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Пов'язані теми наукових робіт

1

Bimler, David. "From Color Naming to a Language Space: An Analysis of Data from the World Color Survey." Journal of Cognition and Culture 7, no. 3-4 (2007): 173–99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156853707x208477.

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AbstractThe World Color Survey was a large-scale cross-cultural experiment in which informants used the color lexicons of 110 non-written languages to label a standard set of stimuli. Here those data are explored with a novel analysis which focuses on the averaged location of boundaries within the stimulus set, revealing the system of color categories native to each language. A quantitative index of inter-language similarity was defined, comparing these average boundaries. Analyzing the similarities among color-naming patterns led to a 'language space', in which languages are grouped into clusters according to linguistic families (i.e., descent from common ancestors). This implies that each language's departures from the cross-cultural consensus about color categories are systematic (non-random). Given the non-unanimity about the color lexicon within languages, the persistence of these language families across the course of linguistic evolution is paradoxical.
2

Edwards, John. "Language Families and Family Languages." Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 26, no. 2 (March 2005): 173–86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01434630508668403.

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3

WELLMON, CHAD. "Languages, Cultural Studies, and the Futures of Foreign Language Education." Modern Language Journal 92, no. 2 (June 2008): 292–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2007.00719_3.x.

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4

Nagy, Naomi. "Heritage languages: a language contact approach." Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 41, no. 10 (April 2020): 900–902. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2020.1749774.

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5

Gholami, Saloumeh. "Endangered Iranian Languages: Language Contact and Language Islands in Iran." Iranian Studies 53, no. 3-4 (July 2020): 347–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00210862.2020.1721997.

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6

Linck, Jared A., Noriko Hoshino, and Judith F. Kroll. "Cross-language lexical processes and inhibitory control." Mental Lexicon 3, no. 3 (December 2008): 349–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/ml.3.3.06lin.

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Many recent studies demonstrate that both languages are active when bilinguals and second language (L2) learners are reading, listening, or speaking one language only. The parallel activity of the two languages has been hypothesized to create competition that must be resolved. Models of bilingual lexical access have proposed an inhibitory control mechanism to effectively limit attention to the intended language (e.g., Green, 1998). Critically, other recent research suggests that a lifetime of experience as a bilingual negotiating the competition across the two languages confers a set of benefits to cognitive control processes more generally (e.g., Bialystok, Craik, Klein, & Viswanathan, 2004). However, few studies have examined the consequences of individual differences in inhibitory control for performance on language processing tasks. The goal of the present work was to determine whether there is a relation between enhanced executive function and performance for L2 learners and bilinguals on lexical comprehension and production tasks. Data were analyzed from two studies involving a range of language processing tasks, a working memory measure, and also the Simon task, a nonlinguistic measure of inhibitory control. The results demonstrate that greater working memory resources and enhanced inhibitory control are related to a reduction in cross-language activation in a sentence context word naming task and a picture naming task, respectively. Other factors that may be related to inhibitory control are identified. The implications of these results for models of bilingual lexical comprehension and production are discussed.
7

Huehnergard, John, and Robert Hetzron. "The Semitic Languages. Routledge Language Family Descriptions." Journal of the American Oriental Society 121, no. 1 (January 2001): 148. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/606765.

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8

BERMAN, RUTH A. "Cross-linguistic comparisons in child language research." Journal of Child Language 41, S1 (July 2014): 26–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0305000914000208.

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ABSTRACTMajor large-scale research projects in the early years of developmental psycholinguistics were English-based, yet even then numerous studies were available or under way in a range of different languages (Ferguson & Slobin, 1973). Since then, the field of cross-linguistic child language research has burgeoned in several directions. First, rich information is now available on the acquisition of dozens of languages from around the world in numerous language families, spearheaded by the five-volume series edited by Slobin (1985–1997) and complemented by in-depth examination of specific constructions – e.g. causative alternation, motion verbs, passive voice, subject elision, noun compounding – in various languages, culminating in an in-depth examination of the acquisition of ergativity in over a dozen languages (Bavin & Stoll, 2013). A second fruitful direction is the application of carefully comparable designs targeting a range of issues among children acquiring different languages, including: production of early lexico-grammatical constructions (Slobin, 1982), sentence processing comprehension (MacWhinney & Bates, 1989), expression of spatial relations (Bowerman, 2011), discourse construction of oral narratives based on short picture series (Hickmann, 2003) and longer storybooks (Berman & Slobin, 1994), and extended texts in different genres (Berman, 2008). Taken together, research motivated by the question of what is particular and what universal in child language highlights the marked, and early, impact of ambient language typology on processes of language acquisition. The challenge remains to operationalize such insights by means of psychologically sound and linguistically well-motivated measures for evaluating the interplay between the variables of developmental level, linguistic domain, and ambient language typology.
9

Vajda, Edward J., and Karsten Legere. "Cross-Border Languages: Reports and Studies Regional Workshop on Cross-Border Languages." Language 76, no. 4 (December 2000): 931. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/417213.

