Дисертації з теми "Economic development Environmental aspects Fiji"

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1

Halapua, S. "Aspects of the financing of economic development : With special reference to Fiji." Thesis, University of Kent, 1988. http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.233359.

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2

Page, Andre Paul. "The barriers and opportunities of resource efficiency and cleaner production within a South African context." Thesis, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, 2017. http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11838/2800.

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Thesis (MTech (Business Administration))--Cape Peninsula University of Technology, 2017.
This research study investigates how environmental tools such as Resource Efficiency and Cleaner Production (RECP) can contribute to sustaining and supporting economic growth in South Africa. Resource optimisation is crucial when considering the concept of sustainable development. It also contributes to addressing the challenges of global warming and climate change, which in turn threaten industrial growth and sustainability in the long term. The study places emphasis on the barriers that prevent industry from implementing RECP recommendations, and identifies opportunities that could potentially reposition businesses should they consider implementation. It also promotes other sustainability tools that are available through collaboration with international entities, and this could be of great benefit to the South African industry. Factors of unemployment and urbanisation restricts national growth to some degree, hence the study explores how RECP can contribute to job retention by introducing new resource optimisation methodologies for the manufacturing sector, Moreover, it examines the imbalance between the demand as well as limitations of these resources. Through the compilation of data collated from questionnaires completed by industry, government and civil society participants, this study looks at achieving a balance between environmental sustainability and growth. It also looks at aligning this balance with the integration of specific economic and environmental policies, which also includes social aspects. What comes through significantly in this research is the lack of awareness within industry in terms of RECP, as well as the importance of prioritising the uptake of environmental initiatives to ensure that industry is compliant with the stringent policies and legislation designed by government to drive the sustainability process. Consequently the study shows that communication between public and private sector, as well as the awareness raising and marketing of sustainability to consumers need to be improved. An analysis of the various government support mechanisms is conducted, in respect of how industry could potentially leverage growth and drive positive change within their businesses. In addition to RECP, emphasis is placed on other Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP) initiatives and tools that could possibly entrench sustainable practices and help with their incorporation into their business strategies.
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3

Lam, Wai-ching, and 林惠展. "The level of economic development in China." Thesis, The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong), 2002. http://hub.hku.hk/bib/B3195358X.

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4

Samuel, Hilary R. (Hilary Ruth). "Educating for sustainable development : a case study of an environmental immersion school." Thesis, McGill University, 1991. http://digitool.Library.McGill.CA:80/R/?func=dbin-jump-full&object_id=60475.

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A new environmental immersion school has opened in Canada. This case study examines early stages of the project's implementation in order to contribute to an understanding of how best to implement environmental education in schools.
Examination of the literature on educational change led to an analytical framework which included: (1) Characteristics of the innovation; (2) Strategies and tactics used; (3) Contextual characteristics; (4) Macro sociopolitical factors. This was used to categorize qualitative data collected through interviews, observation, a questionnaire and documents.
The study uncovered a number of obstacles to implementation in the school, principally: (1) Conceptual problems about environmental education; (2) Poorly defined school philosophy and goals; (3) Difficulties in coordinating the project between individual efforts and departments; (4) A hiatus between administration and teacher perceptions.
The case study provided insight on the process of curriculum implementation as well as specific issues relating to environmental education and the theme of sustainable development.
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5

Hodges, Mark Hugh. "A progress report on the world bank's 1987 environmental policy reform." Thesis, Georgia Institute of Technology, 1992. http://hdl.handle.net/1853/32815.

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6

Lemons, Kenneth Elvert. "A comparative study of technology assessment, social impact assessment and environmental impact assessment in developed and less developed countries : 1980-1994." Thesis, Georgia Institute of Technology, 1992. http://hdl.handle.net/1853/28952.

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7

Wallace, Richard R. "Conceptualizing sustainability in public policy debate: economic, ecological, and political issues." Thesis, Georgia Institute of Technology, 1991. http://hdl.handle.net/1853/31062.

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8

Joffe, David. "Modelling Technical, Spatial, Economic and Environmental Aspects of Hydrogen Infrastructure Development for London's Buses." Thesis, Imperial College London, 2010. http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.520837.

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9

Roth, Richard A. "Sustainable development: political/ideological aspects and implications for planning." Diss., Virginia Tech, 1993. http://hdl.handle.net/10919/39119.

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Recent evidence of widespread environmental degradation and global changes resulting from human activities have revived a debate about the sustainability of the progress of human welfare that began at least 200 years ago. In this renewed debate, the seriousness and causes of environmental degradation are subject to widely divergent interpretations. There are many conceivable sustainable futures; the most important differences among them are not technical but political and ideological. The practice of environmental planning is concerned with a wide variety of contexts and situations at the human-environment interface. Because land use is at the root of many of the problems of environmental degradation (e.g., habitat destruction, air pollution, water pollution), land use planning is an appropriate focus for consideration of the role of environmental planning in sustainable development. Planning as a profession, with its inherent future orientation and focus on public values, is well situated to deal with the kinds of problems raised in the discourse regarding sustainability. Examination of mainstream land use planning practices, however, reveals a reactive, reformist incrementalism that responds to environmental degradation caused by growth, but that addresses neither its causes nor its dynamics. Mainstream land use planning approaches have attempted to resolve conflicts between development and environment through spatial solutions at various scales. The need to plan for ecological sustainability is difficult to reconcile with the democratic ideal of local self-determination. Many alternative approaches to land use planning for sustainable development focus on design solutions. The requirements of sustainability are not merely technical, however. There are both emancipatory possibilities and their opposite in sustainability. Implementing sustainability offers planners a number of choices. They can act as mediators, demystifyers of technical information, exposers of hidden ideological assumptions, and advocates. They can strengthen existing authority, or work towards an enlightened self-determination at the local level.
Ph. D.
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10

Engström, Adam. "Integrating sustainability aspects into the business development processes of Hemfrid." Thesis, KTH, Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, 2018. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-232025.

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Sustainability is becoming more of a strategic tool in many companies today and will become even more important in the future. Hemfrid is today looking at many new business areas and has realized the importance of including sustainability in its new businesses. However, the link between sustainability and business development has not been researched in a larger extent and therefore there are no good methods to use. Therefore, the aim of this report is to provide a method and tool for Hemfrid to integrate sustainability aspects into their business development processes. To fulfil this aim, an analysis of current scientific literature and models within the areas of sustainability and business development was done. Based on those models, with a foundation in the Sustainable Development Goals, a model was created. To be able to weigh different impact area against each other, an MCA was conducted. Finally, the model was assessed through external feedback and through a SWOT analysis. The model is based on 14 of the 17 SDGs with specific impact categories for all of them. A tool was created in Excel to easily assess the impact of the new business development projects. Lastly a seminar was held with Hemfrid’s management team facilitating the model.
Hållbarhet håller idag på att utvecklas från ett område som de senaste åren varit en operationellt fokuserad verksamhet till något som mer och mer närmar sig strategiarbete. Som en del av den här utvecklingen börjar många företag konstatera att integrationen av hållbarhet i deras affärsutvecklingsarbete blir en fråga som blir allt viktigare. Hemfrid har de senaste 20 åren växt fram till ett marknadsledande företag inom hushållsnära tjänster där hemstädning för privatpersoner är den dominerande tjänsten. Hemfrid har valt att fokusera på att ge sina anställda kollektivavtal och trygg anställning och fokusera på sina anställda och kunder och i dagsläget tittar man på många nya affärsutvecklingsmöjligheter för att fortsätta erbjuda sina kunder hjälp i sina hem. I och med Hemfrids fokus på hållbarhet med schyssta arbetsvillkor och miljövänliga produkter har de även insett vikten av att även på ett tidigt stadium få in hållbarhetstänk i sitt affärsutvecklingsarbete. Denna rapport syftar därför till att skapa en modell och verktyg för Hemfrid för att integrera hållbarhetsaspekter i deras affärsutvecklingsarbete. Hemfrid-modellen är framtagen med de globala hållbarhetsmålen som utgångspunkt där olika kriterier identifierades inom varje mål som Hemfrid sedan kan utvärdera sina affärsutvecklingsprojekt utifrån. En litteraturstudie är även gjord där det identifierats nio ytterligare modeller inom hållbarhet respektive affärsutveckling som på olika sätt varit användbara för att skapa kriterier och övergripande användning av Hemfrid-modellen. Varje mål är viktat utifrån Hemfrids nuvarande verksamhet och strategi för att spegla företagets hållbarhetsprioriteringar. Verktyget är framtaget i Excel, baseras på en Multikriterieanalys och ger Hemfrid ett enkelt sätt att på en 5-gradig skala, för varje mål, utvärdera om kriterierna förändras från en skala mycket sämre till mycket bättre jämfört med dagens produkter eller tjänster. Verktyget visualiserar sedan om projektet som helhet är bra eller dåligt hållbarhetsmässigt samt vilka mål man har väldigt positiv påverkan på och bör kommunicera mot sina kunder samt vilka man bör se över och förbättra. Vidare har verktyget testats på två olika affärsutvecklingsprojekt där representanter från hållbarhetsavdelningen och affärsutvecklingsenheten fått ge feedback på användning och modellen har även presenterats och diskuterats tillsammans med Hemfrids ledning för att förankra modellens användande inom bolaget. Slutligen gjordes även en SWOT-analys där modellen visade vara över lag positiv. De negativa delarna med modellen ligger i att den är en förenkling av verkligheten och inte kommer kunna ta upp alla hållbarhetsaspekter som finns samt att det i användandet av modellen finns risk att man gör subjektiva bedömningar och ger sig själv bättre poäng än vad man egentligen borde. Modellen kommer dock kraftigt förenkla integrationen av hållbarhet i affärsutvecklingsprocesserna på Hemfrid och kommer användas för att försäkra att Hemfrid fortsätter vara starka inom hållbarhet och att erbjuda sina kunder smarta lösningar.
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11

Ricardo, Gilberto. "Sustainable tourism development: A case study of Bazaruto Island in Inhambane, Mozambique." Thesis, University of the Western Cape, 2004. http://etd.uwc.ac.za/index.php?module=etd&amp.

