviewed systematically in the paper. The result of water accounting is outstanding in some countries abroad, like Australia, South Africa, and European Union (EU) countries. In China, the exploratory research appeared in the 1990s. The study showed that theoretical framework of water resource accounting is basically formed, and research on physical accounting of water resources is abundant. However, some aspects, such as estimate of value, compilation of water economy accounts, and coupling between water resources accounting and national economic accounting system need improvement, which can provide methodological support for the water accounting system and valuable reference for integrated environmental economic accounting system (SEEA).
20

Hopkins, Ben, and John R. Argue. "The New Brompton Estate Stormwater Management Trial: First Results." Water Science and Technology 29, no. 1-2 (January 1, 1994): 311–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.1994.0678.

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Runoff from the roofs of 15 houses in a medium-density residential development in suburban Adelaide, capital city of South Australia, is being collected and temporarily stored in a gravel-filled stormwater retention trench installed in a centrally located reserve. The site is underlain by an upper level Quaternary aquifer, ambient salinity 2000 mg/l, which receives stormwater supplied from the trench via a bore during large winter storm events. Water pumped from the aquifer in summer shows a quality suitable for open space irrigation. Observations made during the second half of 1992 have highlighted aspects of the design which require modification in order to improve the performance of the retention/recharge/retrieval system. Data collected between August and October have indicated that the volume of stormwater stored in the aquifer on an annual basis will be sufficient to meet the irrigation needs of the reserve.
21

Fronczek, Judith, John D. Gilbert, and Roger W. Byard. "Forensic issues arising in the assessment of chlorine-related deaths in a domestic setting." Medicine, Science and the Law 61, no. 3 (March 31, 2021): 232–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00258024211002737.

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A retrospective review of autopsy files at the Forensic Science South Australia, Australia, was undertaken over a 20-year period from January 2000 to December 2019 for all cases where chlorine had caused or contributed to death. Two cases were identified out of a total of 25,121 autopsies (0.008%): a 53-year-old man who committed suicide in a cellar with granulated chlorine, and a 49-year-old woman with asthma who died of acute bronchospasm due to exposure to chlorine gas while mixing swimming pool chemicals in her kitchen. Chlorine-related deaths are uncommon in domestic situations. However, the absence of biomarkers and non-specific findings at autopsy complicate the diagnosis, particularly as environmental levels are not stable. While accidents with cleaning agents or swimming pool reagents are the most common event in the literature in domestic settings (exclusive of industrial or transportation accidents), suicide may also very rarely occur. Individuals with asthma and chronic respiratory diseases are at higher risk of an adverse outcome upon exposure to chlorine gas, with inattention to proper storage conditions and handling protocols being additional risk factors.
22

Silveira, Fernando A. O., Peggy L. Fiedler, and Stephen D. Hopper. "OCBIL theory: a new science for old ecosystems." Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 133, no. 2 (April 23, 2021): 251–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolinnean/blab038.

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Abstract This paper is an introduction to the special issue of the Biological Journal of the Linnean Society entitled OCBIL theory: a new science for old ecosystems. Firstly, we elaborate on the origins and development of OCBIL theory, which argues that landscape age, climatic buffering and soil fertility are key environmental dimensions shaping ecological and evolutionary processes across different scales. We then consider the 21 contributions made in this special issue in terms of cutting edge advances in the Southern Hemisphere that test, explore and apply aspects of OCBIL theory at the end of its first decade of formal publication. More attempts at refutation are urged, as untested aspects remain controversial. Lastly, a concluding discussion is offered on promising new lines of enquiry to develop the theory further and ensure its global application to pressing conservation issues facing biological and cultural diversity. Although OCBILs are absent or rare in much of the postglacial and periglacial Northern Hemisphere, we demonstrate, in south-west Europe and North America, starting with California, that they are likely to be found, thus extending the implications and applications of OCBIL theory in new directions. We also propose that, in many ways, Noongar Aboriginal cosmology from south-west Australia has developed sophisticated insights about ancient uplands that are precursors to key ideas in OCBIL theory.
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KIM, SARANG, KERRY A. SARGENT-COX, DAVINA J. FRENCH, HAL KENDIG, and KAARIN J. ANSTEY. "Cross-national insights into the relationship between wealth and wellbeing: a comparison between Australia, the United States of America and South Korea." Ageing and Society 32, no. 1 (February 24, 2011): 41–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0144686x11000080.

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ABSTRACTThe positive relationship between wealth and wellbeing has received considerable attention over the last three decades. However, little is known about how the significance of wealth for the health and wellbeing of older adults may vary across societies. Furthermore, researchers tend to focus mainly on income rather than other aspects of financial resources even though older adults often rely on fixed income, particularly after retirement. Using data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey (N=1,431), the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) in the United States of America (USA; N=4,687), and the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing (KLoSA; N=5,447), this exploratory cross-national study examined the relationship between wealth satisfaction and objective wealth and wellbeing (measured as self-rated health and life satisfaction) among older Australians, Americans and Koreans (50+ years). Regression analyses showed that wealth satisfaction was associated with wellbeing over and above monetary wealth in all three countries. The relationship between monetary wealth and self-rated health was larger for the US than Australian and Korean samples, while the additional contribution of wealth satisfaction to life satisfaction was larger for the Korean than the Australian and US samples. These findings are discussed in terms of the cultural and economic differences between these countries, particularly as they affect older persons.
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Suwidji, Pradipto, Hoi Ying Chung, and Yun Hau Ng. "Progress in practical hydrogen production and utilisation in East Asia." HKIE Transactions 28, no. 2 (June 30, 2021): 88–101. http://dx.doi.org/10.33430/v28n2thie-2020-0047.

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Development of hydrogen utilisation for energy applications has seen promising innovation towards the future prospect of clean and sustainable energy, benefitting various aspects of environmental, social, industrial and energy security. In the APEC region, several economies, such as the USA, China, Australia, Japan and South Korea, have shown interest in the development of hydrogen technology for energy applications. These economies have been devoting effort towards research and development programmes, pilot projects and, up to a certain point, implementing it in their communities. In addition, these economies each have their own tailored hydrogen roadmap or strategy, ensuring a smoother path towards hydrogen development. In this mini-review, we analysed the approaches of three selected economies in the East Asia region towards hydrogen technology, namely China, Japan and South Korea. Each of these economies have their own strategies and priorities towards the application, production and future development of hydrogen technology. This review also analyses the future possibilities for the integration of hydrogen technology into various sectors, as well as various constraints faced by each economy. Therefore, the review might serve as a valuable reference towards the feasibility of future hydrogen technology development in the East Asia and APEC region.
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Tasca, F. A., L. B. Assunção, and A. R. Finotti. "International experiences in stormwater fee." Water Science and Technology 2017, no. 1 (March 8, 2018): 287–99. http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2018.112.

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Abstract Stormwater management (SWM) includes a wide range of services aimed at environmental protection, enhancement of water resources and flood control. Local governments are responsible for managing all these aspects within their jurisdiction, but they often present limitations in generating revenues. Thus, many municipalities have been seeking a dedicated funding source for these programs and practices. This publication provides a brief overview of current legal issues associated with stormwater funding focusing on the most used method: fees. It is a successful mechanism to fund legal obligations of municipalities; however, it must have a significant value to motivate the reduction of runoff. Through literature, we found stormwater fees in Australia, Brazil, Canada, Ecuador, France, Germany, Poland, South Africa and the United States (USA). France had the highest average monthly fee, but this financing experience was suspended in 2014. Brazil has the lowest fee by m², comparable to the US fee. While in Brazil overall SWM represents low priority investments, the USA represents one of the most evolved countries in stormwater funding practices. It was noticed by reviewing the international experience that charging stormwater fees is a successful mechanism to fund the legal obligations and environmental protection.
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Amoako, Kwame Oduro, Beverley R. Lord, and Keith Dixon. "Sustainability reporting." Meditari Accountancy Research 25, no. 2 (June 5, 2017): 186–215. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/medar-02-2016-0020.

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Purpose Sustainability reporting serves as a means of communication between corporations and their stakeholders on sustainability issues. This study aims to identify and account for the contents of sustainability reporting communicated through the websites of the plants in five continents of the same multinational mining corporation. Design/methodology/approach This study uses data published by Newmont Mining Corporation. The corporation has regional headquarters in five continents: Africa, Asia, Australia and North America and South America. The data were drawn from the websites of the five plants adjacent to those regional headquarters. Economic, environmental and social aspects of sustainability as reported by each plant were identified; to do so, a disclosure analysis based on the elements of the Global Reporting Initiative and the United Nations Division for Sustainability Development was used. These aspects were then compared and contrasted to highlight if, and to what extent, institutional isomorphism influences variations in sustainability disclosures among plants compared with the parent company. Findings It was found that most of the reporting about sustainability matters comprises narratives; there were also a few physical measures but very little financial information. Notwithstanding that the websites of all five plants used similar headings, the contents of reports differed. The reports from the plants in Australia, South America and Africa were more comprehensive than those from the plants in Asia and North America. The authors attribute these differences to institutionalisation of location-specific characteristics, including management discretion, legislation and societal pressures influencing sustainability reporting. The authors argue that managers responsible for preparing sustainability reports and who work essentially as sustainability accountants should develop templates and measures to raise the standard and comprehensiveness of reports for improved communication, information and behaviour. Originality/value Extant studies on sustainability reporting have focused mainly on comparisons between sustainability reports published by different corporations or sustainability reports published in different years by the same corporation. The authors believe that this is one of the first studies to have examined differences in sustainability information published by different subsidiaries within the same large corporation and the first to show how concurrent disclosures can differ.
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Navarrete-Oyarce, José, Juan Alejandro Gallegos, Hugo Moraga-Flores, and José Luis Gallizo. "Integrated Reporting as an Academic Research Concept in the Area of Business." Sustainability 13, no. 14 (July 12, 2021): 7741. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/su13147741.

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Recent financial scandals and the global financial crisis have generated numerous criticisms of the value and use of annual financial and sustainability reports prepared by companies. This has generated the elaboration and use of a new model of corporate-information reporting that considers strategic, social, economic, and environmental aspects. This study synthesizes the knowledge of the use of integrated reporting as a source of information, and bibliometrically analyzes of 268 articles published in the Web of Science database in 2011–2019. Results show that 77.6% of the academic articles were from developed countries, and the five most influential countries are Italy, South Africa, Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Results show that the development of this type of research is scarce in emerging economies. The most influential authors are García, Rodríguez, and De Villiers. A high level of interconnections is observed in used keywords, of which the most used are ‘sustainability’ and ‘management’. Lastly, this article contributes to the international discussion on integrated reporting by carrying out a structured review of the literature, highlighting previous research.
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C. Kalucy, Elizabeth, Gwyneth Jolley, and Soi Yeng Lewis. "Continuity of Care from the Consumer Perspective." Australian Journal of Primary Health 2, no. 3 (1996): 18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/py96038.

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Do consumers' views on the concept of continuity of care differ from those of health workers and policy makers? Eight focus groups were conducted in Adelaide and in rural South Australia with consumers who had used a range of health services. Their concept of continuity of care included being cared for beyond the episode of consultation by health workers who took into account many aspects of their health and social situation, and being linked to other health and community services. The issues that affected consumers' experience of continuity of care were: availability of services; access including transport and language; communication with and between health workers; information transfer; and access to information. Most of the consumers nominated themselves or their general practitioners as their current care co-ordinator. They felt that formal care co-ordination for chronic and complex conditions was necessary when many workers were involved. The features of the consumers' views on continuity of care were closest to the definition from the National Review of Primary Health Care: involving collaboration and communication between all the providers engaged in the care of an individual and the recognition that consumers and their carers should be seen as members of the health care team.
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Wadham, Ben, Ross Boyd, Eileen Willis, and Meryl Pierce. "Reconstituting Water? Climate Change, Water Policy Reform and Community Relations in South Australian Remote Towns." Human Geography 6, no. 3 (November 2013): 89–104. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/194277861300600308.

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Water is a principal medium of exchange within communities facing changing climate patterns and the ‘new dry’. For some parts of the globe water has been taken-for-granted, uncontested, yet for others highly variable, scarce and a measure of global and national inequalities. Australia as a large and diverse landmass is emblematic of those varied water contexts, yet as a whole, and after the recent ‘100-year drought’, water has become heavily regulated and marketised, and its material and symbolic meanings transformed. This has led us to ask: “What happens when water becomes marked or recognised as a scarce resource for all, indeed a site of contest and potential human conflict? How do the attempts to control water, through its market currency and environmental value, change the character of communities, the identities and interpersonal relationships that constitute the regional context?” After all, water is about far more than a material resource, it is also a cultural medium that is implicated the most fundamental aspects of life. In this study we explore the ways in which South Australian's living in the arid north of the state, above the Goyder Line, live and identify through the changing relations of water. Those changing relations are the changing availability and governance of water, nested within an ever-present public concern about climate change. We draw upon interviews with settler community members from a 200 square kilometre region across 7 towns or stations. Alongside the growing dry has been the developing commodification of water, having the effect of reducing local autonomy in the management and decision making about water conservation, supply and use. This paper considers the ways that these changes have transformative effects upon the differences and solidarities within local community relations.
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Roarty, Lynn, Helen Wildy, Sherry Saggers, Katherine Conigrave, Mandy Wilson, Kathryn di Nicola, Jody Webb, and Joanne Faulkner. "“My Journey Map”: Developing a Qualitative Approach to Mapping Young People's Progress in Residential Rehabilitation." Contemporary Drug Problems 39, no. 4 (December 2012): 715–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/009145091203900406.

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Young people with substance misuse issues are at risk of harm from significant negative health and life events. Contemporary research notes both a historical failure to recognize the unique needs of adolescents, and the ongoing need for dedicated adolescent treatment programs and outcome measures. It is concerning that there is so little literature assessing the quality, availability, and effectiveness of adolescent-focused treatment programs, and no adolescent-specific measurement tools centered on a young person's progress in residential treatment. This article reports on the process of developing a qualitative approach to mapping progress in treatment over time. The research seeks to develop an approach that captures, at three points in time and from multiple viewpoints, the progress of young people in four residential rehabilitation services located in New South Wales and Western Australia, across several dimensions of the personal and social aspects of life. Our aim is to develop an approach that is accessible to the alcohol and other drug workforce, and that informs the development of a psychometrically robust quantitative measure of progress that is meaningful and useful both to practitioners and to the young people themselves.
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Potvin, Dominique A., Kirsten M. Parris, and Raoul A. Mulder. "Geographically pervasive effects of urban noise on frequency and syllable rate of songs and calls in silvereyes ( Zosterops lateralis )." Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 278, no. 1717 (January 5, 2011): 2464–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2010.2296.

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Recent studies in the Northern Hemisphere have shown that songbirds living in noisy urban environments sing at higher frequencies than their rural counterparts. However, several aspects of this phenomenon remain poorly understood. These include the geographical scale over which such patterns occur (most studies have compared local populations), and whether they involve phenotypic plasticity or microevolutionary change. We conducted a field study of silvereye ( Zosterops lateralis ) vocalizations over more than 1 million km 2 of urban and rural south-eastern Australia, and compared possible effects of urban noise on songs (which are learned) and contact calls (which are innate). Across 14 paired urban and rural populations, silvereyes consistently sang both songs and contact calls at higher frequencies in urban environments. Syllable rate (syllables per second) decreased in urban environments, consistent with the hypothesis that reflective structures degrade song and encourage longer intervals between syllables. This comprehensive study is, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate varied adaptations of urban bird vocalizations over a vast geographical area, and to provide insight into the mechanism responsible for these changes.
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Snijder, Mieke, Lexine Stapinski, James Ward, Briana Lees, Cath Chapman, Katrina Champion, Michael Doyle, et al. "Strong and Deadly Futures: Co-Development of a Web-Based Wellbeing and Substance Use Prevention Program for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and Non-Aboriginal Adolescents." International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 4 (February 23, 2021): 2176. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18042176.

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School-based programs can effectively prevent substance use; however, systematic reviews and consultation with stakeholders identified a need for effective, culturally inclusive programs for Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander (hereafter Aboriginal) youth. This paper describes the development of Strong & Deadly Futures, a six-lesson, curriculum-aligned wellbeing and substance use prevention program that was designed for, and with, the Aboriginal youth. Formative reviews and consultation recommended that the program (i) combine effective components of mainstream prevention with cultural elements, highlighting Aboriginal cultural strengths; (ii) avoid stigma and celebrates the cultural diversity by catering to both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal students; and (iii) use digital technology to enhance engagement, implementation and scalability. Guided by an Appreciative Inquiry approach, the program was developed in partnership with an Indigenous Creative Design Agency, and four schools in New South Wales and Queensland, Australia. Aboriginal (n = 41) and non-Aboriginal students (n = 36) described their role models, positive aspects of their community and reasons to avoid substance use; these formed the basis of an illustrated story which conveyed the key learning outcomes. Feedback from teachers, students and content experts supported the acceptability of the program, which will be evaluated in a subsequent randomised controlled trial.
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Vaitkeviciute, Rimante, Lauren E. Ball, and Neil Harris. "The relationship between food literacy and dietary intake in adolescents: a systematic review." Public Health Nutrition 18, no. 4 (May 20, 2014): 649–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s1368980014000962.

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AbstractObjectiveThe aim of the present systematic review was to investigate the evidence on the association between food literacy and adolescents’ dietary intake.DesignThe review included searches of six databases with no restriction on the year of publication or language.SettingThe studies eligible for review were from five countries/regions: USA (n 6), Europe (n 4), Australia (n 1), Middle East (n 1) and South Africa (n 1).SubjectsAdolescents aged 10 to 19 years.ResultsThirteen studies were eligible for inclusion. None of the studies investigated all aspects of food literacy. Eight studies reported a positive association between food literacy and adolescents’ dietary intake. For example, adolescents with greater food knowledge and frequent food preparation behaviours were shown to have healthier dietary practices. Three studies found a mixed association of food literacy and adolescents’ dietary intake. For example, adolescents who frequently helped to prepare dinner had healthier dietary intake, but food shopping tasks were associated with less healthy food choices. Two studies found no association between measures of food literacy and adolescents’ dietary intake.ConclusionsFood literacy may play a role in shaping adolescents’ dietary intake. More rigorous research methods are required to effectively assess the causality between food literacy and adolescents’ dietary intake in order to confirm the extent of the relationship. Evidence recommends public health practitioners and policy makers consider new public health strategies that focus on increasing understanding of food literacy in adolescence.
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Mckenzie, R. S., and P. G. van Rooyen. "Management of large water resource systems." Water Supply 3, no. 3 (June 1, 2003): 297–304. http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/ws.2003.0039.