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10

El-dali, Hosni Mostafa. "Cross-Cultural Communication: Perspectives from Translation Studies and Applied Linguistics." Journal of Social Sciences (COES&RJ-JSS) 1, no. 1 (October 2012): 23. http://dx.doi.org/10.25255/jss.2012.1.1.24.46.

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This paper has emerged out of the conviction that linguistic theory has more to offer totranslation theory than is so far recognized and vice versa. One reason for the relative separationbetween the two fields is, perhaps, the domination of formal approaches to language study for aconsiderable period of time. But, with the spread of functional linguistics in the last three decades,there have been growing hopes for establishing links between linguistics and translation studies.Accordingly, the discussion, in the present study, proceeds primarily from the perspectives of“Translation Studies” and “Applied Linguistics”. One major goal is to show the interrelationshipsbetween linguistics and translation, and how they benefit from each other. The basic underlyingtheme, here, is that “inside or between languages, human communication equals translation. Astudy of translation is a study of language” (Bassnett-McGuire, 1980: 23). In addition, bothtranslators and linguists deal with two linguistic systems, each with, perhaps, a different culturalsystem. So, if we agree that ‘all communicators are translators’ (Bell, 1994), we must rememberthat the role of the translator is different from that of the ‘normal communicator’: the translator is abilingual mediating agent between monolingual communication participants in two differentlanguage communities. On the other hand, there has been a great focus on using English only as a medium ofinstruction in all courses taught in the UAE University. Accordingly, the second goal of this studyis to try to answer the questions, “How much translation from L1 is permitted in FL teaching? and“What are the factors that determine the quantity to be used?”. The view adopted in the presentstudy is that disregarding L2 learners’ mother-tongue and considering it “a bogey to be shunned atall
11

Fabian, Myroslava. "Interdisciplinary approach to cross-language and cross-cultural communication studies." Сучасні дослідження з іноземної філології, no. 17 (January 2019): 9–16. http://dx.doi.org/10.24144/2617-3921.2019.17.9-16.

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12

LeMaster, Barbara C., and John P. Dwyer. "Cross-Cultural Studies: Signed Language & Deaf Communities." Sign Language Studies 1073, no. 1 (1991): 325–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/sls.1991.0017.

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13

Bobb, Susan C., Noriko Hoshino, and Judith F. Kroll. "The role of language cues in constraining cross-language activity." EUROSLA Yearbook 8 (August 2008): 6–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/eurosla.8.04bob.

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Recent psycholinguistic studies provide compelling evidence for the claim that both languages are active when second language (L2) learners and bilinguals process information in one language alone. The parallel activation of the two languages occurs even when individuals are performing highly practiced tasks such as reading, listening, and speaking, and even when they are highly proficient in both languages. The presence of cross-language activity in the absence of random errors, particularly for those who are highly proficient in the L2, suggests that a mechanism of cognitive control is in place to guide the selection of the intended language. The focus of current research is to understand the basis of this cognitive mechanism, how it varies as a function of individual differences in cognitive resources, and what consequences it holds for cognition more generally. In this paper we consider whether L2 learners and bilinguals are able to exploit cues to language status that might allow them to focus their attention on languagerelevant attributes of processing or to effectively inhibit information related to the language not in use as a means to control language selection. The results of the present study suggest that it is possible to create a functional language cue for planning the L2 and bias language selection.
14

Brown, Amanda. "Gesture viewpoint in Japanese and English." Gestures in language development 8, no. 2 (August 2008): 256–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/gest.8.2.08bro.

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Abundant evidence across languages, structures, proficiencies, and modalities shows that properties of first languages influence performance in second languages. This paper presents an alternative perspective on the interaction between established and emerging languages within second language speakers by arguing that an L2 can influence an L1, even at relatively low proficiency levels. Analyses of the gesture viewpoint employed in English and Japanese descriptions of motion events revealed systematic between-language and within-language differences. Monolingual Japanese speakers used significantly more Character Viewpoint than monolingual English speakers, who predominantly employed Observer Viewpoint. In their L1 and their L2, however, native Japanese speakers with intermediate knowledge of English patterned more like the monolingual English speakers than their monolingual Japanese counterparts. After controlling for effects of cultural exposure, these results offer valuable insights into both the nature of cross-linguistic interactions within individuals and potential factors underlying gesture viewpoint.
15

Stancombe-Taylor, Freya. "Linguistic Identites in Post-Conflict Societies." Anthropological Journal of European Cultures 28, no. 2 (September 2019): 86–92. http://dx.doi.org/10.3167/ajec.2019.280208.

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This article assesses the identity politics of language in post-conflict Northern Ireland, where language debates at a political level have been encased in questions of identity. However, despite the continued existence of ethnocentric narratives around language, opportunities have emerged for individuals to cross linguistic barriers and challenge the perspective that certain languages ‘belong’ to certain communities.
16

Yin, Jian. "Chinese terminology studies." Chinese Semiotic Studies 17, no. 1 (January 2021): 71–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/css-2021-0003.

