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1

Vital, Pierangeli G., Nguyen Thi Van Ha, Le Thi Hong Tuyet, and Kenneth W. Widmer. "Application of quantitative real-time PCR compared to filtration methods for the enumeration of Escherichia coli in surface waters within Vietnam." Journal of Water and Health 15, no. 1 (November 8, 2016): 155–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wh.2016.173.

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Surface water samples in Vietnam were collected from the Saigon River, rural and suburban canals, and urban runoff canals in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, and were processed to enumerate Escherichia coli. Quantification was done through membrane filtration and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Mean log colony-forming unit (CFU)/100 ml E. coli counts in the dry season for river/suburban canals and urban canals were log 2.8 and 3.7, respectively, using a membrane filtration method, while using Taqman quantitative real-time PCR they were log 2.4 and 2.8 for river/suburban canals and urban canals, respectively. For the wet season, data determined by the membrane filtration method in river/suburban canals and urban canals samples had mean counts of log 3.7 and 4.1, respectively. While mean log CFU/100 ml counts in the wet season using quantitative PCR were log 3 and 2, respectively. Additionally, the urban canal samples were significantly lower than those determined by conventional culture methods for the wet season. These results show that while quantitative real-time PCR can be used to determine levels of fecal indicator bacteria in surface waters, there are some limitations to its application and it may be impacted by sources of runoff based on surveyed samples.
2

Vu, M. T., S. V. Raghavan, and S. Y. Liong. "SWAT use of gridded observations for simulating runoff – a Vietnam river basin study." Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions 8, no. 6 (December 6, 2011): 10679–705. http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/hessd-8-10679-2011.

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Abstract. Many research studies that focus on basin hydrology have used the SWAT model to simulate runoff. One common practice in calibrating the SWAT model is the application of station data rainfall to simulate runoff. But over regions lacking robust station data, there is a problem of applying the model to study the hydrological responses. For some countries and remote areas, the rainfall data availability might be a constraint due to many different reasons such as lacking of technology, war time and financial limitation that lead to difficulty in constructing the runoff data. To overcome such a limitation, this research study uses some of the available globally gridded high resolution precipitation datasets to simulate runoff. Five popular gridded observation precipitation datasets: (1) Asian Precipitation Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards the Evaluation of Water Resources (APHRODITE), (2) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), (3) Precipitation Estimation from Remote Sensing Information using Artificial Neural Network (PERSIANN), (4) Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP), (5) modified Global Historical Climatology Network version 2 (GHCN2) and one reanalysis dataset National Centers for Environment Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) are used to simulate runoff over the Dakbla River (a small tributary of the Mekong River) in Vietnam. Wherever possible, available station data are also used for comparison. Bilinear interpolation of these gridded datasets is used to input the precipitation data at the closest grid points to the station locations. Sensitivity Analysis and Auto-calibration are performed for the SWAT model. The Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) and Coefficient of Determination (R2) indices are used to benchmark the model performance. This entails a good understanding of the response of the hydrological model to different datasets and a quantification of the uncertainties in these datasets. Such a methodology is also useful for planning on Rainfall-runoff and even reservoir/river management both at rural and urban scales.
3

Vu, M. T., S. V. Raghavan, and S. Y. Liong. "SWAT use of gridded observations for simulating runoff – a Vietnam river basin study." Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 16, no. 8 (August 16, 2012): 2801–11. http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/hess-16-2801-2012.

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Abstract. Many research studies that focus on basin hydrology have applied the SWAT model using station data to simulate runoff. But over regions lacking robust station data, there is a problem of applying the model to study the hydrological responses. For some countries and remote areas, the rainfall data availability might be a constraint due to many different reasons such as lacking of technology, war time and financial limitation that lead to difficulty in constructing the runoff data. To overcome such a limitation, this research study uses some of the available globally gridded high resolution precipitation datasets to simulate runoff. Five popular gridded observation precipitation datasets: (1) Asian Precipitation Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards the Evaluation of Water Resources (APHRODITE), (2) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), (3) Precipitation Estimation from Remote Sensing Information using Artificial Neural Network (PERSIANN), (4) Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP), (5) a modified version of Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN2) and one reanalysis dataset, National Centers for Environment Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) are used to simulate runoff over the Dak Bla river (a small tributary of the Mekong River) in Vietnam. Wherever possible, available station data are also used for comparison. Bilinear interpolation of these gridded datasets is used to input the precipitation data at the closest grid points to the station locations. Sensitivity Analysis and Auto-calibration are performed for the SWAT model. The Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) and Coefficient of Determination (R2) indices are used to benchmark the model performance. Results indicate that the APHRODITE dataset performed very well on a daily scale simulation of discharge having a good NSE of 0.54 and R2 of 0.55, when compared to the discharge simulation using station data (0.68 and 0.71). The GPCP proved to be the next best dataset that was applied to the runoff modelling, with NSE and R2 of 0.46 and 0.51, respectively. The PERSIANN and TRMM rainfall data driven runoff did not show good agreement compared to the station data as both the NSE and R2 indices showed a low value of 0.3. GHCN2 and NCEP also did not show good correlations. The varied results by using these datasets indicate that although the gauge based and satellite-gauge merged products use some ground truth data, the different interpolation techniques and merging algorithms could also be a source of uncertainties. This entails a good understanding of the response of the hydrological model to different datasets and a quantification of the uncertainties in these datasets. Such a methodology is also useful for planning on Rainfall-runoff and even reservoir/river management both at rural and urban scales.
4

Linderhof, Vincent, Marieke Meeske, Vasco Diogo, and Anne Sonneveld. "The Impact of Water-Related Pollution on Food Systems in Transition: The Case of Northern Vietnam." Sustainability 13, no. 4 (February 11, 2021): 1945. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/su13041945.

