Examples of bibliographic references in Vancouver Style

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This article presents examples of bibliographic references in Vancouver Style. Sample references are provided for all types of sources available for the automatic generation of references on the website Grafiati. See the appropriate articles with detailed examples for each particular source type:

For the principles of in-text citations in Vancouver Style, see this article.

For the principles of giving the names of authors in Vancouver references, see this article.

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Examples of bibliographic references in Vancouver Style in a list of references


Book with one author

McNulty JG. Interventional radiology of the gallbladder: percutaneous cholecystostomy. Berlin: Springer-Verlag; 1990. 65 p.

Book with multiple authors

Kern MJ, Sorajja P, Lim M. The cardiac catheterization handbook. 6th ed. Philadelphia (PA): Elsevier; 2016. 512 p.

Book without a credited author (with an editor, etc.)

Massry GG, Murphy MR, Azizzadeh B, editors. Master techniques in blepharoplasty and periorbital rejuvenation. New York (NY): Springer; 2011. 342 p.

Book available online

Bielefeldt H, Frewer A, Klotz S, Schmidhuber M, editors. Healthcare as a human rights issue: normative profile, conflicts and implementation [Internet]. Bielefeld (Germany): transcript-Verlag; 2018 [cited 2021 Jan 11]. 427 p. Available from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctv1fxf7w

Volume (part of a multivolume edition)

Berenstein A, Lasjaunias P, Brugge KG. Surgical neuroangiography. 2nd ed. Vol. 2, Clinical and endovascular treatment aspects in adults. Berlin: Springer-Verlag; 2004. 1287 p.

Chapter in an edited book

Nishimura Y, Kumagai-Takei N, Lee S, Matsuzaki H, Yoshiotme K, Otsuki T. A new method to determine natural killer cell activity without target cells. In: Aribi M, editor. Natural killer cells [Internet]. Rijeka (Croatia): InTech; 2017 [cited 2021 Jun 30]. p. 161-77. Available from: https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.71912

Article (publication) in a periodical

Journal article

Nulu S, Bukhman G, Kwan GF. Rheumatic heart disease. Cardiol Clin [Internet]. 2017 Feb [cited 2021 Jun 30];35(1):165-80. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0733865116300674?via%3Dihub doi: 10.1016/j.ccl.2016.08.006

Newspaper article

Darmiento L. Charity off the charts amid pandemic. Los Angeles Times. 2020 Apr 20;Business:A7 (col. 1).

Website (webpage)

St Vincent's Hospital Sydney [Internet]. Sydney (Australia): St Vincent's Hospital Sydney, c2021 [cited 2021 Jun 30]. Available from: https://www.svhs.org.au/.

Video (online)

St John Ambulance. YouTube [Internet]. [Video], How to treat fever - First aid training - St John Ambulance; 2015 Jan 8 [cited 2021 Jun 30]; [1 min., 23 sec.]. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=faLkXDXrhnM

Social media post

NIHR Research. Twitter [Internet]. In July we shared a blog stressing the importance of improving public involvement in social care research, after the publication [Tweet]; 2021 Dec 16 [cited 2021 Dec 18]. Available from: https://twitter.com/NIHRresearch/status/1471408513935097856

Dissertation, thesis

Kemp S. The role of illness representations in the process of coping and psychosocial adjustment among adults with epilepsy [Doctoral thesis on the Internet]. [Leeds (United Kingdom)]: University of Leeds; 1996 [cited 2021 Jun 30]. 139 p. Available from: https://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/676/.

Conference materials

Conference paper

Li Y, Rahbar R, Dupont PE. Design of a robotic balloon-catheter endoscope for sinus procedures. In: Deligianni F, Dagnino G, Yang GZ, editors. Proceedings of the 12th Hamlyn Symposium on Medical Robotics 2019 [Internet]; 2019 Jun 23-26; London. London: Imperial College London, The Hamlyn Centre; 2019 [cited 2021 Jun 30]. p. 9-10. Available from: https://www.imperial.ac.uk/media/imperial-college/hamlyn-centre/public/Proceedings_HSMR19.pdf

Law, act

See this article for details.


Gabler J, Raabe T, Röhrl K, von Gaudecker HM. The effectiveness of strategies to contain Sars-Cov-2: testing, vaccinations, and npis [Internet]. Bonn (Germany): IZA – Institute of Labor Economics; 2021 Jun [cited 2021 Jun 30]. 52 p. (IZA DP; no. 14510). Available from: https://www.iza.org/publications/dp/14510/the-effectiveness-of-strategies-to-contain-sars-cov-2-testing-vaccinations-and-npis


Poehler M, Gibson L, Lustig A, Moreland NJ, McGregor R, James A. Estimating decay curves of neutralising antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 infection [Internet]. medRxiv [Preprint]. 2021 [cited 2021 Jun 29]: 14 p. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.06.13.21258857


Simon BJ, Errico JP, Raffle JT, inventors; Electrocore, Inc., assignee. Methods and devices for treating primary headache [Internet]. United States patent US 10,384,061 B2. 2019 Aug 20 [cited 2021 Jun 29]. [41 p.]. Available from: https://patents.google.com/patent/US10384061B2


British Standards Institution. BS EN ISO 13485:2016. Sterilization of health care products. Biological indicators. Guidance for the selection, use and interpretation of results. London: British Standards Publications; 2016. 68 p.

Archival document

Truman HS. Letter to: Ben Turoff [Internet]. 1949 Apr 12 [cited 2021 Jun 29]. Located at: John F. Kennedy Library, Boston, MA; President's Secretary's Files (Truman Administration), 1945 - 1960, Series: Personal Files, 1945 - 1953, National Archives Identifier: 201512. Available from: https://catalog.archives.gov/id/201512

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