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Abstract A single but collective, multifaceted, and multidimensional theory of terminology relies on the contributions of scholars in different ways and in different languages. Local terminology practice and exploration back-feed the general theory and jointly contribute to the completion of a comprehensive theoretical framework. This paper analyzes the application of terminology as the driving force of the discipline, which includes standardized application, domain-specific communicative application, and cross-cultural/cross-lingual application. Specifically, the characteristics of terminology translation practice in China are introduced, with terminology translation conducted as a practice of knowledge dissemination and discourse contribution bound by and affecting Chinese language. Then, several characteristics of Chinese terminology studies are introduced. It is pointed out that Chinese terminology studies, based on the answering of the local terminology problems in China, have universal value for the construction of terminology as a whole discipline.
17

Sonck, Gerda. "Language of Instruction and Instructed Languages in Mauritius." Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 26, no. 1 (January 2005): 37–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14790710508668397.

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18

Ebzeeva, Yulia N. "QS Subject Focus Summit 2020 on Modern Languages and Linguistics: Languages and migration in a globalized world." Russian Journal of Linguistics 25, no. 2 (December 2021): 299–316. http://dx.doi.org/10.22363/2687-0088-2021-25-2-299-316.

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This article summarizes some of the results of the first QS Subject Focus Summit on Linguistics and Modern Languages held jointly with the RUDN University on December 15-17, 2020. It provides rationale for the choice of venue of this linguistic forum and analyzes the most relevant topics of discussion, including interdisciplinarity in modern linguistic research, comparative studies of languages and cultures, and intercultural and cross-cultural communication. Participants explored the topics as diverse as the role of linguistics in developing artificial intelligence systems and application of artificial intelligence in linguistic research, the dynamics of languages in minority situations and the efforts in preserving endangered languages. They dwelt on the current state of translation studies and discussed prospects for their future in view of advances in computer technologies, and many others. The articles included in this issue and authored by the Summit participants clearly show that language has become an object of interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary studies. Moreover, the interdisciplinary research paradigm is manifested not only in the convergence of linguistics with other areas of humanities, but also with sciences. This article provides a brief overview of the contributions which present major paradigms of modern linguistics. It highlights the importance of applying computer technologies in linguistic research and emphasizes the necessity to modify language policies in order to preserve minority languages and meet the needs of language education in a multilingual and multicultural environment.
19

Hussain, Muhammad, and Akhtar Aziz. "CROSS-CULTURAL PRAGMATIC STUDY OF APOLOGY STRATEGIES IN BALOCHI WITH REFERENCE TO CHINESE LANGUAGE." Journal of Nusantara Studies (JONUS) 5, no. 2 (June 2020): 152–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.24200/jonus.vol5iss2pp152-169.

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Background and Purpose: Cross-cultural studies help to reduce linguistic misunderstandings. Owing to the mastery of the grammar and vocabulary of any language, speakers who may be fluent in a second language, may still be unable to produce language that is socially and culturally acceptable, thus indicates the importance of pragmatics in general and cross-cultural pragmatics in particular. The development of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) creates urgency for the Baloch and the Chinese people to know each other's language and culture, as the project is located in 'Gwadar', a Baloch region, where Balochi is widely spoken. The purpose of this paper is to explore apology strategies used in the Balochi language spoken in Balochistan, Pakistan with reference to Chinese, including Baloch cultural values which influence language. Methodology: The data were collected through Discourse Completion Test from 30 native speakers of Balochi language enrolled in various departments at International Islamic University Islamabad Pakistan. On the other hand, the Chinese language data were adopted as a reference from a research study conducted by Chang (2016). The Balochi data were analyzed by employing the framework presented by Blum-Kulka, House, and Kasper (1989). Findings: The findings show that the Baloch native speakers use indirect strategies of apology, explanation strategy, and taking and denying responsibility which are similar to the Chinese language. Contribution: The paper may help to expand the scope of cross-cultural pragmatics to non-western languages. The paper may also be significant in the teaching curricula to design comparative courses in Chinese and Balochi. Keywords: Apology, Balochi, Chinese, cross-cultural pragmatics, strategies. Cite as: Hussain, M., & Aziz, A. (2020). Cross-cultural pragmatic study of apology strategies in Balochi with reference to Chinese language. Journal of Nusantara Studies, 5(2), 152-169. http://dx.doi.org/10.24200/jonus.vol5iss2pp152-169
20

Peters, Arne, and Susan Coetzee-Van Rooy. "Exploring the interplay of language and body in South African youth: A portrait-corpus study." Cognitive Linguistics 31, no. 4 (November 2020): 579–608. http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/cog-2019-0101.

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AbstractElicitation materials like language portraits are useful to investigate people’s perceptions about the languages that they know. This study uses portraits to analyse the underlying conceptualisations people exhibit when reflecting on their language repertoires. Conceptualisations as manifestations of cultural cognition are the purview of cognitive sociolinguistics. The present study advances portrait methodology as it analyses data from structured language portraits of 105 South African youth as a linguistic corpus from both qualitative and quantitative perspectives. The approach enables the uncovering of (a) prominent underlying conceptualisations of African language(s) and the body, and (b) the differences and similarities of these conceptualisations vis-à-vis previous cognitive (socio)linguistic studies of embodied language experiences. In our analysis, African home languages emerged both as ‘languages of the heart’ linked to cultural identity and as ‘languages of the head’ linked to cognitive strength and control. Moreover, the notion of ‘degrees of proficiency’ or ‘magnitude’ of language knowledge emerged more prominently than in previous studies of embodied language experience.
21

Candell, Gregory L., and Charles L. Hulin. "Cross-Language and Cross-Cultural Comparisons in Scale Translations." Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 17, no. 4 (December 1986): 417–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022002186017004003.