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In Vietnam, agricultural practices such as fertilizer and pesticide use affect the landscape as well as the availability and safety of food. For instance, pesticides and fertilizer end up in surface water used for drinking water, crop irrigation, and in fish tanks. However, the link to actual food consumption and health is complex and information is lacking. This study considers potential water-related exposure to toxic hazards in northern Vietnam food systems, through the consumption of food commodities and of water. Water pollution is operationalized by considering the following two channels: (i) pesticide and nutrient leaching to surface water (share of surface water) and (ii) industrial runoff from facilities located in urban areas (share of urban areas). We explore how potential exposure to toxic hazard is related to food consumption choices. Using a sample of the Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey (VHLSS) for 2014, we estimate how shares of food consumption categories in total food consumption are affected by household and landscape characteristics, the latter also reflecting potential environmental pressures. In districts with higher shares of surface water, the share of fish consumption is higher and the share of meat consumption is lower. From an environmental and health perspective, households in water-rich areas thus may have a higher probability of being exposed to toxic chemicals due to higher fish consumption. In districts with higher shares of urban areas, the shares of meat and cereals in total food consumption value were lower, and the shares of fish and fruit and vegetables were higher. The results indicate that food consumption is affected by landscape characteristics that may also influence the level of exposure to water-related environmental pressures, and that this combined effect may potentially exacerbate food safety and health risks. The actual impact is more complex and should be analyzed with more sophisticated data and methods.
5

Minh Hai, Dang. "Optimal Planning of Low-Impact Development for TSS Control in the Upper Area of the Cau Bay River Basin, Vietnam." Water 12, no. 2 (February 14, 2020): 533. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/w12020533.

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Recently, an increase in impervious area induced by the process of urbanization has significantly affected the quantity and quality of urban surface runoff. Among the pollutants of the storm flow, total suspended solids (TSS) are an extremely important cause of water quality deterioration. This paper aims to use the integrated nondominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA II)–Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) method to find optimal Low-Impact Development (LID) plans which ensure maximum TSS load reduction and minimum total relative cost. Green roofs, permeable pavements, and tree boxes with fixed parameters and unit costs were considered for seeking optimal planning alternatives in the Cau Bay river basin. The optimization process yielded a cost–effectiveness curve, which relates cost of LID implementation with its corresponding TSS reduction efficiencies. The advantage of the optimization approach was clarified when, with a defined cost of LID implementation, there was a significant difference in TSS reduction efficiencies between the optimal and non-optimal alternatives. The increase in return periods of rainfall patterns not only resulted in a reduction in the TSS removal efficiencies of LID practices at the outfall of the study area, but also spatially changed in terms of the TSS removal efficiencies of the sub-catchments. The return period of the rainfall patterns utilized for LID design should not exceed 2 years. The simulation–multi-optimization approach facilitates integration of LID practice plans into the urban infrastructure master plans in Vietnam.
6

Thanh Giao, Nguyen, Phan Kim Anh, and Huynh Thi Hong Nhien. "Spatiotemporal Analysis of Surface Water Quality in Dong Thap Province, Vietnam Using Water Quality Index and Statistical Approaches." Water 13, no. 3 (January 29, 2021): 336. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/w13030336.

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The study was conducted to spatiotemporally analyze the quality, location and critical water variables influencing water quality using water monitoring data from the Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Dong Thap province in 2019. The water quality parameters including turbidity, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), total suspended solids (TSS), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrite (N-NO2−), nitrate (N-NO3−), ammonium (N-NH4+), total nitrogen (TN), orthophosphate (P-PO43−), chloride (Cl−), oil and grease, sulfate (SO42−), coliforms, and Escherichia coli (E. coli) were collected at 58 locations with the frequency of four times per year (February, May, August, and November). These parameters were compared with national technical regulation on surface water quality—QCVN 08-MT: 2015/BTNMT. Water quality index (WQI) was calculated and spatially presented by geographical information system (GIS) tool. Pearson correlation analysis, cluster analysis (CA), and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to evaluate the correlation among water quality parameters, group and reduce the sampling sites, and identify key parameters and potential water pollution sources. The results showed that TSS, BOD, COD, N-NH4+, P-PO43−, coliforms, and E. coli were the significant concerns impairing the water quality. Water quality was assessed from poor to medium levels by WQI analysis. CA suggested that the current monitoring locations could be reduced from 58 sites to 43 sites which can be saved the total monitoring budget up to 25.85%. PCA showed that temperature, pH, TSS, DO, BOD, COD, N-NH4+, N-NO2−, TN, P-PO43−, coliforms, and E. coli were the key water parameters influencing water quality in Dong Thap province’s canals and rivers; thus, these parameters should be monitored annually. The water pollution sources were possibly hydrological conditions, water runoff, riverbank erosion, domestic and urban activities, and industrial and agricultural discharges. Significantly, the municipal and agricultural wastes could be decisive factors to the change of surface water quality in the study area. Further studies need to focus on identifying sources of water pollution for implementing appropriate water management strategies.
7

Li, James, and B. J. Adams. "Optimization of urban runoff quantity/quality management." Environmetrics 1, no. 4 (July 6, 2007): 321–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/env.3170010402.