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Sustainable tourism development strategies are regarded as suitable for developed countries, while pro-poor tourism strategies are seen as suitable approaches for underdeveloped countries. Both approaches stress the importance of local community-based or collaborative tourism management. The goal of these strategies is for local communities to achieve a more equitable share of benefits accruing from tourism development. This study dealt with the problem of which policy changes need to be brought about to ensure sustainable tourism development on Bazaruto Island. From an economic perspective, one would wish to examine the economic returns to tourism, ensuring that as many of the benefits as possible stay within Mozambique while some accrue to local community members. In addition, from an ecological perspective, it would be necessary to ensure that much of the pristine environment is retained. The local community would wish to ensure significant participation in preserving and promoting its culture as part of the development of tourism.
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12

Babalola, Adewumi Joseph. "Influence of the macro-economic environment on the construction sector's contribution to the South African economy, 1984 to 2011." Thesis, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, 2016. http://hdl.handle.net/10948/5618.

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The construction sector serves as the engine of growth to the South Africa economy because of its catalytic role in the growth and development of the country. This study focuses mainly on the influence of the macro-economic environment on the contribution of the private sector to construction in the South Africa economy from 1984 to 2011. Government construction work is considered to be an injection into the economy; in this regard, state construction is regarded as public investment in the economy; and therefore, it is anti-cyclic (Keynes, 1936). The aim of this study has been to develop an econometric model for predicting the influence of the macroeconomic environment on the contribution of the private sector to the construction sector in the South Africa economy. The research design adopted in this study was an “ex-post facto” type, otherwise known as a causal-comparative design. The data were extracted from the published sources of the South African National Statistics, namely SARB, Stats SA and Quantec SA. The estimation technique used in this study was the ARDL model using quarterly data from 1984 to 2011. This is because in the construction sector, the influence of the independent variables is always felt over time – rather than all at once. The results of this study show that there is a long run causal relationship between inflation rate, interest rate, real exchange rate, GDP and gdp in the construction sector. The descriptive statistical analysis shows that there is a negative relationship between variables inflation rate and interest rate and the private sector spending in construction. However, economic growth as well as growth in the construction sector has a positive relationship with the private sector spending in construction. Likewise, the real exchange rate and labour productivity in construction have a negative relationship with the private sector’s spending in construction and they are statistically insignificant. The variance decomposition analysis show that the private sector spending in construction explains about 75 per cent of it variations, followed by inflation rate that explains 21 per cent on the average; while the remaining variations, comprising about 4 per cent, were shared among the other independent variables, such as GDP, GDP in construction, the interest rate and the real exchange rate. It was discovered that only the inflation rate does Granger-cause the private sector spending in construction. From the finding it can be concluded that inflation rate is a significant explanatory variable in explaining the variation in the dependent variable during period under review. Policy recommendations are as follows: firstly, the monetary authorities in South Africa should embark on sound policies that would bring about low prices of the construction materials. This would ensure growth and development in the construction sector; secondly, a stimulating development plan that would encourage private sector investment in properties and infrastructural development must be instituted; thirdly, an alternative policy to the present inflation targeting is recommended that would bring about low inflation, high growth, low unemployment and stable exchange rate; fourthly, the present policy on interest rate must be reviewed to allow for more participation in construction projects by the private sectors of the economy; fifthly, due to the fact that fluctuation in the crude oil prices in the international market is one of the major factors causing high inflation rate in South Africa, government must source local alternative products that would bring down prices of construction materials.
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13

Walsh, Lauren Arlene. "Investigating the effectiveness of environmental sustainability initiatives at General Motors South Africa." Thesis, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, 2013. http://hdl.handle.net/10948/d1020996.

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There is a consensus globally that climate change is one of the biggest challenges facing operations. Immediate actions are required to reduce the carbon footprint in order for the environment to endure future logistics processes and activities (The National Treasury department of South Africa, 2010). Greenhouse gases (GHGs) are emissions generated from manufacturing processes, distribution networks and treatments processes (Verfaillie and Bidwell, 2000). Companies globally are expected to monitor pollution and focus on reducing the discharge of pollutants. Logistics Managers are therefore pressured to reduce the carbon footprint as it affects the environment and our health. Companies are becoming more concerned with the impact of various activities and processes on the environment. Traditional logistics models, primarily focuses on minimising cost with little focus on the environmental impact and sustaining operations for the future (Sbihi and Eglese, 2009) General Motors (GM) is a multi-national vehicle manufacturer with operations in various countries. GM filed for bankruptcy in 2009 resulting in the formation of the new GM; one of the focus areas was to ensure sustainability which resulted in the introduction of the ‘Sustainability in motion’ program in 2009 (New York Times, 2009). General Motors South Africa (GMSAf) is a vehicle assembler with manufacturing facilities and head offices located in Port Elizabeth. The company is a wholly owned subsidiary of the multinational General Motors Company. The aim of the research is to determine whether a culture that promotes environmentally conscious behaviour exists within employees and their relationships within a team, with management, stakeholders and suppliers. The study will assist in highlighting areas which need improvement to enable the creation of environmentally sustainable initiatives and implementation thereof. The empirical study revealed that the following management commitment, education and training, performance management and participation and involvement were important factors in the effective implementation of an environmental sustainability program.
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14

Van, der Merwe Schalk Willem Jacobus. "Local and sub-regional socio-economic and environmental impact of large-scale resort development." Thesis, Link to the online version, 2006. http://hdl.handle.net/10019/1658.

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15

Yeukai, Chandaengerwa. "Trade promotion vs the environment: Inevitable conflict." Thesis, University of the Western Cape, 2005. http://etd.uwc.ac.za/index.php?module=etd&amp.

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This study unveiled the trade-environment debate which has been revolving in the World Trade Organization for quite a long time now. While economic integration and trade liberalization offer the promise of growth and prosperity, environmentalists fear that free trade will lead to increased pollution and resource depletion. On the other hand, free traders worry that over-reaching environmental policies will obstruct efforts to open markets and integrate economies around the world. Trade liberalization has the potential to affect the environment both positively and negatively. Trade and environment tensions have therefore emerged as a major issue in the debate over globalisation. This paper examined the contours of these tensions and argued that trade policy and environmental programs can be better integrated and made more mutually supportive.
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16

Kirk, Dylan James. "Select aspects of economic activity related to the Oklahoma 4-H youth development shooting sports project." Thesis, Oklahoma State University, 2014. http://pqdtopen.proquest.com/#viewpdf?dispub=1567348.

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The economic turmoil of the past decade has reinvigorated the debate over the use of public funds to support local Extension efforts. State Extension groups across the country have begun to demonstrate their worth in a variety of ways, including attempting to show both the behavioral and economic outcomes of Extension initiatives. However, showing the value of the 4-H Youth Development Program has proved challenging. The benefits of joining youth programs tend to be latent, not fully manifesting for years or even decades until participants mature into adults. Studies are starting to provide insights into the social, physical and mental rewards of joining youth development organizations such as 4-H, but these behavioral outcomes are disproportionally reported when compared to economic studies. From 2012-2013 families enrolled in Oklahoma's 4-H Youth Development Shooting Sports Project were surveyed about their recreational spending habits. Economic contributions for the state of Oklahoma, and impacts on local economies are estimated using primary data and an IMPLAN model. These economic analyses provide estimates of the economic worth of one youth project overseen by the Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service. Subsequently, policy makers are provided justification of the project not only from a social, physical, and mental perspective, but are additionally provided economic indicators of the project's immediate worth.

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17

Xongo, Nosipho. "The impact of mining on infrastructure development and poverty reduction in mining communities." Thesis, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, 2013. http://hdl.handle.net/10948/d1018576.

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There is a growing concern from government, communities, civil society and mining companies on the sustained development of the impact of mining on communities and the benefits of mineral development. Communities are more vocal in expressing their expectations for benefits and on the other hand mines are concerned about profits and maintaining a social licence to operate. This study critically evaluates the impact mining has on socio-economic development in mining communities. The focus area of the study is the West Rand District Municipality in Gauteng Province, South Africa. The ‘impact’ refers to the mine’s contribution to infrastructure development and poverty reduction projects in areas where the mine is operating and sourcing labour from. Forecasts for better performance in the future will be assessed. Issues such as community consultation, identification of projects, development forums, the Integrated Development Plan (IDP) and partnerships are addressed. The literature was reviewed from existing national and international research on the topic. The study starts from two assumptions. The first is that minerals are potentially a great resource of wealth for poor countries. The second assumption is that minerals have the potential to benefit the local population through the creation of indirect employment, skills transfer, enhancing the capacity of health and education services, improved infrastructure and small and medium business opportunities. Poverty levels are viewed on a national and international scale. The study reveals problems, with existing approaches, on mine community development. It concludes that the impact of mining on infrastructure development and poverty reduction projects can be huge, but only if a variety of demanding preconditions are met. The study concludes that the reality of mineral led development in mine communities has not lived up to a roaring promise.
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18

Case, Michael Scot. "Visions of sustainability : an overview of radical conceptions of sustainability /." Thesis, This resource online, 1993. http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-09122009-040443/.

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19

Li, Jia. "Impact of tourism development on the Wolong Nature Reserve, China : perceptions of tourists and local residents." HKBU Institutional Repository, 2009. http://repository.hkbu.edu.hk/etd_ra/1006.