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22

Alexander, Richard J. "Language as commodity: trading languages, global structures, local marketplaces Language and the market." Journal of Multicultural Discourses 6, no. 1 (March 2011): 99–103. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17447143.2010.519491.

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23

Wood, Dustin, Lin Qiu, Jiahui Lu, Han Lin, and William Tov. "Adjusting Bilingual Ratings by Retest Reliability Improves Estimation of Translation Quality." Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 49, no. 9 (August 2018): 1325–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022022118789773.

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The quality of cross-language scale translations is often explored by having bilingual participants complete the scale in both languages and then correlating their scores. However, low cross-language correlations can be observed due to score unreliability rather than due to poor scale translation. McCrae, Yik, Trapnell, Bond, and Paulhus suggested that a better indicator of translation quality can be formed by dividing the raw cross-language correlation by the same-language retest correlations over a similar measurement interval. Here, we illustrate how this method can be extended to evaluate the translation quality of individual items. We translated the English version of the Inventory of Individual Differences in the Lexicon (IIDL) into Chinese, and within a single survey session participants either completed the instrument either in both languages ( N = 151 bilingual participants) or twice in Chinese ( N = 94) or in English ( N = 82). Finally, additional bilingual participants ( N = 46) rated the perceived translation quality of each item. Variation in the cross-language correlations across items predicted perceived translation quality, however, adjusting for same-language retest correlations resulted in significantly stronger indicators of perceived translation quality. The present study thus indicates the validity of McCrae et al.’s general method, and demonstrates that it can be extended to designs where all participants complete a single test session and can be applied to evaluate the quality of translations of single items.
24

Vessey, Rachelle. "Challenges in cross-linguistic corpus-assisted discourse studies." Corpora 8, no. 1 (May 2013): 1–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.3366/cor.2013.0032.

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In this paper, I present some of the challenges and benefits arising from the use of cross-linguistic (i.e., involving comparable, non-parallel corpora of different languages) corpus-assisted discourse studies. Since corpus linguistics and discourse analysis ultimately focus on ‘real’ language use rather than theoretically constructed examples, it follows that the content of a corpus will be as varied as the population it is intended to represent; and this is true to an even larger extent when the population is ethno-linguistically diverse. Data for corpus-assisted discourse studies (CADS) research, then, can present numerous issues to researchers, particularly if they are drawing on multilingual data. In this paper, four examples of cross-linguistic CADS challenges are drawn from two cases in Canada, a country that contains a diverse population that is indexed by two official languages, English and French. I conclude this paper by suggesting solutions for each of these issues and call for more research into the comparative nature of cross-linguistic CADS research.
25

Buck, David D. "Forum on Universalism and Relativism in Asian Studies Editor's Introduction." Journal of Asian Studies 50, no. 1 (February 1991): 29–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0021911800045629.

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How to establish and transmit understanding across the boundaries of language, geography, culture, and time lies at the very heart of Asian Studies. Ours is a highly refined form of cross-cultural activity, but one that places the highest value on this understanding. To engage in this activity, individuals undergo long periods of training to master other languages, to produce, and then to present their knowledge in certain rigorously defined forms. The scholar works in this way both to establish some particular understanding and then to transmit that understanding to other Asianists, students, various other specialists, and the public at large.
26

Ong, Teresa Wai See. "Family Language Policy, Language Maintenance and Language Shift: Perspectives from Ethnic Chinese Single Mothers in Malaysia." Issues in Language Studies 10, no. 1 (June 2021): 59–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.33736/ils.3075.2021.

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Family language policy comprises three components, namely, ideology, practice, and management. Using the conceptual framework of family language policy, this study draws on data from semi-structured interviews and participant observation to explore the role of mothers in the process of language maintenance and language shift in Malaysia. First, it investigates the language choices and ideologies of four Chinese single mothers from Penang that lead to speaking heritage languages and/or dominant languages with their children. Second, it examines the strategies for heritage culture maintenance adopted by these mothers. The study found that two of the mothers speak Chinese heritage languages with their children to reinforce emotional attachment and family cohesion. Conversely, two other mothers face socioeconomic and educational pressures in relation to maintaining Chinese heritage languages, which trigger a shift to using dominant languages such as Mandarin Chinese and English with their children. Nevertheless, all four mothers made efforts in exposing their children to ethnic Chinese cultures. The findings indicate that maintaining heritage languages in the current era has become a challenge for many families in Malaysia while speaking dominant languages is becoming a necessity.
27

Lu, Youtao, and James L. Morgan. "Homophone auditory processing in cross-linguistic perspective." Proceedings of the Linguistic Society of America 5, no. 1 (March 2020): 529. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/plsa.v5i1.4733.

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Previous studies reported conflicting results for the effects of homophony on visual word processing across languages. On finding significant differences in homophone density in Japanese, Mandarin Chinese and English, we conducted two experiments to compare native speakers’ competence in homophone auditory processing across these three languages. A lexical decision task showed that the effect of homophony on word processing in Japanese was significantly less detrimental than in Mandarin and English. A word-learning task showed that native Japanese speakers were the fastest in learning novel homophones. These results suggest that language-intrinsic properties influence corresponding language processing abilities of native speakers.
28

Laesser, Christian, Pietro Beritelli, and Samuel Heer. "Different native languages as proxy for cultural differences in travel behaviour: insights from multilingual Switzerland." International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research 8, no. 2 (June 2014): 140–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/ijcthr-02-2014-0010.

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Purpose – This study aims to study different native languages as proxy for cultural differences in travel behaviour in multilingual Switzerland. Differences in travel behaviour between tourists from different nations (implying different cultural backgrounds) have been investigated in several studies. However, most studies do not reveal the potential confounding effects associated with cross-nation studies, such as differences in the economic, legal/regulatory or subcultural contexts of their residents. This exploratory study tries to overcome this gap by investigating differences in travel behaviour between language groups within one country: Switzerland. By holding potential confounding effects constant, our results reveal differences in travel behaviour associated with language, including travel motivation, choice of destination, choice of type of accommodation, duration of trip and travel expenses. Design/methodology/approach – The study is based on data from one of the most comprehensive outbound travel behaviour survey: Travel Market Switzerland. Findings – By holding potential confounding effects constant, our results reveal differences in travel behaviour associated with language, including choice of destination, choice of type of accommodation, duration of trip and travel expenses. Originality/value – Differences in travel behaviour between tourists from different nations (implying different cultural backgrounds) have been investigated in several studies. However, most studies do not reveal the potential confounding effects associated with cross-nation studies, such as differences in the economic, legal/regulatory or subcultural contexts of their residents. This exploratory study tries to overcome this gap.
29

Bodycott, Peter. "Cultural cross‐currents in second language literacy education." Intercultural Education 17, no. 2 (May 2006): 207–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14675980600693947.

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30

Van Driem, George. "Sino-Bodic." Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 60, no. 3 (October 1997): 455–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0041977x0003250x.

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In terms of number of speakers, Tibeto-Burman vies with Indo-European for the title of the world's largest language family. Yet by comparison little is known of its past. In linguistic terms, eastern Eurasia has always been much more of aterra incognitathan western Eurasia. Speakers of Tibeto-Burman languages occupy a vast area in the heartland of eastern Eurasia, but Tibeto- Burman peoples are by no means the only inhabitants of the Orient. Yet at one time it was believed that virtually all languages spoken by what was impressionistically called ‘the Mongoloid race’ or ‘Mongolian races’ belonged to a vast language family known as Turanian. In the middle of the last century, Friedrich Max Müller, a celebrated champion of this theory, divided the languages of the Old World into three language families.
31

Outakoski, Hanna, Coppélie Cocq, and Peter Steggo. "Strengthening Indigenous languages in the digital age: social media–supported learning in Sápmi." Media International Australia 169, no. 1 (November 2018): 21–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1329878x18803700.

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This article presents and discusses Sámi social media initiatives for strengthening languages. The Sámi are the Indigenous people of Europe. All Sámi languages are endangered, and the lack of resources for maintaining, promoting and teaching the languages has been underscored on several occasions by the European Council and the Sámi parliaments. Social media has become an arena where resources are created and shared, enabling communities of speakers to support each other and promote their languages. YouTube, blogs, Twitter and language learning applications are here discussed as public domains and community-grounded media. Based on a few examples and on our expertise as instructors within Sámi studies, we suggest strategies for developing long-lasting and innovative models for revitalizing threatened languages and cultures, and for counteracting language loss through social media. This contribution shares examples of innovative uses of social media in Sámi of relevance for other Indigenous contexts.
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Meek, Barbra A. "Language Endangerment in Childhood." Annual Review of Anthropology 48, no. 1 (October 2019): 95–115. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-anthro-102317-050041.

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Language endangerment by definition excludes children and childhood, as the most endangered languages are those which are no longer being used, spoken, or acquired by the youngest generations. By and large, research in this area reflects this exclusion by focusing primarily on the documentation of grammatical knowledge elicited from the oldest speakers for storage in archives (what Maliseet anthropologist Bernard Perley has termed “zombie linguistics”). However, when approached from a language socialization orientation, the seeming paradox of language endangerment in childhood dissolves. Investigations of endangered languages in childhood reveal surprisingly vibrant and complicated amalgams of linguistic practices, socializing discourses, and cultural ideologies. They underscore the need to apply mixed methods to understanding processes of language endangerment. They challenge the grammatical boundedness of languages as (transparently) discrete objects. They recognize the vitalities emergent from situations of aggressive contact. Thus, attention to children and childhood not only calls into question the privileged rhetoric of zombie linguistics but also accentuates and challenges the socially constructed dimensions of languages and linguistic boundaries.
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Djahukian, Gevorg. "Notes On Some Lexical Correspondences Between Armenian and the Kartvelian Languages." Iran and the Caucasus 7, no. 1 (2003): 191–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/157338403x00097.

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AbstractArmenian loanwords in Kartvelian probably are of as much importance for the history of the Armenian language as were Finnish borrowings for the Germanic languages. Respectively, Kartvelian borrowings in Armenian are not less important for the history of Kartvelian languages. Except for Iranian and, in a lesser extent, Greek, Georgian has been a language with the longest contact with Armenian. Unfortunately, there are no studies revealing phonetic, grammatical and lexical criteria for the identification of the periods of interrelations between these languages. This paper is an attempt of establishing the chronology of several Armenian loanwords in Kartvelian, and also tracing the history of the initial Kartvelian γ- in the Armenian borrowings.
34

Wilcox, Sherman. "Gesture and language." Gesture 4, no. 1 (June 2004): 43–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/gest.4.1.04wil.

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In this paper I explore the role of gesture in the development of signed languages. Using data from American Sign Language, Catalan Sign Language, French Sign Language, and Italian Sign Language, as well as historical sources describing gesture in the Mediterranean region, I demonstrate that gesture enters the linguistic system via two distinct routes. In one, gesture serves as a source of lexical and grammatical morphemes in signed languages. In the second, elements become directly incorporated into signed language morphology, bypassing the lexical stage. Finally, I propose a unifying framework for understanding the gesture-language interface in signed and spoken languages.
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Tabasum Niroo, Woloyat. "Language Revitalisation in Gaelic Scotland." Journal of International Students 11, no. 3 (June 2021): 765–67. http://dx.doi.org/10.32674/jis.v11i3.3744.

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Through their native languages, certain groups of people claim political, social, geographical, and ethnic identity and a legal base for their existence. Colonialism, however, has vanished minority spoken languages in many parts of the world. Additionally, despite claims of a “global village,” the advent of internationalization has further isolated indigenous languages in some parts of the world. Revitalizing and preventing those languages from dwindling from their spoken communities is crucial for scholars of linguistics, sociology, cultural studies, and education. Dunmore, in the book Language Revitalisation in Gaelic Scotland: Linguistic Practice and Ideology, offers profound perspectives on preventing the potential loss of Gaelic language in Scotland drawing from empirical research.
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Schuhmann, Katharina S. "Cross-linguistic perceptual learning in advanced second language listeners." Proceedings of the Linguistic Society of America 1 (June 2016): 31. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/plsa.v1i0.3731.

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An issue of long-standing interest is whether phones, which correspond to each other phonologically but differ phonetically across two languages, are distinct in the minds of bilinguals and second language learners. Here, we ask whether listeners maintain separate representations for phonetically highly similar phonemes common to two languages even though this might seem inefficient. One way to address this question is to induce a change in the representation of phonemes in one language, and to test whether the other language is also affected. We carried out two perceptual learning studies, one with intermediate to advanced L1 English learners of German and one with intermediate to advanced L1 German learners of English, to probe the relationship between listeners’ representations for the /f-s/ contrast in English and in German. We found cross-linguistic perceptual learning effects extending from English to German in both studies, though the effect sizes for perceptual learning in English and German differed. Based on these findings, we propose that phonetically highly similar phonemes common to listeners’ L1 and L2 have separate yet interconnected mental representations for speech perception.
37

Roche, Gerald. "Articulating language oppression: colonialism, coloniality and the erasure of Tibet’s minority languages." Patterns of Prejudice 53, no. 5 (October 2019): 487–514. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0031322x.2019.1662074.

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38

GELLER, M. J. "Philology versus linguistics and Aramaic phonology." Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 69, no. 1 (February 2006): 79–89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0041977x06000048.

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The recent publication of The Cambridge Encylopedia of the World's Ancient Languages provides an occasion for assessing the present state of our knowledge of ancient languages. Any assessment, however, will inevitably be influenced by methodology and point of view, depending upon whether the reader is a linguist or a philologist. The present author would broadly define the difference in the following way, at least as far as ancient languages are concerned: linguists tend to focus on the rules of language and general theories about language which can be generated from these rules, while philologists, although concerned with formal grammar, tend to scrutinize the textual evidence upon which a grammar is based. These two approaches are sometimes difficult to reconcile.
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Carroll, Mary, Jorge Murcia-Serra, Marzena Watorek, and Alessandra Bendiscioli. "THE RELEVANCE OF INFORMATION ORGANIZATION TO SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION STUDIES." Studies in Second Language Acquisition 22, no. 3 (September 2000): 441–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0272263100003065.

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The present cross-linguistic study deals with the relevance of principles of information organization in adult second language acquisition. It looks at typological features of information structure that allow speakers to organize and shape the flow of information when carrying out complex tasks, such as giving a description, and pinpoints factors that lead to the selection of linguistic form. At the focus of our attention are means used in reference introduction, such as existential and locational constructions, the morphosyntactic forms of expressions applied in reference maintenance, and word order. The cross-linguistic comparison shows that the options found in the expression of these functions in German, English, and Romance languages (French, Italian, and Spanish) follow distinct patterns in that the linguistic means used reflect unifying principles of a typological nature. These principles are perspective driven and are associated with patterns of grammaticization. Structures in language that reflect core principles in information organization may be difficult to acquire because learners have to recognize clusters of form-function relations that range over different domains. The nature of the analyses required is described for learners of German with English and Spanish as their source languages. The interlanguages (ILs) of these speakers show a high degree of compatibility with German in formal syntactic terms and are near native in many respects, but the levels at which the IL and target language diverge can be linked to fundamental principles of organization underlying information structure. Although the stage of acquisition is advanced, the languages still retain core principles in information structure typical of those found for English and Romance languages.
40

Kornicki, P. F. "European japanology at the end of the seventeenth century." Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 56, no. 3 (October 1993): 502–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0041977x00007692.

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Attaining just a glimmer of an understanding of Chinese or Japanese in the seventeenth century required prodigious feats of imagination and the abandonment of widely-held convictions about the nature of language. Progress towards a rational and sophisticated understanding was held up by persuasive but fantastical theories to which lifetimes were devoted in vain. In their very different ways both languages were subversive of contemporary notions of language, and the conceptual frameworks for adequate descriptions had to be generated from scratch. The difficulties can scarcely be overestimated: the Chinese language was vigorously attacked in 1678 as the language of the devil on the ground that its pictographic nature would occasion a breach of the Second Commandment if the name of God were written, and the following year Leibniz drew up a list of questions concerning Chinese which ask, among other things, ‘whether the Chinese language was artificially constructed, or whether it has grown and changed by usage like other languages’. Japanese attracted less interest, but the difficulty of the two languages was legendary: in 1708 the Dutch scholar Adrian Reland (1676–1718), who published numerous works on Persian, Jewish and Islamic studies, wrote of the immense numbers of characters to be learnt by anybody who wished to know Chinese or Japanese, with awe at the thought that ‘a man's life would scarcely suffice to attain perfect knowledge of one language’.
41

Hamilton, Colleen. "Bilingualism as a Borderland: Researching Youth’s Practices, Perspectives, and Positioning Between Languages." Cultural Studies ↔ Critical Methodologies 19, no. 3 (December 2018): 193–202. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1532708618817881.

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Seen from a critical intersectional perspective, the experiences of bilinguals are embedded in liminal spaces between language and cultural practices. Yet, rather than leverage these novel and hybrid practices for learning, dominant paradigms in education have historically subtracted nondominant students’ home languages from their communicative resources. To similar effect, current trends in bilingual education promote language separation for equal development of languages severed from each other and from cultural contexts. Such reductive approaches to language education disregard the dynamic and heteroglossic language use documented in bilingual communities. Drawing on in-depth interviews with youth, written reflections, and artifacts of bilingualism, I explore these practices across/between languages by conceptualizing bilingualism as a borderland navigated by Spanish–English bilingual youth. Considering bilingualism as a liminal position foregrounds moments of tension and transition in the language and schooling trajectories of youth as they navigate the anguish and advantage of living in-between. Furthermore, I highlight the methodological implications of framing bilingualism as a borderland to inform research design in language and education fields.
42

MacIntyre, Peter D. "Language acquisition and development: studies of learners of first and other languages." Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 30, no. 3 (May 2009): 273–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01434630802413656.

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43

ELLIS, CERI, GUILLAUME THIERRY, AWEL VAUGHAN-EVANS, and MANON WYN JONES. "Languages flex cultural thinking." Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 21, no. 2 (April 2017): 219–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s1366728917000190.

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Recent studies have revealed remarkable interactions between language and emotion. Here, we show that such interactions influence judgments made regarding cultural information. Balanced Welsh–English bilinguals categorized statements about their native Welsh culture as true or false. Whilst participants categorized positive statements as true when they were true, they were biased towards categorizing them as true also when they were false, irrespective of the language in which they read them. Surprisingly, participants were unbiased when categorizing negative statements presented in their native language Welsh, but showed a reverse bias - categorizing sentences as false, even when they were true - for negative statements when they read them in English. The locus of this behavior originated from online semantic evaluation of the statements, shown in corresponding modulations of the N400 peak of event-related brain potentials. These findings suggest that bilinguals perceive and react to cultural information in a language-dependent fashion.
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Fabian, Myroslava. "SEMANTIC SPECIFICITY OF ADJECTIVES DENOTING A SUCCESSFUL PERSON /THING IN ENGLISH AND UKRAINIAN." Naukovy Visnyk of South Ukrainian National Pedagogical University named after K. D. Ushynsky: Linguistic Sciences 2021, no. 32 (2021): 149–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.24195/2616-5317-2021-32-12.