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8

Trowsdale, S., J. Gabe, and R. Vale. "Integrated urban water management in commercial buildings." Water Science and Technology 63, no. 5 (March 1, 2011): 859–67. http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2011.261.

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Monitoring results are presented as an annual water balance from the pioneering Landcare Research green building containing commercial laboratory and office space. The building makes use of harvested roof runoff to flush toilets and urinals and irrigate glasshouse experiments, reducing the demand for city-supplied water and stormwater runoff. Stormwater treatment devices also manage the runoff from the carpark, helping curb stream degradation. Composting toilets and low-flow tap fittings further reduce the water demand. Despite research activities requiring the use of large volumes of water, the demand for city-supplied water is less than has been measured in many other green buildings. In line with the principles of sustainability, the composting toilets produce a useable product from wastes and internalise the wastewater treatment process.
9

Garcia, Alfred, and Wesley P. James. "Urban Runoff Simulation Model." Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management 114, no. 4 (July 1988): 399–413. http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(asce)0733-9496(1988)114:4(399).

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10

Helmreich, Brigitte. "Rainwater Management in Urban Areas." Water 13, no. 8 (April 16, 2021): 1096. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/w13081096.

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Rising levels of impervious surfaces in densely populated cities and climate change-related weather extremes such as heavy rain events or long dry weather periods provide us with new challenges for sustainable stormwater management in urban areas. The Special Issue consists of nine articles and a review and focuses on a range of relevant issues: different aspects and findings of stormwater runoff quantity and quality, including strategies and techniques to mitigate the negative effects of such climate change impacts hydraulically, as well as lab-scale and long-term experience with pollutants from urban runoff and the efficiency of stormwater quality improvement devices (SQIDs) in removing them. Testing procedures and protocols for SQIDs are also considered. One paper analyses the clogging of porous media in the use of stormwater for managed aquifer recharge. The Special Issue demonstrates the importance and timeliness of the topic of sustainable rainwater management, especially with regard to growing cities and the challenges posed by climate change.
11

Malaviya, Piyush, and Asha Singh. "Constructed Wetlands for Management of Urban Stormwater Runoff." Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology 42, no. 20 (October 9, 2012): 2153–214. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10643389.2011.574107.

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12

Xiao, Qingfu, E. McPherson, Qi Zhang, Xinlei Ge, and Randy Dahlgren. "Performance of Two Bioswales on Urban Runoff Management." Infrastructures 2, no. 4 (September 27, 2017): 12. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures2040012.

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13

ELLIS, Professor J. B. "The Management and Control of Urban Runoff Quality." Water and Environment Journal 3, no. 2 (April 1989): 116–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-6593.1989.tb01499.x.

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14

Nightingale, Harry I. "WATER QUALITY BENEATH URBAN RUNOFF WATER MANAGEMENT BASINS." Journal of the American Water Resources Association 23, no. 2 (April 1987): 197–205. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-1688.1987.tb00797.x.

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15

Almakki, Ayad, Estelle Jumas-Bilak, Hélène Marchandin, and Patricia Licznar-Fajardo. "Antibiotic resistance in urban runoff." Science of The Total Environment 667 (June 2019): 64–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.02.183.

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16

Huong, H. T. L., and A. Pathirana. "Urbanization and climate change impacts on future urban flooding in Can Tho city, Vietnam." Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 17, no. 1 (January 29, 2013): 379–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/hess-17-379-2013.

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Abstract. Urban development increases flood risk in cities due to local changes in hydrological and hydrometeorological conditions that increase flood hazard, as well as to urban concentrations that increase the vulnerability. The relationship between the increasing urban runoff and flooding due to increased imperviousness is better perceived than that between the cyclic impact of urban growth and the urban rainfall via microclimatic changes. The large-scale, global impacts due to climate variability and change could compound these risks. We present the case of a typical third world city – Can Tho (the biggest city in Mekong River Delta, Vietnam) – faced with multiple future challenges, namely: (i) the likely effect of climate change-driven sea level rise, (ii) an expected increase of river runoff due to climate change as estimated by the Vietnamese government, (iii) increased urban runoff driven by imperviousness, and (iv) enhancement of extreme rainfall due to urban growth-driven, microclimatic change (urban heat islands). A set of model simulations were used to construct future scenarios, combining these influences. Urban growth of the city was projected up to year 2100 based on historical growth patterns, using a land use simulation model (Dinamica EGO). A dynamic limited-area atmospheric model (WRF), coupled with a detailed land surface model with vegetation parameterization (Noah LSM), was employed in controlled numerical experiments to estimate the anticipated changes in extreme rainfall patterns due to urban heat island effect. Finally, a 1-D/2-D coupled urban-drainage/flooding model (SWMM-Brezo) was used to simulate storm-sewer surcharge and surface inundation to establish the increase in the flood hazard resulting from the changes. The results show that under the combined scenario of significant change in river level (due to climate-driven sea level rise and increase of flow in the Mekong) and "business as usual" urbanization, the flooding of Can Tho could increase significantly. The worst case may occur if a sea level rise of 100 cm and the flow from upstream happen together with high-development scenarios. The relative contribution of causes of flooding are significantly different at various locations; therefore, detailed research on adaptation are necessary for future investments to be effective.
17

Huong, H. T. L., and A. Pathirana. "Urbanization and climate change impacts on future urban flood risk in Can Tho city, Vietnam." Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions 8, no. 6 (December 8, 2011): 10781–824. http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/hessd-8-10781-2011.

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Abstract. Urban development increases flood risk in cities due to local changes in hydrological and hydrometeorological conditions that increase flood hazard, and also to urban concentrations that increase the vulnerability. The relationship between the increasing urban runoff and flooding due to increased imperviousness better perceived than that between the cyclic impact of urban growth and the urban rainfall via microclimatic changes. The large-scale, global impacts due to climate variability and change could compound these risks. We present the case of a typical third world city – Can Tho (the biggest city in Mekong River Delta, Vietnam) – faced with multiple future challenges, namely: (i) climate change-driven sea-level rise and tidal effect, (ii) increase river runoff due to climate change, (iii) increased urban runoff driven by imperviousness, and (iv) enhancement of extreme rainfall due to urban growth-driven micro-climatic change (urban heat islands). A set of model simulations were used to assess the future impact of the combination of these influences. Urban growth of the city was projected up to year 2100 based on historical growth patterns, using a land-use simulation model (Dinamica-EGO). A dynamic limited-area atmospheric model (WRF), coupled with a detailed land-surface model with vegetation parameterization (Noah LSM), was employed in controlled numerical experiments to estimate the anticipated changes in extreme rainfall patterns due to urban heat island effect. Finally, a 1-D/2-D coupled urban-drainage/flooding model (SWMM-Brezo) was used to simulate storm-sewer surcharge and surface inundation to establish the increase in the flood risk resulting from the changes. The results show that, if the city develops as predicted, the maximum of inundation depth and area in Can Tho will increase by about 20%. The impact of climate change on inundation is more serious than that of urbanization. The worse case may occur if the sea level rises 100 cm and the flow from upstream happen in the high-development scenarios. The relative contribution of causes of flooding are significantly different at various locations; therefore, detailed research on adaptation are necessary for the future investments to be effective.
18

Taylor, Geoff D., Tim D. Fletcher, Tony H. F. Wong, Peter F. Breen, and Hugh P. Duncan. "Nitrogen composition in urban runoff—implications for stormwater management." Water Research 39, no. 10 (May 2005): 1982–89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2005.03.022.

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19

Ellis, John Bryan. "Bacterial sources, pathways and management strategies for urban runoff." Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 47, no. 6 (November 2004): 943–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0964056042000284910.

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20

Ballo, Siaka, Min Liu, Lijun Hou, and Jing Chang. "Pollutants in stormwater runoff in Shanghai (China): Implications for management of urban runoff pollution." Progress in Natural Science 19, no. 7 (July 2009): 873–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pnsc.2008.07.021.

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21

Zhang, Yixin, Weihan Zhao, Xue Chen, Changhyun Jun, Jianli Hao, Xiaonan Tang, and Jun Zhai. "Assessment on the Effectiveness of Urban Stormwater Management." Water 13, no. 1 (December 22, 2020): 4. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/w13010004.

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Stormwater management is a key issue in line with global problems of urbanization and climate change. Assessing the effectiveness in managing stormwater is crucial to maintain urban resilience to flooding risk. A method based on a stormwater management model (SWMM) was developed for assessing the control of stormwater runoff volume and the percentage removal of suspended solids by implementing a Sponge City strategy. An interdisciplinary approach was adopted incorporating Low Impact Development (LID) with urban green infrastructure and grey infrastructure paradigms in a typical old residential community in Suzhou, China. Sponge facilities for reducing stormwater runoff included bio-retention cells, permeable pavements, grassed pitches, and stormwater gardens. The simulation results of SWMM show that the stormwater pipe system can meet the management standard for storms with a five-year recurrence interval. The volume capture ratio of annual runoff was 91%, which is higher than control target of 80%. The suspended solids reduction rate was 56%, which meets the requirement of planning indicators. Thus, the proposed method of spongy facilities can be used for renovation planning in old residential areas in China. Implementing spongy facilities with a LID strategy for stormwater management can significantly enhance urban water resilience and improve ecosystem services.
22

Viklander, M., J. Marsalek, P. A. Malmquist, and W. E. Watt. "Urban drainage and highway runoff in cold climates: conference overview." Water Science and Technology 48, no. 9 (November 1, 2003): 1–10. http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2003.0479.

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This overview of research findings presented at the conference on urban drainage and highway runoff in cold climates starts with generation of urban runoff and snowmelt, followed by snowmelt and winter runoff quality, best management practices for urban snowmelt and winter runoff, and snow management in urban areas. Research on the urban hydrological cycle is lagging behind the needs in this field, particularly in terms of data availability. The current studies of winter urban runoff quality focus on road salts in the urban environment and their environmental effects. The needs for better source controls in salt applications, improved management of chloride-laden runoff, and selective adoption of environmentally safer alternative de-icers were reported. Adaptation of the conventional stormwater best management practices (BMPs) for winter operation remains a challenge. The first step in refining the existing BMPs for winter operation is to advance the understanding of their operation, as reported for some cases at the conference. Finally, snow management in urban areas may require local storage of fresh (unpolluted) snow and disposal of more polluted snow at central snow disposal sites.
23

ANDOH, R. Y. G. "Urban Runoff: Nature, Characteristics and Control." Water and Environment Journal 8, no. 4 (August 1994): 371–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-6593.1994.tb01120.x.

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24

Cederkvist, K., M. B. Jensen, and P. E. Holm. "Characterization of Chromium Species in Urban Runoff." Journal of Environmental Quality 42, no. 1 (January 2013): 111–17. http://dx.doi.org/10.2134/jeq2012.0182.

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25

Harris, J. A., and B. J. Adams. "Probabilistic assessment of urban runoff erosion potential." Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering 33, no. 3 (March 1, 2006): 307–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/l05-114.

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At the planning or screening level of urban development, analytical modeling using derived probability distribution theory is a viable alternative to continuous simulation, offering considerably less computational effort. A new set of analytical probabilistic models is developed for predicting the erosion potential of urban stormwater runoff. The marginal probability distributions for the duration of a hydrograph in which the critical channel velocity is exceeded (termed exceedance duration) are computed using derived probability distribution theory. Exceedance duration and peak channel velocity are two random variables upon which erosion potential is functionally dependent. Reasonable agreement exists between the derived marginal probability distributions for exceedance duration and continuous EPA Stormwater Management Model (SWMM) simulations at more common return periods. It is these events of lower magnitude and higher frequency that are the most significant to erosion-potential prediction. Key words: erosion, stormwater management, derived probability distribution, exceedance duration.
26

Liu, Yang, Chunyi Wang, Yang Yu, Yongyu Chen, Longfei Du, Xiaodong Qu, Wenqi Peng, Min Zhang, and Chenxin Gui. "Effect of Urban Stormwater Road Runoff of Different Land Use Types on an Urban River in Shenzhen, China." Water 11, no. 12 (December 2, 2019): 2545. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/w11122545.

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Urban storm runoff is a major source of pollutants in receiving water bodies. To assess the impact of urban stormwater runoff on an urban river, the runoff process of total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonium (NH4), and total phosphorus (TP) were investigated on road surfaces classified as arterial road (AR), residential area (RA), and industrial area (IA) in the Pingshan River (PSR) watershed in Shenzhen, China. Event mean concentration (EMC) was calculated to analyze the water quality of road runoff, and the dimensionless M(V) cumulative curves were used to estimate the course of decreasing concentration of runoff pollutants during each rainfall event. Multicriteria decision making methods (PROMETHEE-GAIA) were used to identify the linkage between runoff pollutants, land use types, and rainfall intensity. The EMCs of COD and TP in runoff exceeded the class IV level of the water quality standard for surface water (China). RA was a major potential source for NH4, COD, and TP in the river. Controlling the first flush is critical to decrease the effect of road runoff on receiving water bodies, as most runoff pollutants in AR, RA, and IA had a first flush effect during heavy rainfall. The specific management measure for runoff pollution varied with land use type. Reducing road TSS concentrations was effective for controlling runoff pollution in AR and RA because NH4, TP, and COD attached to particulate matter. In IA, the collection and reuse of stormwater in the initial rainfall period were effective for reducing the effect of soluble pollutants in runoff on receiving water bodies. This study provides new information for managing urban road stormwater runoff in different land use types.
27

Ngoc, Nguyen Thi. "Using Economic Instruments for Urban Environment Management in Vietnam." China Report 53, no. 3 (August 2017): 386–99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0009445517711523.

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The environment and the economy are basic and inseparable elements. The environment is the locus and support for the activities of human life. These activities are related to the creation and supply of resources necessary for the economy. They generate large amounts of waste, while the load capacity of the environment is limited. When economic operations go beyond certain limits, then the environment cannot sustain them. This could lead to economic crisis on a global scale. The problem is how to protect the environment, maintain economic operations and improve the lives of human beings, or in other words, find the ways to harmonise environmental factors with the needs of the economy. Vietnam and other developing nations are facing serious problems of environmental degradation, especially in urban areas. Many solutions have been tried, of which the use of economic instruments has received much attention on the part of the government and leaders of Vietnam. This article focuses on the use of economic instruments in urban environment management in Vietnam. The objectives of this article are to explore how economic instruments are being used for urban environment management and to point out the issues and difficulties emerging in the process of using this tool to control environmental pollution and to improve the quality of the environment.
28

Salgaonkar, Jag, Anthony Antich, Gil Barboa, and Harvey Gobas. "SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF URBAN RUNOFF (STORMWATER) THE SANTA MONICA EXPERIENCE." Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation 2003, no. 6 (January 1, 2003): 781–86. http://dx.doi.org/10.2175/193864703784641982.

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29

Beck, Nicole G., Gary Conley, Lisa Kanner, and Margaret Mathias. "An urban runoff model designed to inform stormwater management decisions." Journal of Environmental Management 193 (May 2017): 257–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.02.007.

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30

Chocat, B., P. Krebs, J. Marsalek, W. Rauch, and W. Schilling. "Urban drainage redefined: from stormwater removal to integrated management." Water Science and Technology 43, no. 5 (March 1, 2001): 61–68. http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2001.0251.