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South Africa has one of the most complicated and integrated water resource systems in the world involving numerous interlinked river systems and major interbasin transfer schemes. The management of the various schemes has become a key issue over the past 15 years resulting in the development of sophisticated systems models which are now used to analyse and operate all of the country's major schemes. The models have been developed through a partnership between the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry in association with several of the country's consultants specialising in this area of expertise. The models have now reached a stage where they are considered to be both practical and sufficiently robust to use in other parts of the world. Australia and South Africa are quite similar in many respects with regards to the water resources and climate. Both countries share the same problem of large arid or semi-arid areas together with areas where the local water resources are insufficient to meet the existing or predicted future demands. Environmental considerations are also of major importance in both countries which in turn necessitates the effective use of the available resources before any new resources can be developed. In order to use the available water effectively much effort has been placed on various aspects of Water Demand Management in order to reduce leakage and excessive consumer use. It is also necessary, however, to ensure that the raw water resources are managed in an efficient and practical manner - something that is often easier said than done. This paper provides general details of the system analysis techniques that have been pioneered in South Africa and discusses the most recent developments that can be used to assist water resource managers in the analysis and planning of their water resource systems.
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McConachy, Diana, and Karalyn McDonald. "Issues for Primary, Informal, Home-based Carers of People Living with AIDS." Australian Journal of Primary Health 5, no. 1 (1999): 30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/py99004.

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Central to the Australian national strategic response to HIV/AIDS is the need for training and support for volunteer carers of people with HIV/AIDS. However, the role of primary, informal, home-based carers of people with AIDS (PWA) is not clearly defined and the research about carers undertaken in Australia has not specifically looked at this group. The aim of the study described was to examine the experiences of primary, home-based carers of people with AIDS in order to inform policy and program development. Data were collected from 47 carers in New South Wales and Victoria between August and November, 1996. A short self-administered questionnaire collecting demographic information was followed by a longer questionnaire with mostly closed questions on preparation for caregiving, caregiving tasks, symptom management, service use, coping strategies, and impact of caregiving. Open-ended questions were about the provision of emotional support by the carer to the PWA, the carer's health and positive aspects of caregiving. Two key findings emerge from the content and thematic analyses. The first relates to the study respondents, who differ from the national profile of informal carers in two areas, gender and age. The second relates to the diverse nature of the caregiving experience, including the vast array of symptoms and diseases that an AIDS diagnosis can entail, the complexity of the relationship between the carer and care recipient and the experience of multiple caregiving. These findings highlight the difficulty in identifying simple, singular strategies for carer support and information.
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Branagan, Marty. "The Australian Movement against Uranium Mining: Its Rationale and Evolution." International Journal of Rural Law and Policy, no. 1 (September 9, 2014): 1–12. http://dx.doi.org/10.5130/ijrlp.i1.2014.3852.

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This paper begins with a brief historical overview of the Australian movement against uranium mining, before focussing on two major campaigns: Roxby and Jabiluka. It describes the reasons the activists gave at the time for their blockades of the Roxby Downs uranium mine in South Australia in 1983 and 1984. These reasons – such as perceptions that the industry is unsafe - have changed little over time and were the basis for the campaign against the proposed Jabiluka mine in the Northern Territory in 1998. They continue to be cited by environmental groups and Aboriginal Traditional Owners to this day as new situations arise, such as the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident.The paper then describes how the movement evolved between the Roxby and Jabiluka blockades, with changes to the movement’s philosophy, strategy, tactics and internal dynamics. This analysis includes a comparison between two anti-nuclear bike rides, one a year after the 1984 Roxby blockade and involving some of the same activists, and another at the time of the Jabiluka blockade. This author was present at all these events, and provides an emic (insider) perspective within a longitudinal participant-observation methodology. Although this perspective obviously has a subjective element, the paper fills a gap in that there is little written history of these blockades (particularly Roxby) and more generally of Australian resistance to uranium mining, let alone the aspects of nonviolence and movement evolution. It is an introductory history of these campaigns, examining the direct action components, the practicalities of nonviolent campaigning, and the evolution of Australian anti-uranium activism.
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Badgery, W. B., and D. L. Michalk. "Synthesis of system outcomes for a grazing-management experiment in temperate native pastures." Animal Production Science 57, no. 9 (2017): 1869. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/an16599.

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Increasing the intensity of grazing management from continuous grazing or set-stocking to intensive rotational grazing has been proposed as a way of improving the profitability and environmental outcomes for native pasture-based grazing systems in the high-rainfall zone (HRZ) of southern Australia. The present paper synthesised the results and outcomes of eight papers covering different aspects of a grazing-system study investigating the intensity of grazing management at Panuara (33°27ʹS, 148°56ʹE), 25 km south-west of Orange, New South Wales. The systems analysis covered soils and soil water, pastures, animal production, profitability and business risk by using a combination of field experiments and biophysical modelling. The experimental approach, engagement with stakeholders and the potential impact of the research outcomes are discussed; as are the future directions for grazing system research. Increasing the intensity of grazing management from a 1- to a 20-paddock system resulted in a 21% higher pasture growth, 22% higher stocking rate and 20% higher lamb production per hectare. However, modelling demonstrated that seasonal variability had a greater impact on profitability than did the management system, and whole-farm profitability of the 20-paddock system was lower than that of the 1- and 4-paddock systems due to higher infrastructure costs. Pasture stability was associated with a high perennial grass content (>70%), and a stocking rate of 4.2 ewes/ha for continuous grazing or 5.3 ewes/ha for intensive rotational grazing limited the potential for degradation events. Advantages were identified in fencing and managing production zones, with different production potential within a farm, to improve utilisation across the landscape and efficiency of fertiliser use. The farming-system approach successfully integrated field research with pre- and post-experimental modelling, and with strategic input from an advisory group containing farmers, researchers and advisors, to develop a full understanding of the impact, at a system level, of increasing the intensity of grazing management in the HRZ.
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Alamdari, Mehrisadat Makki, Nguyen Lu Dang Khoa, Yang Wang, Bijan Samali, and Xinqun Zhu. "A multi-way data analysis approach for structural health monitoring of a cable-stayed bridge." Structural Health Monitoring 18, no. 1 (August 30, 2018): 35–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1475921718790727.