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Comparative studies fascinate scholars working in various branches of human activity. In linguistics, onlycomparison helps find out both common and distinctive features of the languages and trace their interconnections as well as specificity. The present paper deals with the comparative research of two distantly related languages - English and Ukrainian - on the material of adjectives denoting a successful person/thing. The topic in question is relevant and contributes to further studies of lexical and comparative semantics, cross-language and crosscultural communication, lexicography, etc. The adjectives in question occupy significant places in the vocabulary of the languages under study. The concept of success belongs to basic social and cultural values and is studied in philosophy, sociology, psychology, linguistics and other sciences. Having introduced the methodology of formalized analysis of lexical semantics, one of the requirements of which is a formal criterion – belonging of the lexical units to one part of speech – the author of this paper collected, analyzed and classified the obtained language material from lexicographical sources. Depending on the degree of polysemy, three groups in English and two in Ukrainian have been formed. Each of them possesses its own features alongside with their common characteristics. Comparative research of the definite fragment of lexis resulted in in-depth analysis of its system and structural organization, semantic specificity, both common and distinctive featuresas well as its representation in corresponding language and culture bearers’ consciousness.
45

Wasserman-Soler, Daniel I. "Lengua de los indios, lengua española:Religious Conversion and the Languages of New Spain, ca. 1520–1585." Church History 85, no. 4 (December 2016): 690–723. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0009640716000755.

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This article examines the language policies of sixteenth-century Mexico, aiming more generally to illuminate efforts by Mexican bishops to foster conversions to Christianity. At various points throughout the colonial era, the Spanish Crown and the Catholic Church propagated the use of Castilian among Amerindians; leaders of these institutions, however, also encouraged priests to study indigenous languages. That Spanish authorities appear to have never settled on a firm language policy has puzzled modern scholars, who have viewed the Crown and its churchmen as vacillating between “pro-indigenous” and “pro-Castilian” sentiments. This article suggests, however, that Mexico's bishops intentionally extended simultaneous support to both indigenous languages and Castilian. Church and Crown officials tended to avoid firm ideological commitments to one language; instead they made practical decisions, concluding that different contexts called for distinct languages. An examination of the decisions made by leading churchmen offers insight into how they helped to create a Spanish-American religious landscape in which both indigenous and Spanish elements co-existed.
46

Haug, Tobias. "A review of sign language acquisition studies as the basis for informed decisions for sign language test adaptation." Sign Language and Linguistics 15, no. 2 (December 2012): 213–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/sll.15.2.02hau.

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Developing or adapting tests of sign language development requires knowledge about the emergence and mastery of the linguistic structures that should be represented in a test. As the structures and acquisition of many sign languages are rather under-documented, developing or adapting a test for a specific sign language poses a great challenge for test developers, especially with respect to the test’s reliability and validity. Deutsche Gebärdensprache This paper presents this review of the most recent acquisition studies of the linguistic structures mentioned above and represented in the BSL test. The main focus is on studies that covered the age range of 4 to 8 year-olds, the age group of the adapted DGS test. The argument will be made that — considering the current state of research for many sign languages — these acquisition studies from a variety of sign languages can serve as the basis for making informed decisions for test development and adaptation (for example, deciding which items should be represented in a sign language test), but only together with cross-linguistic and language specific studies.
47

Poloyan, Anna V. "News Articles and Online Comments as a Source of Linguistic Material for the Foreign Language Studies within M.A. Curricula." Proceedings of Southern Federal University. Philology 2020, no. 2 (June 2020): 198–205. http://dx.doi.org/10.18522/1995-0640-2020-2-198-205.

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The paper presents the results of research on the potential of news articles and their online user comments as a linguistic material for the disciplines of the philological cycle that study the situational features of the language usage and its cultural component such as the National and Cultural Specifics of Modern Mass Media, Principles of Building Discourse, Country through Language Studies, Contrastive Analysis of Languages and Cultures, Similarities and Differences in Languages, etc. It also provides ways to search for authentic sources using advanced Google search and corpora; exercise options for independent work and assignments in groups are offered.
48

May, Stephen. "Uncommon Languages: The Challenges and Possibilities of Minority Language Rights." Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 21, no. 5 (October 2000): 366–85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01434630008666411.

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49

Feng, Hui. "Different languages, different cultures, different language ideologies, different linguistic models." Journal of Multicultural Discourses 4, no. 2 (July 2009): 151–64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17447140802283191.

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50

Rozumko, Agata. "Adverbs of certainty in a cross-linguistic and cross-cultural perspective." Languages in Contrast 16, no. 2 (September 2016): 239–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/lic.16.2.04roz.

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The increasing interest in cross-linguistic research in the area of epistemic modality calls for developing a common theoretical framework within which the inventories and uses of epistemics can be compared across languages. The aim of this study is to compare the repertoires of English and Polish adverbs of certainty taking as the starting point the classification employed by Simon-Vandenbergen and Aijmer (2007). It attempts to examine the validity of their typology for cross-linguistic studies with reference to data from English and Polish. The uses of English and Polish epistemics are illustrated with examples from the British National Corpus and the PWN corpus, respectively. Because the means of expressing epistemic modality differ both the cross-linguistically and cross-culturally, the findings are placed in a cross-cultural perspective.

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