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20

Zhu, Minkang. "A multiple objective approach to evaluate economic and environmental impacts of agricultural management systems from a sustainable development perspective." Diss., Virginia Tech, 1992. http://hdl.handle.net/10919/38786.

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21

Chan, Ho-ying, and 陳可盈. "Assess the environmental and social sustainability of the Three GorgesDam project." Thesis, The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong), 2004. http://hub.hku.hk/bib/B29806264.

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22

Franz, Jennifer Sue. "Environment and health in Central Asia : quantifying the determinants of child survival." Thesis, St Andrews, 2007. http://hdl.handle.net/10023/330.

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23

Brooks, Mark 1971. "Economic growth, ecological limits, and the expansion of the Panama Canal." Thesis, McGill University, 2004. http://digitool.Library.McGill.CA:80/R/?func=dbin-jump-full&object_id=82689.

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This thesis explores the controversial Panama Canal expansion proposals using an analytical framework developed by Herman Daly, an ecological economist at the University of Maryland and a critic of traditional models economic development. At a time when nearly every nation seeks to increase the size of its economy, Daly has been an ardent advocate of setting limits to economic growth, arguing that, as the earth is materially closed, there cannot be infinite growth of the consumption of material and energy resources within a finite (nongrowing) biosphere. These limits should be defined by the regenerative and waste absorptive capacities of the biosphere. My objective here is to test the feasibility of implementing a policy at the local resource management level that is guided by the recognition of ecological limits to economic growth. I employ a water management technique developed by The Nature Conservancy called the Range of Variability Approach (RVA) and test its utility in setting an ecologically-based limit to water withdrawal and river system modification in the Panama Canal watershed. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)
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24

Jordan, Matthew. "Procuring industrial pollution control : the South Australian case, 1836-1975." Title page, contents and abstract only, 2001. http://web4.library.adelaide.edu.au/theses/09PH/09phj816.pdf.

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25

Thondhlana, Gladman. "Land acquisition for and local livelihood implications of biofuel development in Zimbabwe." Rhodes University, 2016. http://hdl.handle.net/10962/49940.

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In recent years, proponents of 'green and clean fuel' have argued that the costs of overreliance on fossil fuels could be reduced through transition to biofuels such as bio-ethanol. Global biofuel discourses suggest that any transition to biofuel invariably results in significant benefits, including energy independence, job creation, development of agro-industrial centres at local level and high revenue generations for the state with minimum negative impacts on the environment. With many risks and costs associated with traditional 'dirty' fuels, it is likely that many countries, particularly African countries, will move towards the 'green and clean fuel' alternative. However, until recently research has arguably paid limited attention to the local livelihood impacts related to land acquisition for biofuel development or the policy frameworks required to maximise biofuel benefits. With regards to biofuel benefits, some recent studies suggest that the much bandied potential for greater tax revenue, lowered fuel costs and wealth distribution from biofuel production have all been perverted with relatively little payoff in wage labour opportunities in return (e.g. Richardson, 2010; Wilkinson and Herrera, 2010). Based on work done in Chisumbanje communal lands of Zimbabwe (Thondhlana, 2015), this policy brief highlights the local livelihood impacts of biofuel development and discusses policy implications of the findings. By highlighting the justifications of biofuel development at any cost by the state, the study sheds some light on the conflicts between state interests and local livelihood needs.
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26

Tekin, Ilknur Mary Joy Nirmala. "Green Index: Integration of Environmental Performance, Green Innovativeness and Financial Performance." PDXScholar, 2014. http://pdxscholar.library.pdx.edu/open_access_etds/1815.

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The integration of sustainability performance of companies is becoming increasingly important. The recent global requirements (i.e. the Kyoto Protocol) for significant reduction of the negative impact of companies on the environment over the next 6 years have been putting pressure on the companies, requiring them to lower the negative environmental impact of market performance. This requirement challenges the profitable growth of the companies' business functions, given the change needed for business operations to improve on their environmental impact. In this dissertation a new corporate sustainability performance index, called: The Green Index, for measuring and assessing the integrated sustainability performance of companies is developed. The Green Index integrates Environmental Performance, Green Innovativeness and Financial Performance, by quantifying the expert opinions toward their integration. Development of the Green Index is a holistic approach in defining and measuring "green" performance for companies, integrated into their market performance. Green Index, for the first time in the literature, introduces Green Innovativeness in defining and measuring Green Performance of companies, in integration with Environmental and Financial Performance. In the literature and business practices, there are various sustainability indices used, and methodological approaches in measuring corporate sustainability performance with more than hundred performance indicators. The Green Index, uniquely refers to the collective expert opinion of management researchers, executive managers of corporations, high-tech companies' R&D managers, financial managers, corporate social responsibility managers, in defining a shorter list of 29 performance measures under the three core performance dimensions. Hierarchical Decision Modeling is used for the development of Green Index based on experts' collective decisions. At the next level, desirability levels for each one of the 29 performance measures are scaled by a group of angel investors and investors. And their collective desirability quantifications are used toward the application of the Green Index to quantify the Green Index value for a set of scenario analyses for alternative company performance states. Green Index fills a major gap in the scholarly literature and business practices. It meets the needs prioritized in the near future strategy of World Business Council on Sustainable Development (WBCSD) towards development of new performance metrics and business models for industries that are financially successful while innovating with green products as they are reducing their negative environmental impact (WBCSD Annual Report 2010, 2011).
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27

Mamouni, Limnios Elena Alexandra. "Incorporating complex systems dynamics in sustainability assessment frameworks : enhanced prediction and management of socio-ecological systems performance." University of Western Australia. Faculty of Business, 2008. http://theses.library.uwa.edu.au/adt-WU2009.0012.

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[Truncated abstract] The application of reductionism, breaking down problems to simpler components that can be solved and then aggregating the results, is one of the bases of classical science. However, living organisms, ecosystems, social and economic structures are complex systems, characterised by non-linear interactions between their elements and exhibit emergent properties that are not directly traceable to their components. Sustainability assessment frameworks oversimplify system interactions, achieving limited predictive capacity and causing managerial behavior that may reduce system's ability to adapt to external disturbance. Intrigued by the importance of complexity, we explore the central theme of how complex thinking can influence the understanding and progress towards sustainability. The purpose is to conceptualize the relationship of key terms (such as sustainability, functionality and resilience), and consecutively develop new or adjust existing sustainability frameworks to take into account complex systems interactions. We aim at developing theory and frameworks that can be used to raise awareness of the pitfalls of the growth paradigm and direct towards modest positions when managing complex systems. We seek to define the structural elements that influence system adaptive capacity, allowing identification of early signs of system rigidity or vulnerability and the development of knowledge and techniques that can improve our predictive and managerial ability. The focus has been on a variety of system scales and dynamics. At the collective community level, a number of stakeholder engagement practices and frameworks are currently available. However, there is limited awareness of the complexity challenges among stakeholders, who are commonly directed to a triple bottom line analysis aiming at maximizing a combination of outputs. An attempt is conducted to measure the functionality of the processes underlying a standing stock, in contrast to sustainability measures that only assess the variations of the standing stock itself. We develop the Index of Sustainable Functionality (ISF), a framework for the assessment of complex systems interactions within a large-scale geographic domain and apply it to the State of Western Australia. '...' Finally, we focus on smaller systems scales and develop a methodology for the calculation of Product Ecological Footprint (PEF) including elements from the accounting method of activity based costing. We calculate PEF for three apple production systems and identify significant differences from first stage calculations within the same industry. Cross-industry application will provide a practical way to link individuals' consumption with their ecological impact, reduce misperceptions of products' ecological impacts and develop a market-driven approach to internalizing environmental externalities. At the firm level PEF can be compared with investment costs, resulting in the opportunity to optimize both functions of financial cost and ecological impact in decision making. We have developed methods for incorporating complexity in sustainability assessment frameworks. Further work is required in testing and validating these methodologies at multiple system scales and conditions. Integrating such tools in decision making mechanisms will enhance long-term management of socioecological systems performance.
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28

Jennings, Patricia Jean. "An assessment of the formulation of permit conditions associated with environmental authorisations and implications for compliance monitoring." Thesis, University of Fort Hare, 2011. http://hdl.handle.net/10353/437.

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Environmental impact assessment is a widely accepted planning tool used in environmental management. Internationally it has been adopted as a formal permitting requirement for development projects in many jurisdictions. Historically the focus has been on the pre-decision making stages of environmental impact assessment. It has, however, been widely acknowledged that post-decision environmental impact assessment follow-up is an important component in confirming initial predictions, enabling responsible adaptive management of environmental impacts and ensuring compliance with permit conditions. It is this last function which is the focus of this study. Specifically, the role of permit conditions in enabling compliance and facilitating compliance monitoring is addressed. Permit conditions of twenty-one environmental authorisations were examined and tested for conformance with legislated requirements, and practicality of monitoring for compliance (monitorability). It was found that there are many contributors to achieving monitorable permit conditions. Amongst the most significant of these are conformity in interpretation of the regulations specifying permit content by officials, gaps in guidance on the part of the regulations themselves, and a tendency to focus on construction related impacts. The lack of clarity regarding the roles and functions of environmental control officer and environmental auditor further contribute to poor monitorability of permit conditions. Specific areas of shortcoming and best practice in the permit conditions analysed were identified and discussed. Finally, recommendations are made for the improvement of permit condition monitorability.
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29

Mentor, Daphne June. "Shale gas development in the Great Karoo : the potential socio-economic impacts on the town of Beaufort-West." Thesis, Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2012. http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/95620.

