Examples of bibliographic references in APA (7th ed.)

Create a spot-on reference in APA 7 and 6

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This article presents examples of bibliographic references in APA Style (7th ed.) for all types of sources available on the web service Grafiati. For detailed information and instructions on how to reference each particular source type in a list of references, see the appropriate articles:

How to reference sources with APA (7th ed.) automatically online

APA Style (7th ed.) provides instructions for in-text citations and bibliographic references, as well as for the formatting of bibliographies. The APA Manual sets forth the rules for referencing many different types of sources. Using the online service “Grafiati”, you can automatically create bibliographies and add bibliographic references under APA, without having to analyse the requirements of the manual. To start compiling a list of references in APA 7, visit the website’s homepage and choose APA from the list of citation styles. Next, select the type of source you need from the appropriate menu and fill in the forms. You can thereafter extend your list with new refrences and convert it into other citation styles.

Examples of bibliographic references with APA (7th ed.)


Book with one author

Carter, R. E. (2008). The Japanese arts and self-cultivation. State University of New York Press.

Brontë, C. (2007). Jane Eyre. Vintage. (Original work published 1847)

Daudet, A. (2013). Letters from my windmill (M. Harmelin & K. Adams, Trans.). Duke Classics. (Original work published 1869)

Shakespeare, W. (2007). Complete works (J. Bate & E. Rasmussen, Eds.). Modern Library.

Book with two authors

Torpey, J. C., & Jacobson, D. (2016). Transformations of warfare in the contemporary world. Temple University Press.

Daly, K. N., & Rengel, M. (2009). Norse mythology A to Z (3rd ed.). Chelsea House Publishers.

Book with three to twenty authors

Hand, C., Ashton, B., & Meadows, J. (2016). My Lady Jane. HarperCollins.

Bocij, P., Chaffey, D., Greasley, A., & Hickie, S. (2006). Business information systems (3rd ed.). Pearson Education.

Book with more than twenty authors

See this article for the rules of citing a source with more then twenty authors.

Book with no author (with an editor)

Shimpach, S. (Ed.). (2019). The Routledge companion to global television. Routledge.

Wherry, F. F., & Woodward, I. (Eds.). (2019). The Oxford handbook of consumption. Oxford University Press.

Volume (part of a multivolume edition)

Gopinath, S., & Stanyek, J. (Eds.). (2014). The Oxford handbook of mobile music studies (Vol. 2). Oxford University Press.

Dixon, R. M. W. (2012). Basic linguistic theory: Vol. 3. Further grammatical topics. Oxford University Press.

Strickland, O. L., & Dilorio, C. (Eds.). (2003). Measurement of nursing outcomes: Vol. 3. Self care and coping (2nd ed.). Springer.

Chapter in an edited book

Pantel, P. S. (2014). Political traditions in democratic Athens. In A. Moreno & R. Thomas (Eds.), Patterns of the past: Epitēdeumata in the Greek tradition (pp. 93–120). Oxford University Press.

Gleave, D., Chambers, N. A., & Manes, A. S. (2011). People of Central American descent. In N. Waxler-Morrison, J. M. Anderson, E. Richardson, & N. A. Chambers (Eds.), Cross-cultural caring: A handbook for health professionals (2nd ed., pp. 11–58). UBC Press.


Collins. (n.d.). Collins online dictionary. Retrieved November 18, 2022, from https://www.collinsdictionary.com/

Dictionary entry/Encyclopedia article

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Surpass. In Merriam-Webster.com dictionary. Retrieved November 18, 2022, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/surpass

Article (publication) in a periodical

Journal article

Fernández, A. (2020). Artificial intelligence steering molecular therapy in the absence of information on target structure and regulation. Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling, 60(2), 460–466. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jcim.9b00651

Gries, T., Jungblut, S., Krieger, T., & Meyer, H. (2019). Economic retirement age and lifelong learning: A theoretical model with heterogeneous labor, biased technical change and international sourcing. German Economic Review, 20(2), 129–170. https://doi.org/10.1111/geer.12140