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Even though urban drainage has been practised for more than 5000 years, many challenges arising from growing demands on drainage still remain with respect to runoff quantity and quality; landscape aesthetics, ecology and beneficial uses; and operation of existing urban wastewater systems. Further advances can be achieved by adopting an integrated approach, optimal operation of the existing infrastructure, advanced pollution and runoff source controls, improved resilience of receiving waters, and adaptive water management. The specific research needs include new technologies and strategies for stormwater management, advanced treatment of urban wet-weather effluents, and tools for analysis and operation of drainage systems. High diversity of demands on, and region/site specific conditions of, urban drainage shapes the role of urban drainage experts – as mediators among the many stakeholders and fields involved.
31

Lee, J. H., K. W. Bang, L. H. Ketchum, J. S. Choe, and M. J. Yu. "First flush analysis of urban storm runoff." Science of The Total Environment 293, no. 1-3 (July 2002): 163–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0048-9697(02)00006-2.

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32

Bomboi, M. T., A. Hernández, F. Mariño, and E. Hontoria. "Distribution of hydrocarbon concentrations from urban runoff." Science of The Total Environment 93 (April 1990): 465–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0048-9697(90)90137-j.

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33

Maršálek, J., and D. Sztruhár. "Urban Drainage: Review of Contemporary Approaches." Water Science and Technology 29, no. 1-2 (January 1, 1994): 1–10. http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.1994.0645.

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Recent developments in urban storm drainage are reviewed starting with rainfall/runoff processes, followed by discussions of combined sewage, drainage impacts on receiving waters, impact mitigation, hydroinformatics, regulatory programs and conclusions. The most promising trends in this field include improvements in spatial definition of rainfall data, runoff modelling with a limited number of model parameters and recognition of modelling uncertainties, analytical statistical modelling of runoff quality, advances in the understanding and modelling of sewer sediment transport, the use of biomonitoring and modelling in assessing drainage impacts on receiving waters, further refinement of best management practices for stormwater management, development of new processes for treatment of stormwater, experience with vortex combined sewer overflow structures and their applications in combination with other treatment devices, real time control of sewer system operation, advances in hydroinformatics leading to improvements in the integrated management and modelling of drainage systems, interfacing of drainage models with geographic information systems, and improved regulation of drainage effluents.
34

Bai, Yiran, Na Zhao, Ruoyu Zhang, and Xiaofan Zeng. "Storm Water Management of Low Impact Development in Urban Areas Based on SWMM." Water 11, no. 1 (December 24, 2018): 33. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/w11010033.

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LID (low impact development) is the storm management technique designed for controlling runoff in urban areas, which can be used to solve urban flooding disasters. Taking Sucheng District of Suqian City, Jiangsu Province, China as an example, this project used SWMM (storm water management model) to study the effect of four different types of LID scenarios (① no LID technique, ② LID technique based on infiltration, ③ LID technique based on water storage, ④ LID technique based on the combination of infiltration and water storage) on urban flooding under different rainfall patterns. For the whole study area, the results show that infiltration facilities have the greater reduction rate of surface runoff compared with storage facilities. The combined model (infiltration + storage) works best in the reduction of peak flow and flood volume, with the maximum reduction rate of peak flow (32.5%), and the maximum reduction rate of flood volume (31.8%). For local nodes, infiltration facilities and water storage facilities have different effects. Infiltration facilities significantly reduce runoff of node 47, the reduction rate of ponding time ranges from 73.1% to 54.5%, while water storage facilities have no effects on it. Storage facilities significantly reduce runoff of node 52, the reduction rate of ponding time is 100%, while infiltration facilities have no effects on it. Under all the LID designs, runoff reduction gradually increases with the increasing rainfall amount, and peak reduction becomes stable when rainfall amount reaches about 81.8 mm. In general, the combined model (infiltration + storage) performs better than any other scenarios in runoff reduction. The research shows that LID facilities can greatly mitigate flood, thus the urban flooding disasters caused by extreme rainstorms can be prevented.
35

Kändler, Nils, Ivar Annus, Anatoli Vassiljev, and Raido Puust. "Real time controlled sustainable urban drainage systems in dense urban areas." Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology-Aqua 69, no. 3 (December 2, 2019): 238–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/aqua.2019.083.

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Abstract Stormwater runoff from urban catchments is affected by the changing climate and rapid urban development. Intensity of rainstorms is expected to increase in Northern Europe, and sealing off surfaces reduces natural stormwater management. Both trends increase stormwater peak runoff volume that urban stormwater systems (UDS) have to tackle. Pipeline systems have typically limited capacity, therefore measures must be foreseen to reduce runoff from new developed areas to existing UDS in order to avoid surcharge. There are several solutions available to tackle this challenge, e.g. low impact development (LID), best management practices (BMP) or stormwater real time control measures (RTC). In our study, a new concept of a smart in-line storage system is developed and evaluated on the background of traditional in-line and off-line detention solutions. The system is operated by real time controlled actuators with an ability to predict rainfall dynamics. This solution does not need an advanced and expensive centralised control system; it is easy to implement and install. The concept has been successfully tested in a 12.5 ha urban development area in Tallinn, the Estonian capital. Our analysis results show a significant potential and economic feasibility in the reduction of peak flow from dense urban areas with limited free construction space.
36

Dake, Saurabh Ravikiran. "Storm Water Management." International Journal for Research in Applied Science and Engineering Technology 9, no. VIII (August 5, 2021): 45–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.22214/ijraset.2021.37271.

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Over the past years, rapid growth due to urbanization and industrialization, the changes in Land over and land use patterns have resulted in permanent environmental pollution to the hydrological processes. The hydrological cycle in cities is seriously affected due to increasing impervious areas as a result of urban development which has enhanced the risk of urban flooding. The increase in the impermeable area decreases infiltration, increases the runoff and reduces the time of concentration. Hence, for a given amount of rainfall, greater flooding is generated. Understanding the scope and limitation of sustainable stormwater management techniques detailed literature review is carried out. Site suitability is based on spatial analysis of data like geomorphology, slope, recharge condition, landuse and Landover map. Then analyzing local site conditions possible techniques that could be used to manage stormwater runoff are recommended and conclusions are drawn on the same.
37

Oraei Zare, S., B. Saghafian, and A. Shamsai. "Multi-objective optimization for combined quality–quantity urban runoff control." Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 16, no. 12 (December 3, 2012): 4531–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/hess-16-4531-2012.

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Abstract. Urban development affects the quantity and quality of urban surface runoff. In recent years, the best management practices (BMPs) concept has been widely promoted for control of both quality and quantity of urban floods. However, means to optimize the BMPs in a conjunctive quantity/quality framework are still under research. In this paper, three objective functions were considered: (1) minimization of the total flood damages, cost of BMP implementation and cost of land-use development; (2) reducing the amount of TSS (total suspended solid) and BOD5 (biological oxygen demand), representing the pollution characteristics, to below the threshold level; and (3) minimizing the total runoff volume. The biological oxygen demand and total suspended solid values were employed as two measures of urban runoff quality. The total surface runoff volume produced by sub-basins was representative of the runoff quantity. The construction and maintenance costs of the BMPs were also estimated based on the local price standards. Urban runoff quantity and quality in the case study watershed were simulated with the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM). The NSGA-II (Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II) optimization technique was applied to derive the optimal trade off curve between various objectives. In the proposed structure for the NSGA-II algorithm, a continuous structure and intermediate crossover were used because they perform better as far as the optimization efficiency is concerned. Finally, urban runoff management scenarios were presented based on the optimal trade-off curve using the k-means method. Subsequently, a specific runoff control scenario was proposed to the urban managers.
38

Zanoni, A. E. "Characteristics and treatability of urban runoff residuals." Water Research 20, no. 5 (May 1986): 651–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0043-1354(86)90030-8.

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39

Lloyd, S. D., T. H. F. Wong, and B. Porter. "The planning and construction of an urban stormwater management scheme." Water Science and Technology 45, no. 7 (April 1, 2002): 1–10. http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2002.0111.

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Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) offers a means to integrate stormwater best management practices into urban planning and design to achieve multiple objectives. Some of these objectives relate to stormwater drainage, water quality improvements, aquatic habitat protection, stormwater harvesting and use, and landscape amenity. The Lynbrook Estate, Australia, has incorporated bio-filtration systems and wetlands into the design of major roads, local access streets and parklands that attenuate and treat roof runoff and road runoff from a 32 ha, 270 allotment residential precinct. This paper outlines the process that enabled the concept of a stormwater drainage design to be translated into on-ground works. Details of the construction activities, costs and market acceptance highlight the potential for the adoption of similar practices elsewhere.
40

Zhang, Jing, and Richard C. Peralta. "Estimating infiltration increase and runoff reduction due to green infrastructure." Journal of Water and Climate Change 10, no. 2 (September 19, 2018): 237–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wcc.2018.354.

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Abstract To aid urban entities desiring to reduce runoff from precipitation while increasing aquifer recharge, we present an approach for simultaneously quantifying runoff and infiltration. Developing the approach involved using: (1) the Windows version of the Source Loading and Management Model (WINSLAMM) to estimate runoff from precipitation in areas with green infrastructure (GI); and (2) the SCS runoff curve method to estimate infiltration. Computed infiltration and runoff values enable the estimation of the runoff reduction and infiltration increase due to alternative GI construction modes. We relate infiltration ratios to land use for a range of event rainfall depths in southwestern USA. These ratios can aid estimation of aquifer recharge while improving storm water management. We apply the approach to a Salt Lake City residential area for current land use and three assumed runoff control practices. Although currently applicable for a wide range of precipitation and urban land use situations in southwestern USA, the approach is extensible to guide urban development elsewhere.
41

Ristenpart, Erik. "Planning of stormwater management with a new model for drainage best management practices." Water Science and Technology 39, no. 9 (May 1, 1999): 253–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.1999.0489.

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Storm water management is a high priority topic in urban drainage in Germany and many other countries. New concepts are combining a variety of measures (best management practices as well as conventional structures) to deal with stormwater runoff, also taking into account ecological criteria with respect to the local and regional water cycle. In this paper detailed information about an exemplary contemporary stormwater management concept is presented. Dimensioning and proof of performance of the different drainage structures was carried out with the help of an innovative rainfall-runoff model which is also briefly described.
42

Braune, M. J., and A. Wood. "Best management practices applied to urban runoff quantity and quality control." Water Science and Technology 39, no. 12 (June 1, 1999): 117–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.1999.0537.

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South Africa currently has one of the highest rates of urbanisation in the world causing a significant increase in surface water runoff. This, in turn, causes increased flooding and a significant decrease in water quality due primarily to the accumulation of pollutants. The need exists to manage urban stormwater runoff on an integrated catchment basis, thereby reducing the negative impact of urbanisation on the environment and quality of life. In this paper, details on how existing problem areas can be identified and ranked, the use of Best Management Practices (BMPs) to reduce the impacts of urbanisation on the environment and the effectiveness of BMP's are discussed and illustrated, based on expertise gained from studies in South Africa as well as visits to the USA and Australia.
43

Nugroho, Searphin, and Wahyono Hadi. "Application of Bio-pore Infiltration Hole as an Urban Runoff Management." IPTEK Journal of Proceedings Series, no. 5 (December 25, 2019): 324. http://dx.doi.org/10.12962/j23546026.y2019i5.6348.

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44

Shen, Ji, and Qiuwen Zhang. "Applications of GIS in Information Management for Urban Rainfall-Runoff Simulation." International Journal of Hybrid Information Technology 9, no. 11 (November 30, 2016): 25–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/ijhit.2016.9.11.03.

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45

Liu, Y., W. Che, and J. Li. "Monitor-based evaluation of pollutant load from urban stormwater runoff in Beijing." Water Science and Technology 52, no. 9 (November 1, 2005): 191–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2005.0317.

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As a major pollutant source to urban receiving waters, the non-point source pollution from urban runoff needs to be well studied and effectively controlled. Based on monitoring data from urban runoff pollutant sources, this article describes a systematic estimation of total pollutant loads from the urban areas of Beijing. A numerical model was developed to quantify main pollutant loads of urban runoff in Beijing. A sub-procedure is involved in this method, in which the flush process influences both the quantity and quality of stormwater runoff. A statistics-based method was applied in computing the annual pollutant load as an output of the runoff. The proportions of pollutant from point-source and non-point sources were compared. This provides a scientific basis for proper environmental input assessment of urban stormwater pollution to receiving waters, improvement of infrastructure performance, implementation of urban stormwater management, and utilization of stormwater.
46

Ichiki, A., K. J. Hall, Y. Maruta, and K. Yamada. "Comparison of pollutant runoff in Lake Biwa tributaries, Japan and the brunette river watershed, Canada." Water Science and Technology 44, no. 7 (October 1, 2001): 69–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2001.0392.

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This study is aimed at verifying runoff pollutant loadings from urban areas. Urban runoff has been considered an important source of diffuse pollution especially during storm events. This paper describes the pollutant runoff during storm events, mainly in terms of effects of watershed characteristics. Data collected from Lake Biwa tributaries, Japan, have shown fundamental information to control pollutant runoff into receiving water. Also, data from the Brunette River watershed, Canada, which is a highly urbanized watershed in the Vancouver region, have been used for a comparative analysis. In the results, available information for the environmental management of urban storm water runoff was obtained by comparing the data on pollutant runoff in both watersheds.
47

Taebi, Amir, and Ronald L. Droste. "Pollution loads in urban runoff and sanitary wastewater." Science of The Total Environment 327, no. 1-3 (July 2004): 175–84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2003.11.015.

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48

Yau Seng Mah, Darrien, Tze Chiat Ng, and Frederik Josep Putuhena. "Integrating Infiltration Facility to Urban Road Drainage." International Journal of Engineering & Technology 7, no. 3.18 (August 2, 2018): 31. http://dx.doi.org/10.14419/ijet.v7i3.18.16668.

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It is proposed to merge an infiltration facility to the conventional road curb system. Towards this end, a Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) is developed to explore the effectiveness of the proposed component at Riveria housing estate, Kota Samarahan, Sarawak. The findings show that the integration is effective in reducing peak runoff. The results indicate that a scenario of hollow infiltration trench achieves zero runoff, and a scenario of filled infiltration trench has a 43.6% reduction in runoff compared with existing road drainage condition. Furthermore, the hollow infiltration trench is found to be the best among all the given scenarios. The SWMM modelling results provide a tool to quantitatively measure the probable use of the proposed measures to improve the existing road drainage system.
49

Tobio, J. A. S., M. C. Maniquiz-Redillas, and L. H. Kim. "Physical design optimization of an urban runoff treatment system using Stormwater Management Model (SWMM)." Water Science and Technology 72, no. 10 (July 24, 2015): 1747–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2015.381.

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The study presented the application of Stormwater Management Model (SWMM) in determining the optimal physical design properties of an established low impact development (LID) system treating road runoff. The calibration of the model was based on monitored storm events occurring from May 2010 to July 2013. It was found that the total suspended solids was highly correlated with stormwater runoff volume and dominant heavy metal constituents in stormwater runoff, such lead, zinc and copper, with a Pearson correlation coefficient ranging from 0.88 to 0.95 (P < 0.05). Reducing the original ratio of the storage volume to surface area (SV/SA) of the facility and depth by 25% could match the satisfactory performance efficiency achieved in the original design. The smaller SV/SA and depth would mean a less costly system, signifying the importance of optimization in designing LID systems.
50

Deletic, Ana. "The first flush load of urban surface runoff." Water Research 32, no. 8 (August 1998): 2462–70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0043-1354(97)00470-3.

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