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A large-scale cable-stayed bridge in the state of New South Wales, Australia, has been extensively instrumented with an array of accelerometer, strain gauge, and environmental sensors. The real-time continuous response of the bridge has been collected since July 2016. This study aims at condition assessment of this bridge by investigating three aspects of structural health monitoring including damage detection, damage localization, and damage severity assessment. A novel data analysis algorithm based on incremental multi-way data analysis is proposed to analyze the dynamic response of the bridge. This method applies incremental tensor analysis for data fusion and feature extraction, and further uses one-class support vector machine on this feature to detect anomalies. A total of 15 different damage scenarios were investigated; damage was physically simulated by locating stationary vehicles with different masses at various locations along the span of the bridge to change the condition of the bridge. The effect of damage on the fundamental frequency of the bridge was investigated and a maximum change of 4.4% between the intact and damage states was observed which corresponds to a small severity damage. Our extensive investigations illustrate that the proposed technique can provide reliable characterization of damage in this cable-stayed bridge in terms of detection, localization and assessment. The contribution of the work is threefold; first, an extensive structural health monitoring system was deployed on a cable-stayed bridge in operation; second, an incremental tensor analysis was proposed to analyze time series responses from multiple sensors for online damage identification; and finally, the robustness of the proposed method was validated using extensive field test data by considering various damage scenarios in the presence of environmental variabilities.
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Segal, Leonie, Ron Donato, Jeffrey Richardson, and Stuart Peacock. "Strengths and limitations of competitive versus non-competitive models of integrated capitated fundholding." Journal of Health Services Research & Policy 7, no. 1_suppl (July 2002): 56–64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1258/135581902320176485.

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Integrated budget-holding (fundholding) based on risk-adjusted capitation is commonly proposed as a central element of health system reform. Two contrasting models have been developed: the competitive model where fundholders or health plans compete for enrollees; and the non-competitive model, where plan membership is determined according to an objective attribute such as place of residence. Under the competitive model, efficiency is sought through consumer choice of plan. A range of regulatory elements may also be introduced to moderate undesirable elements of competition. Under the non-competitive model, efficiency is achieved through government regulation and the fact that the fundholder has continuing responsibility for the health of a defined population, supported by micro-management tools (such as quality assurance and selective payment arrangements). In theory, the non-competitive model encourages population-based health services planning. While both models assume risk-adjusted capitated funding, the requirements of any formula are more stringent under the competitive model. Economic theory, as well as documented health system experience, can help identify the relative strengths and limitations of each model. Concerns with the competitive model relate primarily to the capacity to develop robust risk adjusters for capitation sufficient to reduce the incentives for patient risk selection. Possible reductions in the quality of care are also a concern, compounded by difficulties for consumers in discriminating between plans. Efficiency under the non-competitive model requires a strong and appropriate regulatory/policy framework and effective use of micro-management tools. Funding equity objectives can be met through either model by the adoption of income-related contributions, but under the competitive model this may be compromised by incentives for the fundholders to select low-risk patients. Evidence drawn from regional fundholding in New South Wales (NSW, Australia), the US Veterans Health Agency and the literature on managed care in the USA illustrate these concerns. The problem of risk selection in the competitive model is a major theoretical concern, confirmed by the empirical evidence. This, together with concerns regarding other aspects of performance, suggests that the non-competitive model may be preferable, at least as an interim step in reform in public or mixed systems. Future research on this issue is clearly required.
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Cattle, Stephen R., and Damien J. Field. "A review of the soil science research legacy of the triumvirate of cotton CRC." Crop and Pasture Science 64, no. 12 (2013): 1076. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/cp13223.

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For nearly two decades (1994–2012) a series of three consecutive Cooperative Research Centres (CRC) dealing with cotton production provided the impetus and financial support for a substantial body of soil science research in eastern and northern Australia. Focusing on the most commonly utilised soil for irrigated crop production, the Vertosol, CRC-affiliated soil researchers undertook detailed soil inventories of cotton-growing valleys in New South Wales, and tackled a range of applied soil research questions that faced the entire Australian cotton industry. Across the broad categories of soil mapping and characterisation, soil physical condition, salinity and sodicity, soil chemical fertility, and soil carbon and biota, some 120 CRC-affiliated research papers were published in peer-reviewed journals during the years of the CRC. Findings from this body of research were fed back to the industry through conferences, extension workshops and materials, and to a lesser extent, the peer-reviewed publications. In certain cases, underpinning basic research was carried out concurrently with the more applied research, meaning that the cotton CRC were effectively supporting advances in the discipline of soil science, as well as in sustainable cotton production. A feature of the soil research portfolio over the span of the three cotton CRC was that priorities shifted according to the interplay of three factors; the natural maturation of research topics and the concomitant evolution of cotton farming systems, the rising importance of environmental implications of agricultural land use, and the emergence of carbon as a national research priority. Furthermore, the commitment of the CRC to education resulted in the involvement of undergraduate and postgraduate university students in all aspects of the soil research effort. A legacy of the triumvirate of cotton CRC is a wide-ranging body of both applied and basic knowledge regarding the physical, chemical and biological attributes of Australian Vertosols used for irrigated agriculture.
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Raftery, David. "Producing value from Australia's vineyards: an ethnographic approach to 'the quality turn' in the Australian wine industry." Journal of Political Ecology 24, no. 1 (September 27, 2017): 342. http://dx.doi.org/10.2458/v24i1.20877.