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Анотація:
Thesis (MBA)--Stellenbosch University, 2012.
With the advent of shale gas exploration in the Karoo region, the purpose of this study was to investigate the possible socio-economic impacts of shale gas development on the town of Beaufort West in the Karoo. A qualitative study method was used to establish possible socio economic impacts by reviewing literature with regard to existing shale gas development as well as a case study from the United States of America (USA). A desktop study of Beaufort West was carried out to establish current socio economic trends in the town. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with key stakeholders to establish their concerns and opinion regarding the possibility of shale gas exploration and production in the area of Beaufort West in the Karoo. The results of the study concluded that the concerns of the key stakeholders were definitely relevant as their livelihood would be threatened if there was any possibility of contamination of their water sources. Other possible socio economic impacts included infrastructure concerns with regard to road maintenance, tourism declining and the threat of noise and air pollution. The study recommends that if the shale gas development process were to go ahead, the South African government would need to ensure that best practices are incorporated by all gas drilling companies. A team of qualified and trained regulators should monitor well pads and hydraulic fracturing methods as well as volumes of water used and the disposal of waste water. The regulations existing in the country should be revised to incorporate the stringent standards of other countries that have strict monitoring policies in place. In order to protect the people of the Karoo and the heritage of South Africa, the government must ensure that gas companies are held liable for any kind of environmental or socio economic impact.
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30

Gogi, Andile. "An investigation of the role of community development workers: Bitou municipality." Thesis, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, 2011. http://hdl.handle.net/10948/d1015689.

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This treatise investigates the role of Community DevelopmentWorkers, with reference to the Bitou Municipality. The treatise comprises five chapters. The concept of Community Development Programme is fairly new in South Africa; therefore, further research is needed on the subject. A literature review was done to establish the concept and the background of the CDWP. A questionnaire was developed in order to obtain primary data from a selected sample group. The data obtained from the questionnaire was statistically analysed and interpreted. The core findings from the analysed questionnaire indicated the following: (a) CDWs clearly understand their role and responsibility, but there is a need for roles and functions to be clearly defined, with detailed terms of reference, to ensure a common understanding with other stakeholders, e.g. Ward Committees, Councillors, Non-governmental organisations, Communitybased organisations, and members of the community. (b) living conditions in the wards improved following the introduction of the CDWP. (c) there is a good relationship between CDWs, Ward Committees and Ward Councillors, but there is also a perception that Ward Committees and Community Development Workers constantly clash or compete in the wards in which they serve. (d) CDWs should not be affiliated to the ruling or any political party. (e) CDWs are confused regarding who is responsible for their remuneration (the Municipality or the Provincial Department of Local Government).
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31

Gentry, Terry A. "Sustainable Development in the Third World: A New Paradigm?" PDXScholar, 1995. https://pdxscholar.library.pdx.edu/open_access_etds/4905.

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Over the past decade '"Sustainable Development" (SD) has emerged as the latest development catchphrase. A wide range of nongovernmental as well as governmental organizations have embraced it as the new paradigm of development. A review of the literature that has sprung up around the concept of SD indicates, however, a lack of consistency in its interpretation. More important, while the all-encompassing nature of the concept gives it political strength, its current formulation by the mainstream of SD thinking contains significant weaknesses. These include an incomplete perception of the problems of poverty and environmental degradation, and confusion about the role of economic growth and about the concept of sustainability. The purpose of this study was to identify common elements in a political economy of the environment, relating environmental change to the dynamics of ideology and policy, and at different levels of political complexity. The intention was to provide a structural analysis of the environment in which the development process illuminates environmental change at both a philosophical and material level. The problem in achieving SD was related to the overriding structures of the international economic system, which have arisen out of the exploitation of environmental resources, and which frequently operate as constraints on the achievement of long-term sustainable practices. Insufficient accounting of ecological aspects of economic growth and development has resulted from intellectual traditions, where solutions are formulated, point in different directions. Conclusions are drawn that SD involves trade-offs between biological, economic and social systems and is found in the interactive zone between these systems. There are a number of international factors that may be necessary, but insufficient, conditions for SD on a national level, including peace, debt reduction, and more propitious terms of trade. There was seen dilemmas relating to SD, including the role of growth as the unquestioned objective of economic policy.
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32

Halim, Sadeka. "Invisible again : women and social forestry in Bangladesh." Thesis, National Library of Canada = Bibliothèque nationale du Canada, 1999. http://www.collectionscanada.ca/obj/s4/f2/dsk2/ftp03/NQ64569.pdf.

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33

Harris, Peter-Dirk. "South African environmental taxes and investment incentives in practice." Thesis, Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2012. http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/95565.

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Thesis (MBA)--Stellenbosch University, 2012.
ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The South African economy is faced with a number of challenges as an upper-middle income country that is highly resource-intensive, with an open economy. It has a number of developmental goals that must be achieved in order to maintain environmentally conscious sustainable development. The country will have to find pioneering ways to address the poverty problems faced by a large proportion of its people, while still ensuring economic growth at a reduced cost to the environment. In an effort to promote the shift to a “green” economy, the South African state and its related entities have developed a number of incentive programmes aimed at easing the transition. These incentives primarily support businesses in their efforts to become more energy-efficient, or to convert to renewable energy sources. The objective of this study is to critically evaluate what the South African government is doing with regard to environmental instruments aimed at assisting the country to reduce carbon emissions. This case study follows a quantitative approach, considering the financial effects that the different environmental instruments could have on South African manufacturers. Through the study the researcher will be able to make certain recommendations to businesses in the manufacturing industry who are interested in investing in renewable energy and energy efficiency. The results of the study will also give the researcher insight into the South African environmental incentives, which will allow him to make informed comments on the proposals that government has tabled regarding future environmental taxes and incentives. The research questions that the researcher tried to answer were based on the current and future policy measures that the South African government has implemented, or will implement, in order to move the country to a low-emissions trajectory. These policies were then also compared to international measures in order to determine if the policies chosen by the South African government are appropriate for the this country’s economy. This study has led the researcher to discover a number of issues relating to the status of environmental policy in South Africa. These discoveries have allowed him to make certain recommendations to businesses investing in this realm, as well as to government which develops these policy measures. The main findings of the study are that with the assistance of the South African government and related entities, investments in renewable energy have become viable. When considering the current status of South African environmental policy, the researcher has also come to realise that the country is lagging behind the rest of the world with regard to policy development. The South African economy is unique, thus policies have to be structured in a way that will not be detrimental to the country.
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34

Stands, Sarah Reed. "Utility-scale renewable energy job creation : an investigation of the South African Renewable Energy Independent Power Producer Procurement Programme (REIPPPP)." Thesis, Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2015. http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/96791.

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Анотація:
Thesis (MPhil)--Stellenbosch University, 2015.
ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The South African Government developed the REIPPPP to ensure the implementation of Green Economy and job creation policies, while mitigating the current power crises with the short lead times of RE technologies. Current South African literature is ambiguous when discussing the legitimacy of the REIPPPP and the overall understanding of the programme and its associated outcomes in terms of job creation, are therefore, vague. A need therefore exists to unpack the quantitative job creation submissions of the REIPPPP and to carry out an investigation into the opportunities and challenges associated with meaningful job creation. Through a non-linear iterative exploratory design, hinging on the researcher’s position within industry, this empirical research comprises of two components. Firstly, a literature study informs the development of a meaningful job creation framework which is used to analyse the programme’s bid documentation and publicly available data. Secondly, mixed-methods are utilised to collect quantitative data from the DoE and qualitative data from job creation stakeholders. The result is an enriched understanding of the REIPPPP in terms of meaningful job creation, identifying trends, similarities and unexpected outcomes across methods. The study concludes that the programme does create meaningful jobs yet data is misaligned and currently unavailable to the public. Secondly, since job creation is a feature of South African Government development policy, a more robust emphasis is required in the REIPPPP weighting and auditing process, which includes further research of intended benefits and suggested improvements to align job creation data.
AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die Suid-Afrikaanse regering het die hernubare energie onafhanklike kragprodusent verkrygingsprogram ontwikkel om die voorsiening van die werksskeppingsbeleid en groen-ekonomiebelied te verseker. Huidige Suid-Afrikaanse letterkunde is dubbelsinnig wanneer die wettigheid van die program bespreek word. Die algehele begrip van die program en sy geassosieerde uitkoms is dus vaag. Daar is n behoefte om die kwantitatiewe werkskeppingvoorleggings te analiseer en om ondersoek in te stel in die geleenthede en uitdagings wat geassosieer word met betekenisvolle werkskepping. Deur n nie- lineêre iteratiewe ondersoekende ontwerp, wat gebaseer is op die navorser se posisie in die industrie, bestaan hieride empiriese navorsing, uit twee komponente. Eerstens, lig n literatuurstudie die ontwikkeling van n betekenisvolle werkskeppingsraamwerk in, en word gebruik om die program se boddokumentasie en publieke data te analiseer. Tweedens, word gemengde metodes gebruik om kwantitatiewe data van die departement van energie te versamel asook kwalitatiewe data van werkskeppingbelanghebbendes. Die resultaat is n meer verrykende verstandhouding van die hernubare energie onafhanklike kragprodusent verkrygingsprogram in terme van betekenisvolle werkskepping asook die identifisering van tendense en onverwagse uitkomste. Die studie kom tot die gevolgtrekking dat die program nie betekenisvolle werk skep nie en is tans onbeskikbaar vir die publiek. Tweedens, aangesien werkskepping 'n kenmerk is van die Suid-Afrikaanse regering se ontwikkelingsbeleid, word 'n meer robuuste klem vereis op die hernubare energie onafhanklike kragprodusent verkrygingsprogram se ouditeringsproses en verdere navorsing van die beoogde voordele word voorgestel.
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35

Makabeni, Yonela. "Environmental impacts of informal economic activities in a low cost housing development, case study of Dunoon, Cape Town." Thesis, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, 2018. http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11838/2874.

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Анотація:
Thesis (Master of Environmental Management)--Cape Peninsula University of Technology, 2018.
Over the past decades, environmental problems associated with low-cost housing developments have been reported on a national and global scale (see Sowman and Urquhart, 1998 and also Norville, 2003). Poor community participation in the early stages of project design and lack of public involvement in decision making regarding low cost housing development are said to have contributed to these environmental issues. The environmental issues that have been reported so far relate to escalating water quality due to poor storm water management and improper waste disposal which poses a threat to the natural environment. While there is as emerging view that the nature of environmental problems experienced in these settlements are due to a lack of participation by local people in decision making, there is virtual no studies that have located this analysis within the theoretical debate of modernist planning. The issue that has been ignored thus far is the fact that low cost housing development (in generally) still resembles the spatial pattern of both the modernist and apartheid planning orthodox. It is thus from this context that the local people are increasingly excluded from participating in decision making. This form of modernist development is contrary to the ethos of sustainable development. In essence, sustainable development, as a new development theory, also adheres to the notion of local citizenry involvement in development for the benefits of the future generation. The research study further argues that poor people need to participate in decision making regarding the design and delivery of these houses (Oelefse, 1997). Therefore, the study investigated the underlying environmental implications associated with informal economic activities in a low cost housing establishment. The research study adopted a qualitative research design and an inductive approach. Dunoon was used as a case study for the research. The study used two sampling techniques, purposive sampling and random sampling,were used. Interviews, questionnaires and observations were used to collect data from the residents, informal businesses in Dunoon and key stakeholders from the Department of Environmnental Affairs as well as City of Cape Town. The findings of the thesis illustrate that long-term environmental impacts that are visible in the low-cost housing development of Dunoon are triggered by informal economic activities that are practised by the local people to make a living. In this regard, this thesis argues that local people need to be involved in the early planning and design stages of low-cost housing development. They need to be involved in all development stages to ensure that they drive the vision of the development. Lack of involvement of the local people in the initial stages of decision-making on the project triggered severe long term environmental impacts. The study then concludes that long-term environmental impacts in Dunoon are intertwined with the escalation of informal economic activities initiated by the local people in order to cope with harsh economic realities. These informal activities are a form of reaction to the imposed version of development. Thus, the environmental problems that emerged out of this pattern of human activities must be analysed by means of conceptualising the Dunoon low-cost housing as a product of modernist planning philosophy. Based on the information gathered and discussed in this thesis, it is concluded that the low-cost housing development is a product of modernist planning.
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36

Wada, Yoshihiko. "The myth of sustainable development, the ecological footprint of Japanese consumption." Thesis, National Library of Canada = Bibliothèque nationale du Canada, 1999. http://www.collectionscanada.ca/obj/s4/f2/dsk1/tape7/PQDD_0015/NQ46441.pdf.

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37

Gerber, Nicolas Economics Australian School of Business UNSW. "Biodiversity measurement, species interactions and sustainability." Awarded by:University of New South Wales. School of Economics, 2006. http://handle.unsw.edu.au/1959.4/26796.

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Throughout the last two decades, biodiversity has been increasingly acknowledged as a valuable asset. However there are numerous challenges to managing the asset. Firstly, there is no universally accepted measure of biodiversity per se. As a consequence, rather than measuring the intrinsic value of biodiversity the focus has typically shifted to valuing biodiversity services. Secondly, biodiversity issues should not be considered in a vacuum, but rather alongside general natural resource management problems. Conservation agencies and regulators alike would greatly benefit from more transparent biodiversity targets for conservation policies and natural resource management. This thesis makes a number of contributions to meet these challenges including measuring biodiversity, modelling diverse ecosystems and considering biodiversity outcomes in the management of an environmental resource. To value biodiversity, it is essential to measure it. Focusing on pairwise genetic dissimilarities at the species level, this thesis develops two models for measuring biodiversity. An axiomatic diagnosis of the existing and new measures is presented. This comparison suggests that the adequate biodiversity measure depends on the context. The diversity measures describe the biodiversity catalogue available at a given point in time. Modelling biodiversity is important for forecasting the impact of conservation decisions and understanding the future value of biodiversity. The importance of each species, however, depends on its role in the ecosystem as well as its genetic diversity. The interactions between species are therefore investigated and described, using a new model built around CES production functions. Three existing models based on predator-prey equations are extended to the multi-species case. These interaction models provide the necessary link for biodiversity maintenance over time. The four models are compared using simulations and an axiomatic approach. This approach shows that the new model performs well, offers the flexibility required to describe different types of ecosystems and is less data intensive. Finally, a case study of natural resource exploitation is presented, illustrating the idea that biodiversity loss can have direct economic implications in natural resource management. The model shows the impact of market structures on the extraction path of the resource and the distribution of the resource rent.
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38

Saes, Beatriz Macchione 1987. "Macroeconomia ecológica : o desenvolvimento de abordagens e modelos a partir da economia ecológica." [s.n.], 2013. http://repositorio.unicamp.br/jspui/handle/REPOSIP/286070.

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Анотація:
Orientador: Ademar Ribeiro Romeiro
Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Instituto de Economia
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Resumo: O principal objetivo da dissertação é discutir a necessidade de uma estrutura analítica que se pode chamar de macroeconomia ecológica e sistematizar o debate acerca do tema. O trabalho tem como hipótese que existe uma deficiência da economia ecológica, de caráter metodológico, no que diz respeito à discussão de políticas macroeconômicas. A abordagem econômico-ecológica considera o caráter biofísico e entrópico dos processos econômicos, que fundamenta sua crítica paradigmática ao mainstream da economia, mas ainda não consolidou uma macroeconomia correspondente a essa visão. Consideramos que esse seria um avanço importante, pois forneceria bases para a discussão de políticas e reformas macroeconômicas condizentes com a finalidade de viabilizar uma economia ecologicamente sustentável. Essa finalidade depende da compreensão de relações entre os sistemas econômico e ecológico, caracterizadas por grande grau de incerteza e complexidade, e da determinação da escala ótima da macroeconomia - que implica a necessidade de abandono do objetivo de promover o crescimento econômico ilimitado. Tendo em vista a perspectiva da economia ecológica, identificamos que o esforço de construção de uma macroeconomia ecológica tem tomado duas direções. A primeira é de aprofundar e sistematizar duas iniciativas, que propõem uma sociedade pós-crescimento - a condição estável e o decrescimento. A outra consiste em construir modelos macroeconômicos que permitam abranger as relações entre variáveis econômicas e ambientais e que trabalhem com limites à escala do sistema econômico. Concluímos afirmando que, embora avanços importantes tenham sido realizados, a macroeconomia ecológica ainda apresenta contornos vagos, sendo necessários maiores esforços para consolidá-la
Abstract: The main objective of this dissertation is to discuss the need for an analytical framework that can be called ecological macroeconomics and systematize the debate on the subject. This work has hypothesized that there is a deficiency in ecological economics, of a methodological character, with regard to the discussion of macroeconomic policies. The economic-ecological approach, which considers the biophysical and entropic nature of the economic process, generates a paradigmatic criticism of mainstream economics. However, a macroeconomics corresponding to this vision has not yet been consolidated. We believe that this consolidation would be an important advance, since it would ground the discussion of macroeconomic policies and reforms consistent with the purpose of facilitating environmentally sustainable economy. This goal depends on understanding relationships between ecological and economic systems, characterized by great uncertainty and complexity, and determining the optimal scale of the macroeconomy - which implies the need to abandon the goal of promoting unlimited economic growth. Given the perspective of ecological economics, we identified that the effort to build an ecological macroeconomics has taken two directions. The first is that of deepening and systematizing two initiatives that propose a post-growth society - steady-state and degrowth. The other is that of building macroeconomic models that enable including the relationships between economic environmental variables, which work with limits to the scale of the economic system. We conclude by stating that although significant progress has been made, the ecological macroeconomics still has vague contours, requiring greater efforts to consolidate it
Mestrado
Desenvolvimento Economico, Espaço e Meio Ambiente
Mestra em Desenvolvimento Econômico
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39

Uehara, Takuro. "A Systems Approach to Ecological Economic Models Developed Progressively in Three Interwoven Articles." PDXScholar, 2012. https://pdxscholar.library.pdx.edu/open_access_etds/553.

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My dissertation develops and analyzes ecological economic models to study the complex dynamics of an ecological economic system (EES) and investigate various conditions and measures which can sustain a developing economy over the long term in view of resilience and sustainability. Because of the intrinsic complexity of the system, I take a systems approach, using economics as the foundation for the basic structure of an ecological economic model, and system dynamics as the method to build and analyze such a complex ecological economic model. Throughout my dissertation, the model developed by Brander and Taylor (1998) is adopted as a baseline model (henceforth the BT model). The BT model explains population-resource dynamics and is characterized as a general equilibrium version of the Gordon-Schaefer Model, using a variation of the Lotka-Volterra predator-prey model. The findings are presented as three articles. The first article provides a comprehensive analysis of the BT model and its descendants, to elicit directions for further research, including population growth logic, substitutability, innovation, capital accumulation, property rights and institutional designs, and modeling approach. The second article extends the BT model to study the resilience of an EES reflecting three key issues in modeling such systems: 1) appropriate system boundary, 2) non-convexity of ecosystems, and 3) adaptation. The article discusses two types of thresholds: the ecological threshold, a threshold for an ecological system independent of economic systems, and the ecological economic threshold, a threshold for an EES. The latter is often different from the former and is highly dynamic and context dependent. The third article is another extension of the BT model to study the sustainability of an EES by implementing the suggestions made by the first article except for property rights and institutional designs. The main focus is on the impact of endogenous innovation regarding input substitutability on the system sustainability. The main finding is that improvement in the input substitutability, ceteris paribus, may not contribute to sustainable development despite its contribution to expanding the economy. However, it could be possible for susbstitutability improvements to contribute to sustainable development when combined with other specific types of technological progress.
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40

Gislason, Maya K. "Health and the environment : a critical enquiry of the construction and contestation of ecological health." Thesis, University of Sussex, 2012. http://sro.sussex.ac.uk/id/eprint/39727/.