Simpson, E. L., Lacour, J.-P., Spelman, L., Galimberti, R., Eichenfield, L. F., Bissonnette, R., King, B. A., Thyssen, J. P., Silverberg, J. I., Bieber, T., Kabashima, K., Tsunemi, Y., Costanzo, A., Guttman-Yassky, E., Beck, L. A., Janes, J. M., DeLozier, A. M., Gamalo, M., Brinker, D. R., . . . Reich, K. (2020). Baricitinib in patients with moderate‐to‐severe atopic dermatitis and inadequate response to topical corticosteroids: Results from two randomized monotherapy phase III trials. British Journal of Dermatology, 183(2), 242–255. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjd.18898

Newspaper article

Lectura, L. (2019, August 6). Court issues injunction against fuel unbundling. BusinessMirror, 14(300), A1, A2.

Stewart, H., Elgot, J., & Proctor, K. (2019, August 29). Outrage as Johnson suspends parliament. The Guardian, 1–2.


Wildifre, J. (2019, January 1). A street guide to feminism. Medium. https://medium.com/@JessicaLexicus/a-street-guide-to-feminism-1f6579597dc1

Medium. (2012, August 14). Medium terms of service. https://policy.medium.com/medium-terms-of-service-9db0094a1e0f

Tarta de Santiago. (n.d.). Baking Mad. https://www.bakingmad.com/recipe/tarta-de-santiago

The University of Manchester. (n.d.). News. Retrieved August 9, 2020, from https://www.manchester.ac.uk/discover/news/

Blog post

Kofalt, D. (2023, May 15). APA Style JARS for high school students. APA Style Blog. https://apastyle.apa.org/blog/jars-high-school-students

Video (online)

Real Science. (2021, February 6). The insane biology of: Ant colonies [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VLBDVXLiWxQ


Reid, M. (Host). (2020, April 22). Thank you (No. 100) [Audio podcast episode]. In RAZOR Wire podcast. RAZOR. https://razor.nz/podcasts/web-podcast-episode-100-thank-you/

For more information on how to cite entire podcasts and podcast episodes in APA Style (7th ed.), see this article.

Software / mobile app

The Tor Project, Inc. (n.d.). Tor browser (Version 13.0.1) [Computer software]. https://www.torproject.org/download/

Video game / computer game

New World Computing. (1996). Heroes of might and magic II [Video game]. The 3DO Company.


Vertiy, O. (2012). Cat portrait [Photograph]. Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/ollivver/8153507140/

Social media post

Johnson, B. [@BorisJohnson]. (2021, December 14). We must act now to get boosted – to protect ourselves, our loved ones and the NHS. Book yours here: [Thumbnail with link attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/BorisJohnson/status/1470764145167450114

Dissertation, thesis

Adams, N. (2019). The person dimension of alternate assessment examined using achievement results and student characteristics [Doctoral dissertation, University of South Carolina]. Scholar Commons. https://scholarcommons.sc.edu/etd/5380/

Hinkley, S. P. (2017). Effects of vibrato and pitch-varied vocal models on high school and undergraduate singers' intonation, intensity, and use of vibrato (Publication No. 10261291) [Doctoral dissertation, The Florida State University]. PQDT Open. https://pqdtopen.proquest.com/doc/1917759038.html?FMT=AI

Shim, J. (2017). Experimental and numerical studies of grain scaled bed-load transport [Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona]. UA Campus Repository. https://repository.arizona.edu/handle/10150/623162

Weiner, K. B. (2010). Improving instructional assistant effectiveness in inclusive settings [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. University of California, Santa Barbara.

