Examples of bibliographic references in IEEE Style

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This article provides examples of bibliographic references to different types of sources in IEEE Style. You can generate references to all such sources automatically on Grafiati. For more detail on how to reference each particular source type in the IEEE format, see these articles:

See this article for the rules of giving authors’ names in IEEE Style

For the principles of in-text citations, see this article.

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Examples of bibliographic references in IEEE Style


R. R. Murphy, Introduction to AI Robotics, 2nd ed. Cambridge, MA, USA: MIT Press, 2019.

C. Artini, Ed., Alloys and Intermetallic Compounds: From Modeling to Engineering. Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press, 2017.

Chapter in an edited book

B. R. Johnson and Y. Ko, “The APRU Sustainable Cities and Landscapes Hub: A platform for collaborative knowledge production and action,” in The Routledge Handbook of Sustainable Cities and Landscapes in the Pacific Rim, Y. Yang and A. Taufen, Eds. Abingdon, U.K.: Routledge, 2022, pp. 14–21.

Article in a periodical

Journal article

G. Iazeolla, “Power management of base transceiver stations for mobile networks,” Netw. Communication Technol., vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 12–26, May 2022, doi: 10.5539/nct.v7n1p12. Accessed: Feb. 23, 2023. [Online]. Available: https://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/nct/article/view/0/47281

Newspaper article

S. Lister, “Ideology to sort out energy, next PM told,” Daily Express, p. 5, Sep. 5, 2022.


A. Cassidy. “The apps getting your wardrobe back under control.” BBC News. Accessed Feb. 23, 2023. [Online]. Available: https://www.bbc.com/news/business-64567793

Video (online)

TheColumbusDispatch. Digging for Hope: Inside an Ohio Coal Mine. (Mar. 29, 2017). Accessed: Feb. 23, 2023. [Online Video]. Available: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C4lBXpQxdSM

Social media post

R. Sunak, “Stand together. Stand united. #StandWithUkraine.” Twitter. Accessed: Feb. 24, 2023. [Online]. Available: https://twitter.com/RishiSunak/status/1629039016418103297


M. M. Agawani, “A mechanistic tool to design a steerable rotary bottomhole assembly for drilling highly deviated and extended reach wells,” Ph.D. thesis, Univ. New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia, 1996. Accessed: Feb. 24, 2023. [Online]. Available: http://hdl.handle.net/1959.4/56327

Conference materials

Conference paper

S. Chatterton, P. Pennacchi, P. V. Dang, and A. Vania, “A test rig for evaluating tilting-pad journal bearing characteristics,” in Proc. 9th IFToMM Int. Conf. Rotor Dyn., P. Pennacchi, Ed. Milan, Italy, Sep. 22–25, 2014. Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2015, pp. 921–930, doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-06590-8. Accessed: Feb. 24, 2023. [Online]. Available: https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-3-319-06590-8


Great Britain, Parliament. (2022, Jul. 14). Energy (Oil and Gas) Profits Levy Act 2022. Accessed: Feb. 24, 2023. [Online]. Available: https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2022/40/contents

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Court case

High Court of Brunei Darussalam, Jan. 30, 2019, Civil Suit No. 83 of 2017 (Brunei Darussalam). Accessed: Dec. 11, 2021. [Online]. Available: http://www.judiciary.gov.bn/Judiciary_Judgments/HCCS-83of2017.pdf

See more in this article.


S. J. Bosworth and D. J. Snower, “Technological advance, social fragmentation and welfare,” IZA – Inst. Labor Econ., Bonn, IZA DP No. 14042, Jan. 2021. Accessed: Jan. 19, 2021. [Online]. Available: https://www.iza.org/publications/dp/14042/technological-advance-social-fragmentation-and-welfare


P. Scheffe, J. Kahle, and B. Alrifaee, Reducing Computation Time with Priority Assignment in Distributed MPC. To be published. Accessed: Feb. 24, 2023. [Online]. Available: https://www.techrxiv.org/articles/preprint/Reducing_Computation_Time_with_Priority_Assignment_in_Distributed_MPC/20304015


Method of producing fine fiber, and fine fiber, non-woven fabric, and fine fibrous cellulose, by Y. Chao and Y. Noishiki. (Jan. 1, 2019). U.S. Patent US 10,167,576 B2. Accessed: Feb. 24, 2023. [Online]. Available: https://patents.google.com/patent/US10167576B2


Food Safety Management Systems — Requirements for Any Organization in the Food Chain, BS EN ISO 22000:2005, Brit. Standards Institution, London, U.K., 2005.

Archival document

J. G. Duff, “New Brunswick Pharmaceutical Society license,” 1926, Dalhousie Univ. Archives, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, J. Gordon Duff fonds, MS-13-82, Box 19, Folder 26.

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