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A crucial contemporary public health issue is the construction and contestation of the relevance of the natural world to human health. Taking a critical approach, this thesis examines how the natural environment as a health determinant is positioned in relation to the 'social' within social epidemiological studies of health, illness and disease. Using conceptual and empirical forms of enquiry, this study shows how current constructions of natural environmental health drivers contour public health practice in the UK and that by challenging the limits of existing structures, innovative responses emerge, which can generate new frameworks for health policy and practice. Having identified a lacuna in research on the 'natural' environment in medical sociology, this inductive qualitative research project brings into conversation the findings from extensive desk and field research. Specially, a study of the elaboration of environmental health discourses within the UK public health policy arena and disciplinary wide discourse analyses of key academic journals are read together to describe the discursive practices shaping environmental public health work in the UK. Linking theory to practice, data from in-depth interviews with sixty health professionals working on health and the environment in the UK and internationally are used to investigate how public health practitioners produce the environment within their work remits. The research breaks ground for further social scientific studies of health and the environment and in particular substantiates the call for an extended notion of the 'environment' using ecological principles. Methodologically, the interdisciplinary reach of this research draws attention to the tensions that arise when working across the medical, natural and social sciences. Practical and philosophical questions about the challenge of expanding the sociological imagination in the contemporary moment are also considered. Empirically, to medical sociology the 'EcoBioPsychoSocial' framework is offered as a tool for studying health at the nexus between the 'social' and the 'natural environment.' Finally, the ways informal public health institutions are serving as 'invisible' forces impeding the uptake of prevention oriented environmental health policies are findings offered to the health policy arena.
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41

Boyce, Marlene. "Perceptions of organisations on how the ward committee impacts on their participation on environmental sustainability in Ward 5 Knysna Municipality." Thesis, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, 2013. http://hdl.handle.net/10948/d1020393.

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Анотація:
This guided research report presents the findings of a study on how conservancies perceive the impact of the ward committee on their participation. The research was conducted with the objective of gaining insight into participation in sustainable development in Ward 5 in Knysna Municipality. The study was qualitative and involved a mix of methods including interviews, a survey and documentary review. The analysis shows that the impact of the ward committee on participation is indirect, in that there is a rigid approach to participation by the municipality which focusses only on participation through the ward committees. A change in paradigm that will extend the participation space and accommodate changing media in communication is recommended. The research results will be shared with all the stakeholders in this particular participation relationship, with the view to enhancing participation in sustainable development issues in the ward.
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42

López, Cabrera Magali. "O instrumento ecoeficiência para os processos industriais." [s.n.], 2010. http://repositorio.unicamp.br/jspui/handle/REPOSIP/258307.

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Анотація:
Orientador: Emília Wanda Rutkowski
Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo
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Resumo: A ecoeficiência é um instrumento de gestão ambiental que pode ser entendido de diversas formas. Na literatura encontramo-lo como uma abordagem genérica ou específica. Considerando que é segundo o entendimento da ecoeficiência que os negócios determinam a sua gestão, esta pesquisa apresenta os usos da ecoeficiência numa abordagem genérica ou específica. São organizadas um grupo de ferramentas para a sua implementação considerando três focos de atenção: pontual, incremental e estratégico cruzadas com o objeto do processo: ao produto, ao processo produtivo ou a cadeia produtiva
Abstract: The literature presents eco-efficiency in different ways, as a general approach or specific approach. The understanding of eco-efficiency determinates its management. The present study submits the different uses of eco-efficiency for industrial business. A matrix shows the ecoefficiency implementation tools focused as punctual, incremental and strategic based on different objects: product, productive process, productive chain and business
Mestrado
Saneamento e Ambiente
Mestre em Engenharia Civil
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43

Li, Wah-hong, and 李華匡. "The characteristics and sustainability of the grasshopper trade in Hong Kong." Thesis, The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong), 2006. http://hub.hku.hk/bib/B45013408.

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44

Akoh, Emmanuel Inalegwu. "Barriers to public participation in developmental projects : a Nigerian community perspective (case study of the Gbaran-Ubie oil and gas project)." Thesis, Rhodes University, 2013. http://hdl.handle.net/10962/d1001869.

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This research paper is broken up into three sections, namely an evaluation report, a literature review and research methodology. The evaluation report section is the assessment of the current state of change readiness within the Eskom Contact Centre’s based upon what the literature on change readiness prescribes. The timing of the change readiness assessment is just prior to significant organisational change. The organisational change that was about to be initiated by the organisation was initiated from the boardroom of the most senior echelons of the organisation, and was directed in a top down approach, being a strategic organisational change. The change is deemed to be critical to the organisation being able to meet its long term strategic and sustainability objectives. A critical examination of the literature explored the meaning of change readiness, the importance of it and explained the consequences for organisations that commit to transformational agendas without being ready. Key concepts such as such resistance to change and organisational inertia are described and differentiated from change readiness. The ADKAR change model and its change readiness assessment instrument were used due to the organisations preference for the model. The ADKAR model formed the framework for the analyses of the data, the discussion of the results and the recommendations to the organisation. The research conducted was quantitative in nature; a questionnaire was distributed to the employees of the seven Eskom Contact centre sites around the country through an email. A slightly modified version of the ADKAR change readiness questionnaire was sent via email with an on-line questionnaire link on it; and questions on individual readiness for change were used to assess the level of readiness of the employees. Most of the descriptive and inferential statistics were analysed with the use of Excel (version, 2010), with Factor Analysis being done in Statistica. The results of the research showed that: [iii] - The factors as proposed by the ADKAR change readiness assessment questionnaire (i.e. Awareness, Desire, Knowledge, Ability and Reinforcement) are not different enough to be considered as independent factors for this data set. Based on factor analysis, the factors were subsequently amended from five to three, namely Readiness, Opportunity Realisation and Uncertainty. - The Contact Centre employees were somewhat ready for change. - The Contact Centres needed to focus on all amended ADKAR factors in order to improve the readiness of the department. - The readiness levels in response to the roll out were more or less uniform. The study shows that given Eskom’s preference for the ADKAR model, future research within Eskom should therefore be conducted more circumspectly with respect to ascertaining the validity of the ADKAR factors. The study also makes mention that future work and/or research will need to be conducted, specifically on the readiness of the organisation itself, in order to improve the probability of transformational success. The ADKAR assessment is a people focused assessment and therefore focuses only on the readiness of the individual. Factors such as the adequacy of the current state of resources within the organisation, which incorporate aspects such as infrastructure, technology and staffing, will also need to be assessed to make a more holistic statement of change readiness. A concise review of the literature is incorporated into the Evaluation Report of Section 1 to underpin the study. In Section 2 a more extensive review of the literature is presented. Similarly, the design of the research is discussed in more detail in Section 3 to both describe and justify the appropriateness of the research methodology, and to give a detailed account of the way in which the research was carried out.
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45

Hyman, Katherine. "Economic development, decoupling and urban infrastructure : the role of innovation for an urban transition in Cape Town." Thesis, Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2011. http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/6464.

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Thesis (MPhil)--University of Stellenbosch, 2011.
ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This thesis investigates the case of the Cape Town Central City Provincial Government Revitalisation Initiative (CCPGRI) as a means to further understanding of socio-technical transitions. The departure point for this research is the recognition that the current economic growth and development trajectory is unsustainable. Despite this, deeply institutionalised frames of reference for decision-making reinforce and perpetuate the utilisation of (incumbent) sociotechnical systems which diminish finite resources and deteriorate eco-system services. The theoretical notion of decoupling, however, offers an alternative economic development paradigm. Decoupling has been identified, within this thesis, as the guiding framework through which adaption strategies should be carried out. This was indentified through a comprehensive literature review and an assessment of Cape Town's critical networked infrastructure. Networked infrastructure conveys flows of resources across vast urban spaces, in a linear configuration, thus conditioning resource flows and consumption. The case of Cape Town, however, illustrates that a linear configuration of infrastructure is both financially and environmentally unsustainable. Moreover, the case provides the empirical evidence for decoupling, reinforcing the argument for the adoption of the notion as an alternative development paradigm. Networked infrastructure has furthermore been identified as a socio-technical system, and therefore is considered as the component requiring a system transition and the subsequent intervention point for decoupling economic growth from resource consumption. From an implementation perspective, socio-technical system transitions, achieved through innovation, are the necessary component for realising sustainable urban development. It is argued that innovation, necessary for socio-technical system transitions, should be the product of sustainability-orientated innovation systems (SOIS's). SOIS's are implicitly linked to decoupling through the shared goal of enabling greater sustainability. The Cape Town CCPGRI has been extrapolated onto the multi-levelled perspective (MLP) model and is used to further understanding about how socio-technical system transitions are achieved. Findings indicate that socio-technical systems transitions are possible in urban areas that have multiple niche innovations developing simultaneously. Of significance is the presence of an intermediary, who is able to facilitate and manage the development of niche innovations emerging from SOIS's. It is therefore argued that high quality networking is critical for achieving socio-technical transitions which emerge from SOIS's.
AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie tesis ondersoek die geval van die "Cape Town Central City Provincial Government Revitalisation Initiative" (CCPGRI) as 'n manier om die begrip van sosio-tegniese oorgange te bevorder. Die vertrek punt vir hierdie navorsing is die insig dat die huidige verloop van ekonomiese groei en ontwikkeling onvolhoubaar is. Ten spyte hiervan versterk en verleng geïnstitusionaliseerde verwysingsraamwerke vir besluitneming die gebruik van (opgelegde) sosiotegniese sisteme wat uitputbare bronne verminder en ekosisteem dienste laat agteruitgaan. Die teoretiese idee van ontkoppeling bied nogtans 'n alternatiewe paradigma vir ekonomiese ontwikkeling. Hierdie tesis identifiseer ontkoppeling as die rigtinggewende raamwerk waardeur aanpassing strategië uitgevoer behoort te word. Dit is geïdentifiseer deur 'n omvattende literatuurstudie en 'n beoordeling van Kaapstad se kritiese infrastruktuur netwerk. Netwerke van infrastuktuur vervoer die vloei van bronne in 'n liniêre konfigurasie oor wye stedelike ruimtes en kondisioneer daardeur die vloei en verbruik van bronne. Die geval van Kaapstad illustreer egter dat 'n liniêre konfigurasie van infrastruktuur beide finansieel en omgewingsverwant onvolhoubaar is. Verder voorsien hierdie geval die empiriese bewyse vir ontkoppeling en versterk daardeur die argument vir die aanvaarding van die idee as „n alternatiewe paradigma vir ontwikkeling. Infrastruktuur netwerke is verder geïdentifiseer as 'n sosio-teniese sisteem en word daarom geag as die komponent wat 'n sisteem oorgang vereis en die gevolglike punt van ingryping om ekonomiese groei van bron verbruik te ontkoppel. Uit „n implemetering oogpunt is die oorgang van sosio-tegniese sisteme, voltrek deur innovering, die noodsaaklike komponent om volhoubare stedelike ontwikkeling te realiseer. Daar word geredeneer dat innovering – noodsaaklik vir sosio-tegniese sisteem oorgang – die produk behoort te wees van volhoubaar georiënteerde innovering sisteme. Hierdie sisteme is implisiet verbind aan ontkoppeling deur die gedeelde doel om groter volhoubaarheid moontlik te maak. Die Kaapstadse CCPGRI is op die meervlakkige perspektief model ge-ekstrapoleer en is aangewend om begrip te bevorder van hoe sosio-tegniese sisteem oorgang bereik word. Bevindings dui daarop dat sosio-tegniese sisteem oorgang moontlik is in stedelike gebiede waar meervoudige niche innoverings gelyktydig ontwikkel. Die teenwoordigheid van 'n tussenganger, wat die ontwikkeling van niche innoverings wat voortspruit uit die volhoubaar georiënteerde innovering sisteme kan fasiliteer en bestuur, is belangrik. Daar word dus geredeneer dat hoë kwaliteit netwerk daarstelling krities is vir die uitvoer van sosio-tegniese oorgange wat uit volhoubaar georiënteerde innovering sisteme voortspruit.
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46

Akpabey, Felix Jerry. "Quantification of the cross-sectoral impacts of waterweeds and their control in Ghana." Thesis, Rhodes University, 2012. http://hdl.handle.net/10962/d1005435.

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The Akosombo Dam on the Volta River in Ghana was built in 1963 to provide cheap energy to fuel industry and to accelerate the economic growth of the country. It provides hydroelectric power, enhanced fishing and water transportation upstream, and improved opportunities for irrigated farming, especially in the lower reaches, and their attendant economic multiplier effects. A few years after the construction of this major dam, a rapid expansion of industrialization took place in Ghana. This brought about an exponential increase in demand for more electrical power. This led to the construction of a smaller dam at Akuse, downstream of the Akosomho Dam in 1981 and the formation of a headpond at Kpong. The impoundment of the river at the two sites (Akosombo and Kpong) caused an alteration in the existing ecological and biophysical processes in the river basin, including a slowing of the flow of the river, upstream and downstream. Changes in the natural processes, such as a reduction in the flow of the river and an increase in nutrient status of the water, resulted in an invasion of aquatic weeds, increasing the density of aquatic snails (intermediate hosts of schistosomiasis), silting and closure of the estuary, as well as other more subtle effects. The invasion of the river's main course and the dams by aquatic plants led to a corresponding reduction of navigable water both upstream and downstream. The aim of this thesis was to quantify the impact and control of waterweeds, especially water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart) Solms-Laubach (Pontederiaceae), in Ghana. A floral survey on the Kpong Headpond recorded 49 emergent, 12 free floating and I submerged aquatic plant species, many of which were indigenous, but the exotic or introduced water hyacinth was recorded at most of the sampling sites, and was the most abundant and had the biggest impact on the utilization of the water resource. Mats of water hyacinth served as substrates for other, indigenous species to grow out into the main channel of the headpond, including the intake point of the Kpong head works of the Ghana Water Company Limited (GWCL) and landing sites for boats. These mats resulted in a reduction of the fish (fin and shell) harvest, reducing the annual production to far below demand. Water hyacinth was also shown to have severe health implications. A survey of the Ministry of Health records showed that the prevalence of both urinary and intestinal schistosomiasis had risen significantly over time as the abundance of waterweeds, most notably water hyacinth, increased, and ranged between 70% and 75% but up to 100% in some lakeside communities. Based on the work done by an NGO on board the medical boat ("Onipa Nua "), losses in terms of money due to the effect on health of the aquatic weed infestations on the Volta River in 2006 amounted to US$ 620,000. Economic losses due to invasive alien aquatic weeds were also calculated on the Oti River Arm of Lake Volta. It was estimated that about US$2.3 million per annum would be lost to the Volta Lake Transport Company and individual boat transport operators if this section of the river were 100% covered by aquatic weeds (water hyacinth and Salvinia molesta D.S. Mitchell (Salviniaceae)). It was also estimated that US$327,038 was spent annually in monitoring and managing the weeds in the Oti River. Control interventions for aquatic weeds have been implemented in river systems in Ghana. The biological control agents Neochetina bruchi Hustache (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) and Neochetina eichhorniae Warner (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) have been used on water hyacinth infestations in the Oti River Arm of Lake Volta, the Tano River and the Lagoon complex in the south-western part of the country. Cyrtobagous salviniae Calder and Sands (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) has been used to control salvinia, and Neohydronomous affinis Hustache (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to control water lettuce, Pistia stratiotes Lilmaeus (Araceae) in the Tano River and Lagoon complex. Although these projects have been regarded as successful, they have relied on research from elsewhere in the world and no postrelease quantification has been conducted. In evaluating the impact of the biological control agents Neochetina bruchi and Neochetina eichhorniae weevils on water hyacinth infestations in the Tano River, fresh adult feeding scars were recorded as well as the numbers of adult weevils on each water hyacinth plant sampled at six sites. Despite being released in 1994, weevil numbers and resultant damage to plants in the Tano Lagoon was low in comparison to other regions of the world where these agents have been used. The main reason for this is that this lagoon floods seasonally, washing weevil-infested plants out to sea. Water hyacinth then re-infests the lagoon from seed and the weevil populations are low. To resolve this situation, two courses of action are proposed. The first is to mass rear the weevils along the shore of the lagoon and release them when the first seedlings recruit. The second proposal is that additional agents that have shorter lifecycies and are more mobile than the weevils should be released. To this end, the water hyacinth mirid, Eccritotarsus catarinensis (Carvalho) (Hemiptera: Miridae) was imported from South Africa and released onto the Tano Lagoon in 2009. Retrospective laboratory host specificity trials were conducted on Neachetina eichharniae and Neachetina bruchi weevils 15 years after their release into Ghana to see if any variation in their host ranges had occurred. Considerable damage was inflicted on the E. crassipes leaves by the Neachetina weevils, while little feeding damage was recorded on both Heteranthera callifalia Kunth. (Pontederiaceae) and Eichharnia natans (P.Beauv.) Solms (Pontederiaceae). All the weevils introduced on H callifalia and E. natans died after the first week. This study served to confirm the host specificity and thereby the safety of these agents. Invasive alien aquatic macrophytes have negative impacts on the environment and economy of Ghana. The control of these weeds is essential to socioeconomic development and improved human health standards in riparian communities. Biological control offers a safe and sustainable control option, but requires diligent implementation. However, aquatic weed invasion is more typically a result of the anthropogenically induced eutrophication of water bodies, and this is the main issue that has to be addressed.
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47

Gardener, Roy Dudley. "Sustainable regional development : developing a sustainability assessment framework for district and metropolitan integrated development plans." Thesis, Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2014. http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/86408.

