Dissertation (thesis): how to cite in APA (7th ed.)?

Create a spot-on reference in APA 7 and 6

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Basic rules

APA Style (seventh edition) sets common rules for citing dissertations and diploma theses in a list of references. According to these requirements, to cite a dissertation or thesis, one should include the following data in the reference: data of the author, title of the work, its type, and university.

If the text of the work was obtained online by means of a specialised database or institutional repository, the name of the database or repository should be provided as well, together with the URL (if the URL allows the readers accessing the text of the work).

How to cite in a bibliography

Published dissertation or thesis

Basic reference template:

Author. (Year). Work title [Work type, University]. Database. URL

Note: provide the type of work and the grade in place of the ‘Work type’ element (for example, ‘Doctoral dissertation’, ‘Master’s thesis’, etc.).

If a dissertation (thesis) published in an online database or repository has a unique number assigned to it, the publication number should be indicated in round brackets after the work title without italics.

Unpublished dissertation or thesis

Basic reference template:

Author. (Year). Work Title [Unpublished work type]. University.

Note: if a work can only be obtained in print form from a university or other institution, it is considered to be an unpublished work.

Examples of references

Published dissertation or thesis

Markell, K. (2019). Ecclesiology and adaptive change: A qualitative study of Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) congregations in the Northwest Regional Christian Church (Publication No. 28031160) [Doctoral dissertation, Seattle University]. PQDT Open. https://pqdtopen.proquest.com/doc/2427527679.html?FMT=AI

Skaria, R. (2020). Machine learning and deep phenotyping towards predictive analytics and therapeutic strategy in cardiac surgery [Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona]. UA Campus Repository. https://repository.arizona.edu/handle/10150/620615

Unpublished dissertation or thesis

Aragon, L. (2003). Factors to consider when selecting paraprofessionals for participation in a teacher preparation program [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. University of Colorado at Denver.

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