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Abstract This article provides a detailed ethnographic intervention to the phenomenon of value-added agriculture, a discourse that has attained several concrete forms in Australian wine industry policy, and which is routinely presented as a legitimate rural future in wider agricultural and social science research. The legal and policy architecture of 'Geographical Indications' purports to value the regional distinctiveness of agricultural areas, by creating legally-defined wine regions. Producers from these wine regions enjoy privileged access to the use of regional descriptors that apply to their products, and the constitution of such wine regions can also codify the relationships between this regional identity and concrete viticultural and winemaking practices. This article draws on ethnographic research within the Clare Valley region of South Australia, one of the first Australian wine regions to be formally constituted as a legal entity, to examine in close detail the relationships that this region's wine producers have with their own discrete areas of operation. These ethnographic illustrations highlight that the creation of economic value within the premium wine industry cannot be reduced to the technical aspects of viticulture and oenology, nor the legal and policy means by which relationships between products and land are codified. Rather, the nuanced social understandings of landscape that wine producers are consistently developing is a critical element of cultural and commercial infrastructure that affords any wine producer or grape grower the possibility of achieving monopolistic relationships over discrete vineyard areas and the wine that is produced from them. These social understandings have a specifically egalitarian character that acts as a hedge against the chronic uncertainties arising from the global economic environment in which premium wine industry is inescapably a part. This resistance to codification, I argue, is a productive space that constitutes a form of resilience against chronically unstable sets of commercial and environmental conditions. Keywords: monopoly, regional rents, occupational discourse, intellectual property, Geographic Indications, Australian agrarian futures
42

Baier, Martin, Sri Kuhnt-Saptodewo, H. J. M. Claessen, Annette B. Weiner, Charles A. Coppel, Wang Gungwu, Heleen Gall, et al. "Book Reviews." Bijdragen tot de taal-, land- en volkenkunde / Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences of Southeast Asia 150, no. 3 (1994): 588–623. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/22134379-90003081.

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- Martin Baier, Sri Kuhnt-Saptodewo, Zum Seelengeliet bei den Ngaju am Kahayan; Auswertung eines Sakraltextes zur Manarung-Zeremonie beim totenfest. München: Akademischer Verlag,1993 (PhD thesis, Ludwig-Maximilian-Universitiy München). - H.J.M. Claessen, Annette B. Weiner, Inalienable Possessions; The paradox of keeping-while-giving. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992, 232 pp. Bibl. Index - Charles A. Coppel, Wang Gungwu, Community and Nation; China, Southeast Asia and Australia. Sydney: Asian studies of Australia in association with Allen & Unwin, 1992 (2nd revised edition), viii + 359 pp - Heleen Gall, W. J. Mommsen, European expansion and Law; the encounter of European and Indigenous Law in 19th- and 20th- century Africa and Asia. Oxford; Berg publishers, 1992, vi + 339 pp, J.A. de Moor (eds.) - Beatriz van der Goes, C. W. Watson, Kinship, Property and inheritance in Kerinci, Central Sumatra. Canterbury:University of Kent, Centre for Social Anthropology and computing Monographs no: 4. South-East Asian Series, 1992, ix + 255 pp - Kees Groeneboer, Tom van der Berge, Van Kenis tot kunst; Soendanese poezie in de koloniale tijd. Proefschrift Rijksuniversiteit Lieden, November 1993, 220 pp - Kees Groeneboer, J.E.A.M. Lelyveld, ‘... waarlijk geen overdaad, doch een dringende eisch..’’; Koloniaal onderwijs en onderwijsbeleid in Nederlands-Indië 1893-1942. Proefschrift Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht, 1992. - Marleen Heins, R. Anderson Sutton, Variation in Central Javanese gamelan music; Dynamics of a steady state. Northern Illinois University: Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Monograph series on Southeast Asia, (Special Report 28 ),1993. - Marleen Heins, E. Heins, Jaap Kunst, Indonesian music and dance; Traditional music and its interaction with the West. Amsterdam: Royal Tropical Institute/Tropenmuseum, University of Amsterdam, Ethnomusicology Centre `Jaap Junst’, 1994, E. den Otter, F. van Lamsweerde (eds.) - David Henley, Harold Brookfield, South-East Asia’s environmental future; The search for sustainability. Tokyo: United Nations University Press, Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press, 1993, xxxii + 422 pp., maps, tables, figures, index., Yvonne Byron (eds.) - Antje van der Hoek, Keebet von Benda-Beckmann, De emancipatie van Molukse vrouwen in Nederland. Utrecht: Van Arkel,1992, Francy Leatemia-Toma-tala (eds.) - Michael Hitchcock, Brita L. Miklouho-Maklai, Exposing Society’s Wounds; Some aspects of Indonesian Art since 1966. Adelaide: Flinders University Asian studies Monograph No.5, illustrations, 1991, iii + 125 pp - Nico Kaptein, Fred R. von der Mehden, Two Worlds of Islam; Interaction between Southeast Asia and the Middle East.Gainesville etc: University Press of Florida 1993, xiii + 128 pp - Nico Kaptein, Karel Steenbrink, Dutch Colonialism and Indonesian Islam; Contacts and Conflicts 1596-1950. Amsterdam-Atlanta, GA: Rodopi, 1993. - Harry A. Poeze, Rudolf Mrázek, Sjahrir; Politics and exile in Indonesia. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University, Southeast Asia Program, 1994. - W.G.J. Remmelink, Takao Fusayama, A Japanese memoir of Sumatra 1945-1946; Love and hatred in the liberation war. Ithaca: Cornell University (Cornell Modern Indonesia Project Monograph series 71), 1993, 151 pp., maps, illustrations. - Ratna Saptari, Diana Wolf, Factory Daughters; Gender, Household Dynamics, and Rural Industrialization in Java. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992. - Ignatius Supriyanto, Ward Keeler, Javanese Shadow Puppets. Singapore (etc.): Oxford University Press, 1992, vii + 72 pp.,bibl., ills. (Images of Asia). - Brian Z. Tamanaha,S.J.D., Juliana Flinn, Review of diplomas and thatch houses; Asserting tradition in a changing Micronesia. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1992. - Gerard Termorshuizen, Dorothée Buur, Indische jeugdliteratuur; Geannoteerde bibliografie van jeugdboeken over Nederlands-Indië en Indonesië, 1825-1991. Leiden, KITLV Uitgeverij, 1992, 470 pp., - Barbara Watson Andaya, Reinout Vos, Gentle Janus, merchant prince; The VOC and the tightrope of diplomacy in the Malay world, 1740-1800. Leiden: KITLV Press, 1994, xii + 252 pp.
43

Murphy, Brian, and Peter Fogarty. "Application of the Soil Security Concept to Two Contrasting Soil Landscape Systems—Implications for Soil Capability and Sustainable Land Management." Sustainability 11, no. 20 (October 16, 2019): 5706. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/su11205706.