Conference materials

Conference paper

Konstantaki, M. (2020). Exercise, tourism and environmental sustainability: The case of plogging as a niche tourism product. In G. T. Papanikos (Ed.), 6th Annual International Symposium on Foresight (p. 23). The Athens Institute for Education and Research. https://www.atiner.gr/abstracts/2020ABST-FIT.pdf

Harrison, M. (2018). Communication and interaction in a blog-based learning space. In A. Volungeviciene & A. Szűcs (Eds.), Exploring the micro, meso and macro: Navigating between dimensions in the digital learning landscape (pp. 159–168). European Distance and E-Learning Network. http://www.eden-online.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/Annual_2018_Genova_Proceedings.pdf

Pannitto, L., Salicchi, L., & Lenci, A. (2017). AHyDA: Automatic hypernym detection with feature augmentation. In R. Basili, M. Nissim, & G. Satta (Eds.), Fourth Italian Conference on Computational Linguistics CLiC-it 2017 (pp. 240–245). Accademia University Press. https://books.openedition.org/aaccademia/2314

Law, act

See in detail about citing laws in APA in this article.

According to the rules of the APA Manual (U.S.)

Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990, 42 U.S.C. § 12101 et seq. (1990). https://www.ada.gov/pubs/adastatute08.htm

Taking into account the provisions of The Bluebook (countries other than the U.S.)

Wild Animals in Circuses Act 2019, c. 2 (2019) (Gr. Brit.). https://services.parliament.uk/Bills/2017-19/wildanimalsincircusesno2.html

According to local recommendations

As recommended by James Cook University for Australian legislation:

Anti‑Money Laundering and Counter‑Terrorism Financing Act 2006 (Cth) pt 3.

As recommended by Université de Montréal for Canadian legislation:

Éditeur officiel du Québec. (2002, 14 juin). Projet de loi no 90 : loi modifiant le Code des professions et d’autres dispositions législatives dans le domaine de la santé. http://www.ooaq.qc.ca/ordre/lois-reglements/doc-lois/loi-90.pdf

Court case (court decision)

According to the rules of the APA Manual (U.S.)

Gangi Seafood, Inc. v. Adt SEC. Services, Inc., 353 F. Supp. 2d 710 (E.D. La. 2004). https://law.justia.com/cases/federal/district-courts/FSupp2/353/710/2385530/

See this article for more detail about how to cite the legal cases of other states.


Chandra, A., Mani, S., Dolphin, H., Dyson, M., & Marah, Y. (2021). Experimental evidence from an integrated early childhood parenting program in Sierra Leone (IZA DP No. 14054). IZA – Institute of Labor Economics. https://www.iza.org/publications/dp/14054/experimental-evidence-from-an-integrated-early-childhood-parenting-program-in-sierra-leone


Preprint in an online repository

Kraus, M., & Torrez, B. (2019). A Psychology of power that is embedded in societal structures. PsyArXiv. https://www.doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/frt72

Molkeri, A., Srivastava, A., Osovski, S., & Needleman, A. (2020). Influence of grain size distribution on ductile intergranular crack growth resistance. engrXiv. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4045073

Unpublished manuscript

Wilfried-Right, A. (2018). Philosophy of Hegel re-imagined [Manuscript submitted for publication]. Faculty of Philosophy, James Cook University.


Bootes, T. H., Budy, G. D., Lee, W. Y., Polly, R. K., Shire, J. M., & Waddell, J. T. (2019). Munition with multiple fragment layers (U.S. Patent No. US 10,520,289 B2). U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. https://patents.google.com/patent/US10520289B2

Lykkegaard, F. (2020). Improved scissors lift for a wheelchair (Australian Patent No. AU 2017294290 C1). Australian Patent Office. https://patents.google.com/patent/AU2017294290C1


International Organization for Standardization. (2012). Societal security — Business continuity management systems — Requirements (ISO Standard No. 22301:2012).

Standards Australia & Standards New Zealand. (2014). Safety in laboratories — Part 8: Fume cupboards (AS/NZS 2243.8:2014).

Archival document

Mann Borgese, E. (1959). Only the pyre. Elisabeth Mann Borgese fonds, MS-2-744 (Box 129, Folder 1), Dalhousie University Archives, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.

[Anonymous letter to Chief Hanson]. (1977, February 22). Seattle Fire Department Central Files, 2801-03 (Box 11, Folder 4), Seattle Municipal Archives, Seattle, WA, United States.

Religious text

The Qur'ān (A. Jones, Trans.). (2007). Gibb Memorial Trust.

Other citation styles: