In-text citations in IEEE Style

Cita una fonte nel formato IEEE in modo facile e corretto

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General rules of in-text citations

IEEE Style uses the numerical system of references. It is based on a numbered list of bibliographic references ordered by the chronology of in-text citations (see more here). At the same time, the in-text citations are represented by the corresponding numbers of the works in the bibliography and, whenever applicable, the appropriate pages containing the cited information.

The in-text citations are given in brackets as follows:

[source number in bibliography, p(p). page(s)]

If needed, give the author’s last name in the text together with the citation.

Compare these examples:

Bibliographic reference:

    1. <…>
    2. A. Caton, An Introduction to Thermodynamic Cycle Simulations for Internal Combustion Engines. Chichester, U.K.: Wiley, 2015.
    3. <…>

In-text citation (without the author credited):

Thermodynamic cycles of internal combustion engines are <…> [2, p. 15].

In-text citation (with the author credited):

As Caton notes, thermodynamic cycles of internal combustion engines are <…> [2, p. 15].

N.B. In contrast to bibliographic references, the in-text citations should contain the names of only one or two authors (joined by the conjunction ‘and’). For sources having more than two authors, only the first author’s name should be given followed by ‘et al.’ in italic, e.g.:

Bibliographic reference:

    1. <…>
    2. <…>
    3. Y. Yamada, T. Sakamoto, T. Matsui, and N. Araki, "Standardization activities for optical fiber and cable technology in International Electrotechnical Commission," NTT Tech. Rev., vol. 20, no. 10, pp. 82–86, Oct. 2022, doi: 10.53829/ntr202210gls. Accessed: Feb. 21, 2023. [Online]. Available:
    4. <…>

In-text citation:

As Yamada et al. suggest, the optical fiber technology is <…> [3, p. 83].

See this article for the rules of giving authors’ names in bibliographic references.

Citing multiple works in an in-text citation

When citing multiple sources in a single sentence or fragment of text, put the brackets around the number of every individual source and separate the sources by commas:

The application of mechatronics is predefined by <…> [1, p. 154], [4], [5], [6], [9].

Grafiati allows generating not only bibliographic references but also combined in-text citations of multiple sources in IEEE Style and other citation styles.

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