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Soil security identifies global challenges and a series of dimensions that are necessary requirements to meet those global challenges using sustainable land management. The soil security concept is applied to two contrasting soil landscape systems with varying climate, landform and soil types. Previous methodologies for assessing land and soil capability are combined within the soil security conceptual approach. The land and soil capability methodologies are used to assess how the soil condition changes in response to the stresses and forcing associated with land management and land and soil degradation processes. It is the soil capability that defines how the soil condition changes between the reference state of the soil condition, or the genoform, and the soil condition under land use, or the phenoform. The conclusion is that soil capability, which is one of the dimensions used to apply the soil security concept, is a complex dimension and has several aspects or further facets to be considered to achieve sustainable land management. It is apparent that in assessing soil capability, the following facets are relevant. I: The capacity of the soil to provide ecosystem services to meet the global challenges outlined for Soil Security. II: The stability of the soil condition to land degradation processes resulting from the effects of land management practices and the environmental stresses on the soil. III: The capacity to recover following degradation. Facets II and III can be considered the resilience. An important conclusion is that the soil capability cannot be assessed without taking into account features of the landscape including climate and landform. Two examples from south eastern Australia of the application of these facets of soil capability to on-ground situations are presented. The Cowra Trough Red Soils in the Australian wheat belt are a set of soils, primarily contributing to meeting the global challenge of food security. The major degradation processes threatening the stability of these soils are water erosion and soil acidification. The Kosciusko National Park in the Snowy Mountains region is primarily contributing to meeting the challenges of water security for the irrigation industry in the Murray Darling Basins and energy security through the production of hydroelectricity. The set of soil landscapes also contributes to biodiversity protection and human health and well-being. The major degradation processes threatening the stability of these soils and their capacity to meet the global challenges are water and wind erosion. A major limitation is the poor capacity of these soils to recover once degraded. Identifying the main ecosystem services provided by the two examples, together with the major risks of land degradation can clarify extension, economic and policy aspects of sustainable land management for the two sets of soil landscapes. For the Cowra Trough Red Soils, management of water erosion and soil acidification are essential for maintaining the contribution of the area to food security. For the Kosciusko National Park, the control of water and wind erosion are essential to maintain the contribution of the area to water and energy security.
44

Anjali, Anjali, and Manisha Sabharwal. "Perceived Barriers of Young Adults for Participation in Physical Activity." Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science Journal 6, no. 2 (August 25, 2018): 437–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.12944/crnfsj.6.2.18.

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This study aimed to explore the perceived barriers to physical activity among college students Study Design: Qualitative research design Eight focus group discussions on 67 college students aged 18-24 years (48 females, 19 males) was conducted on College premises. Data were analysed using inductive approach. Participants identified a number of obstacles to physical activity. Perceived barriers emerged from the analysis of the data addressed the different dimensions of the socio-ecological framework. The result indicated that the young adults perceived substantial amount of personal, social and environmental factors as barriers such as time constraint, tiredness, stress, family control, safety issues and much more. Understanding the barriers and overcoming the barriers at this stage will be valuable. Health professionals and researchers can use this information to design and implement interventions, strategies and policies to promote the participation in physical activity. This further can help the students to deal with those barriers and can help to instil the habit of regular physical activity in the later adult years.
45

Eckermann, Simon, and Andrew R. Willan. "Active Lives South Australia health economic analysis: an evidence base for the potential of health promotion strategies supporting physical activity guidelines to reduce public health costs while improving wellbeing." Journal of Public Health, September 19, 2021. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10389-021-01649-0.

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Abstract Aim The COVID-19 pandemic has threatened individual and population wellbeing and strategies to jointly address these challenges within budget constraints are required. The aim of our research is to analyse evidence from the Active Lives South Australia study to consider the potential of physical activity (PA) health promotion strategies to be health-system cost saving while addressing wellbeing challenges. Methods The Active Lives South Australia study compares adult populations who meet and do not meet physical activity (PA) guidelines (150+ minutes of weekly physical activity) with respect to their subjective wellbeing and health care utilisation. Subject and results Adults who met PA guidelines had better wellbeing across all aspects with and without adjustment for age, sex and income covariates. Analysis showed significant associations between meeting guidelines and lower probabilities of visiting and utilisation of GPs, specialist doctors, other health professionals, hospital inpatient admissions, outpatient clinic and emergency department visits, and an overall A$1760 lower cost per person annually. Controlling for age, sex and income, health expenditure for adults who met PA guidelines was significantly lower by A$1393 per person annually. That translated to A$804 million potential annual SA health system cost saving by shifting all adults to meeting PA guidelines. Conclusion There is significant potential for effective health promotion strategies to be net cost saving while addressing wellbeing challenges of COVID-19 recovery where they can shift target populations from not meeting to meeting PA guidelines.
46

Leach, Matthew J., Sue Nichols, Sven Trenholm, and Martin Jones. "Health Literacy of Parents and Carers in a Regional Community: A Cross-Sectional Study." International Quarterly of Community Health Education, June 6, 2021, 0272684X2110225. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0272684x211022572.

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Background Supporting a child’s healthy development is determined, in part, by a parent’s ability to seek, access, interpret and effectively utilize health information. This aspect of parenting draws on a set of skills referred to as health literacy. Objective To assess the level of health literacy among parents/carers in a regional South Australian community. Methods Parents/carers of primary school-aged children, residing in Whyalla, South Australia, were invited to complete the 13-item All Aspects of Health Literacy Survey. Results 155 parents/carers completed the survey (79% mothers). Most participants were English-speaking (97%), employed (62%) and had 2–3 children (62%), with 52% completing tertiary education. Median total health literacy scores were mostly in the moderate-high range (median 27, IQR 26,27), as were critical health literacy scores (median 7, IQR 6,8). Higher scores were reported for functional health literacy (median 8, IQR 7,9), communicative health literacy (median 9, IQR 8,9) and empowerment health literacy (median 4, IQR 3,5). Conclusions Our findings reveal modest levels of health literacy among a sample of parents/carers of primary school-aged children in a regional South Australian community. Further work is needed to understand the differential effect of parental health literacy on child health outcomes, and the types of strategies that may mitigate the impact of these barriers on a child’s healthy development.
47

Byard, Roger W., and Neil EI Langlois. "The ‘canine rescue’ phenomenon." Medicine, Science and the Law, September 9, 2020, 002580242095507. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0025802420955074.

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While deaths caused by interactions with dogs in medico-legal situations most often involve trauma from attacks, in certain circumstances, deaths may occur from sharing environmental hazards that the animal has been exposed to during attempted rescues. Search of the Forensic Science South Australia (FSSA), Australia, autopsy database over a 16-year period from 2004 to 2020 found three such cases, including two women aged 46 and 61 years who were both killed in separate incidents after being struck by vehicles when they attempted to rescue dogs that had strayed onto busy roads. The final case was a 53-year-old man who drowned in a river while trying to rescue his dog. A review of Internet databases and news sources revealed other cases where would-be dog rescuers had drowned in rivers and the sea or had succumbed to hypothermia in frozen lakes and waterways. Other hazardous situations involve house fires, falls from heights, electrocution and envenomation. The characteristic features of these cases are of a dog (often a pet) getting itself into, or being found in, a dangerous situation, with owners or bystanders then attempting rescue. The dangers of the situation are either ignored or underestimated by the rescuers who often also misjudge the capacity of dogs to survive/self-rescue. Cases may therefore be encountered in forensic investigations where death or serious injury has occurred during attempts to protect an animal from particular types of environmental dangers. Unlike the owners, it is not infrequently documented that the dogs have survived the danger unharmed.
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Kaur, Amarpreet, Daizy R. Batish, Shalinder Kaur, and Bhagirath S. Chauhan. "An Overview of the Characteristics and Potential of Calotropis procera From Botanical, Ecological, and Economic Perspectives." Frontiers in Plant Science 12 (June 17, 2021). http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.690806.

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Calotropis procera (Aiton) Dryand. (commonly known as the apple of sodom, calotrope, and giant milkweed) is an evergreen, perennial shrub of the family Apocynaceae, mainly found in arid and semi-arid regions. It is a multipurpose plant, which can be utilized for medicine, fodder, and fuel purposes, timber and fiber production, phytoremediation, and synthesis of nanoparticles. It has been widely used in traditional medicinal systems across North Africa, Middle East Asia, and South-East Asia. At present, it is being extensively explored for its potential pharmacological applications. Several reports also suggest its prospects in the food, textile, and paper industries. Besides, C. procera has also been acknowledged as an ornamental species. High pharmacological potential and socio-economic value have led to the pantropical introduction of the plant. Morpho-physiological adaptations and the ability to tolerate various abiotic stresses enabled its naturalization beyond the introduced areas. Now, it is recognized as an obnoxious environmental weed in several parts of the world. Its unnatural expansion has been witnessed in the regions of South America, the Caribbean Islands, Australia, the Hawaiian Islands, Mexico, Seychelles, and several Pacific Islands. In Australia, nearly 3.7 million hectares of drier areas, including rangelands and Savannahs, have been invaded by the plant. In this review, multiple aspects of C. procera have been discussed including its general characteristics, current and potential uses, and invasive tendencies. The objectives of this review are a) to compile the information available in the literature on C. procera, to make it accessible for future research, b) to enlist together its potential applications being investigated in different fields, and c) to acknowledge C. procera as an emerging invasive species of arid and semi-arid regions.
49

Xie Chunyu. "THE IMPACT OF DUBAI'S WORLD GREEN ECONOMY SUMMIT ON CHINA'S NEW THINKING OF GREEN ECONOMY." International Journal of Innovative Technologies in Economy, no. 2(34) (June 18, 2021). http://dx.doi.org/10.31435/rsglobal_ijite/30062021/7601.

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As the global epidemic continues to have an impact on the world economy and public health, the issue of climate change is still the core threat facing the world. The "2020 Global Risk Report" issued by the World Economic Forum (WEF) pointed out that the five major risks facing the world in the next 10 years are all related to the environment. A study on this pointed out: If governments adopt greener economic recovery plans, the world can reduce the temperature rise by 0.3°C by the middle of this century. In other words, accelerating green economic growth after the epidemic and promoting green transformation in all aspects have become the top issues facing countries. Some of the economic recovery plans proposed by Western Europe, South Korea, Canada and other countries may have a positive effect on the environment. Economic stimulus plans such as China, the United States, Australia, Italy, and Japan will invest most of the funds in non-green areas. Among them, the US economic stimulus plan may the negative environmental impact is the greatest. The Dubai's World Green Economy Summit held this year undoubtedly produced a revolutionary change in thinking for the largest developing country like China.
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Fernandez, Renae C., Vivienne M. Moore, Kristyn J. Willson, and Michael Davies. "Night shift work undertaken by women and fertility treatment interact to increase prevalence of urogenital anomalies in children." Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 5, 2021, oemed—2021–107430. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/oemed-2021-107430.

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ObjectiveTo investigate the role of maternal night shift work in occurrence of urogenital anomalies in offspring, considering a possible interaction with mode of conception.MethodsA population-based cohort comprising births in South Australia (1986–2002) was produced via linkage of fertility clinic records, perinatal and birth defects data. This study concerned first births to women in paid employment (n=98 103). Potential exposure to night shift was imputed by applying a job-exposure matrix to recorded occupation. Associations were examined using logistic regression, first for nurses and other night shift workers separately, then combined. An interaction term for night shift work and mode of conception was included in all models, while adjusting for covariates.ResultsAssociations were similar for nurses and other night shift workers, although only statistically significant for the former when considered separately. A multiplicative interaction was supported: for natural conceptions, maternal night shift work was not associated with offspring urogenital anomalies (OR=0.99, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.15); where a birth arose from fertility treatment, urogenital anomalies were significantly higher among births to all night shift workers compared with day workers (OR=2.07, 95% CI 1.20 to 3.55). This was not due to differences in the type of fertility treatment received.ConclusionsWomen in occupations that probably involved night shift did not have offspring with increased prevalence of urogenital anomalies if they conceived naturally. When night shift workers conceived with fertility treatment, the prevalence of urogenital anomalies was elevated. Possibly these women had the greatest exposure to night shift work, or least tolerance for this work schedule, or heightened sensitivity to hormonal aspects of fertility treatment.

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