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Thesis (MPhil)--Stellenbosch University, 2014.
ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Achieving the goal of sustainable development (SD) and sustainability has proven to be a difficult task, inter alia, because some definitions of the terms are fuzzy and ambiguous and are interpreted differently depending on the context. The spatial scale, at which sustainability should be addressed, varies from site specific to the global level. The niche area, which has had little attention specifically in the South African context, is the regional scale. Integrated Development Plans (IDPs) are just one means by which sustainability can be mainstreamed into regional development planning within the South African context. IDPs are seen as holistic, multi-sectoral, strategic plans for district, metropolitan and local government, required in terms of national legislation. Legislation and guidelines on IDPs suggest that their purpose should be to contribute to sustainable development, but it is questioned whether this is the case. Sustainability Assessments (SAs) can be seen as instruments to direct decision-making towards sustainability, and the purpose of this literature study was to review current IDP Assessment Frameworks (AFs) used by the national and Western Cape provincial governments to assess IDPs, from a sustainability perspective. A literature review was conducted to establish the meaning of sustainability and sustainable development in the context of regional planning, the challenges facing regional planning, and the issues that need to be addressed in IDPs in order to promote sustainability. The first objective of the literature study was to analyse whether present metropolitan and district IDP assessment frameworks used in the Western Cape address sustainability adequately. The second objective was to develop a Sustainability Assessment Framework (SAF) that addresses relevant sustainability issues, based on new and innovative ways of addressing SD and sustainability at a regional scale. Lessons were also learnt through examining and assessing policies and plans both locally and abroad. The literature review highlighted lessons that can be learnt from systems and complexity thinking, transdisciplinary approach, transition management, resilience and regional innovation. The use of Impact Assessments (IAs) and Sustainability Assessments (SAs) from other countries, as well as South Africa, also proved valuable. A review of existing IDP AFs was performed, to determine where the gaps are and whether the principles of regional sustainability are incorporated into current AFs. It was established that current IDP AFs do not adequately assess sustainability issues in district, metropolitan and cross-border regional plans. Current AFs lack depth from a sustainability perspective, and therefore a new SAF was proposed for metropolitan and district IDPs. This SAF highlights five (5) domains of sustainability that should be used as inputs into IDPs. These are: (1) Environmental Sustainability, (2) Social Sustainability, (3) Economic Sustainability, (4) Built Environment and Technology Sustainability, and (5) Institutional Sustainability. Further inputs into the SAF were four (4) approach-based categories derived from the literature and existing frameworks. These comprise (1) Resilience and Resilient Governance, (2) Transdisciplinary approach, (3) Complexity and Systems Thinking, and (4) Regional Innovation Systems. Different indicators were then developed which were based on these approaches, but are specific to each domain of sustainability. The indicators can be used to rate, weigh and score IDPs based on the scorecard that was developed. The overall ‘sustainability rating’ of the IDP could then be calculated.
AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Om volhoubaarheid en volhoubare ontwikkeling (VO) te bewerkstellig, is 'n moeilike taak, onder andere omdat sommige definisies vir die verskillende terme vaag en dubbelsinnig is en verskillend geïnterpreteer word, afhangende van die konteks. Die ruimtelike skaal waar volhoubaarheid aangespreek behoort te word, wissel vanaf terrein spesifiek tot by die globale skaal. Die nis-area wat nog min aandag geniet het, veral in die Suid-Afrikaanse konteks, is die streek-skaal. Geïntegreerde Ontwikkelingsplanne (GOPe) is net een metode waarmee volhoubaarheid in die hoofstroom opgeneem kan word in streekbeplanning binne die Suid-Afrikaanse konteks. GOPe word gesien as holistiese, multi-sektorale, strategiese planne vir distriks-, metropolitaanse en plaaslike regerings, wat deur nasionale wetgewing vereis word. Wetgewing en riglyne oor GOPe dui daarop dat hul doel is om by te dra tot volhoubare ontwikkeling, maar dit word bevraagteken of dit wel die geval is. Volhoubare evaluering kan beskou word as metodes om besluitneming in die rigting van volhoubaarheid te stuur, en die doel van hierdie studie was om huidige evalueringsraamwerke wat deur die nasionale en Wes-Kaap provinsiale regerings gebruik word om GOPe te evalueer, te ondersoek vanuit ‘n volhoubaarheids-perspektief. ‘n Literatuuroorsig is gedoen om vas te stel wat die uitdagings is wat streekbeplanning in die sig staar, wat die betekenis van volhoubaarheid en volhoubare ontwikkeling in die konteks van streeksbeplanning is en wat die kwessies is wat aangespreek behoort te word om volhoubaarheid te bevorder. Die eerste doel van die literatuur studie was om te analiseer of die huidige plaaslike GOP assessering raamwerke, wat gebruik word in die Wes-Kaap, volhoubaarheid adequaat aanspreek Die tweede doel van die studie was dus om ‘n Volhoubaarheidseveluaringsraamwerk (VER) op te stel, gebaseer op nuwe en innoverende maniere uit die literatuur om VO en volhoubaarheid op streekskaal aan te spreek, sowel as om bestaande beleid en planne, beide plaaslik en in die buiteland, te ondersoek vir lesse wat daaruit geleer kan word. Die literatuur oorsig het ook beklemtoon watter lesse geleer kan word uit stelsels- en kompleksiteitdenke, transdissiplinariteit, oorgangsbestuur, herstellingsvermoë en streeks-innovering. Die gebruik van Impakstudies en Volhoubaarheid-evaluerings vanuit ander lande, sowel as Suid-Afrika, was ook waardevol. Die hersiening van bestaande GOP Evalueringsraamwerke (ERe) vanuit 'n volhoubare perspektief is ook uitgevoer om te bepaal waar daar leemtes bestaan en of die beginsels van streeksvolhoubaarheid ingesluit is in huidige ERe. Daar is vasgestel dat volhoubaarheid nie voldoende aangespreek is in huidige GOP ERe van distriks-, metropolitaanse en streeksplanne nie en 'n nuwe Volhoubaarheidsevalueringsraamwerk (VER) is dus ontwikkel vir metropolitaanse en distrik GOPe. Hierdie VER beklemtoon vyf (5) domeine van volhoubaarheid wat as insette tot GOPe gebruik kan word. Dit sluit in: (1) Omgewingsvolhoubaarheid, (2) Sosiale volhoubaarheid, (3) Ekonomiese volhoubaarheid, (4) Beboude omgewing en Tegnologie volhoubaarheid, en (5) Institusionele volhoubaarheid. Verdere insette tot die VER was vier (4) benaderings-gebaseerde kategorieë, afgelei uit die literatuur en bestaande raamwerke. Dit behels (1) Herstellingsvermoë en herstelbestuur, (2) Transdissiplinêre benadering, (3) Kompleksiteit en Sisteem denke, en (4) Streeks-innoveringstelsels. Verskillende indikatore is daarna ontwikkel wat gebaseer is op elkeen van hierdie benaderings, maar wat spesifiek was tot elke domein van volhoubaarheid. Die indikatore is gebruik om GOPe te evalueer en om gewigte en tellings toe te ken gebaseer op ‘n telkaart wat ontwikkel is.
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48

Kelly, Philip F. (Philip Francis). "Development as degradation : aquaculture, mangrove deforestation and entitlements in Batan, Philippines." Thesis, McGill University, 1993. http://digitool.Library.McGill.CA:80/R/?func=dbin-jump-full&object_id=69616.

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This thesis examines pond aquaculture as a development strategy in the Philippines, with particular reference to its impact on the local environment and the livelihoods of local people.
A theoretical framework is provided by recent literature in development studies and human geography, which attempts to move away from an essentialist and ethnocentric development praxis, and towards a locally-based, participatory process of empowerment. From the perspective of such 'alternative' development ideas, orthodox strategies involving modernization, formalization of economic activities, and resource mobilization, can be reassessed.
The promotion of pond aquaculture--and the widespread mangrove deforestation associated with it--is shown to be a strategy endorsed and supported by national and international development agencies. What is often overlooked, however, is the local ecological and economic importance of mangrove ecosystems. This study examines the effects of mangrove removal and fishpond development on the entitlements of people in three coastal communities in the Philippines. Aquacultural development is shown to have detrimental effects on the integrity of the coastal ecosystem and the livelihoods of certain groups of local residents; a rich common property resource is converted into a privately-owned system of cultivation. While benefits accrue to those with access to the capital necessary for the construction of fishponds, the costs of development are borne largely by mangrove gatherers and artisanal fisherfolk, whose share of a diminishing resource base is steadily declining. For these marginal groups, aquaculture is shown to provide few compensating economic benefits.
The study supports, through concrete local evidence, the criticisms made of orthodox approaches to development, and the need to construct attitudes and strategies which are more attuned to local sustainability and equity.
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49

Hull, John Sterling. "Analyzing the potential for tourism to promote sustainable economic development on the Lower North Shore of Quebec." Thesis, National Library of Canada = Bibliothèque nationale du Canada, 1998. http://www.collectionscanada.ca/obj/s4/f2/dsk1/tape11/PQDD_0026/NQ50188.pdf.

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50

Outsios, Georgios. "The emergence of UK environmental entrepreneurs : a practice theory view on mindset and constraints." Thesis, University of Stirling, 2013. http://hdl.handle.net/1893/17145.

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This thesis contributes to our knowledge on the emergence of environmental entrepreneurs. The study is guided by the research question, “how do UK environmental entrepreneurs start to form their distinctive environmental entrepreneurial thinking” and analyses the development of the environmental entrepreneurial mindset in the UK, through a theory of practice perspective. Based on a three-stage data collection process (preliminary focus group, semi-structured interviews and life stories), the study (1) conceptualises the construction of the environmental entrepreneurial mindset, (2) investigates the experiences of constraints for practice and (3) analyses differences in habitus and constraints on the basis of the sampling dimensions, type (social environmental and commercial) and gender (male and female). The study was undertaken under a social constructivist perspective and follows the naturalistic paradigm (Guba, 1978). The rigour (or trustworthiness) of the qualitative approach has been established according to perspectives by Mason (2001) and Guba and Lincoln (1985). The empirical basis of the study is comprised of a three stage design of discursive interviews, involving overlapping collective (focus group) and individual (life stories, in-depth interviews) data collection techniques, with a partly gathering structure (through semi-structured questions). A preliminary focus group identified key themes relevant to the study’s objectives and the concepts of the theory of practice (field, capital, and habitus). Three life stories refined the themes and analysed them within the context of entrepreneurs’ lives. The two stages enabled the development of questions targeting themes for the in-depth interviews and the cross case content analysis. For sampling purposes, the Maximum Variation Sampling (MVS) strategy was employed, which enabled identification and analysis of common and divergent themes (Miller & Crabtree, 1999) and by over-coming the limitations of the sample size, it provided a conditional representativeness. The findings show that environmental entrepreneurs accumulate divergent forms of cultural, social and economic capital, which shapes their entrepreneurial and environmental mindsets, triggering the creation of a disposition (habitus) towards setting up an environmental enterprise. Studying the formation of the environmental entrepreneurial mindset addresses a relevant knowledge gap and offers theoretical and methodological contributions. It also confers implications for practice, with a particular reference to entrepreneurial education and policymaking.
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