Dissertation (thesis): how to cite in Vancouver Style?

Create a spot-on reference in Vancouver

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General rules

According to the rules of Vancouver Style, the following bibliographic reference template should be used to cite a dissertation or a thesis in a list of references:

Author(s). Title [work type]. City: University; year. Number of pages.


  • In the City element, give the city where the university or another institution at which the thesis defence occurred is located. If the city is not commonly known, add the country in parentheses. If the city is not indicated in the dissertation, put it in square brackets.
  • The Number of pages element is optional.

For a dissertation or a thesis available online, use the following template:

Author(s). Title [work type on the Internet]. City: University; year [cited date cited]. Number of pages. Available from: URL

Examples in a list of references

Stocks T. Metabolic factors and cancer risk: prospective studies on prostate cancer, colorectal cancer, and cancer overall [doctoral thesis on the Internet]. Umeå: Umeå University; 2009 [cited 2021 Jun 28]. Available from: http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-22567

Reed BH. The genetic analysis of endoreduplication in Drosophila Melanogaster [Ph.D. thesis]. Cambridge: University of Cambridge; 1992. 292 p.

Other citation styles: